Pulsed magnetic therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation research (rTMS/TMS) research testing pulsed electromagnetic field effects upon different parameters of multiple sclerosis show broad range of benefits with no adverse reactions. Degree of change can sometimes be remarkable.

When combined with nutritional program outlined in this video by Dr. Terry Wahls who demonstrates how a hunter gatherer (paleo) diet that fed the mitochondria removed her from her wheelchair with diagnosis of secondary progressive MS (that progressed despite the best western therapy through 2007).

Watch the video for specific nutritional program to combat brain and neurological atrophy and had her walking with cane the first year and normally within 2. She relates much of this to mitochondrial function and cell regeneration. Add her nutritional program to our PEMF technology designed to stimulate mitochondria and you give yourself the very bast chance of reversing pathology of MS; perhaps even as she did, return to perfect health.

See MS pulsed magnetic research studies below links; as well as this from the multiple sclerosis international federation. This is the information you’ve been searching for.

Research also points toward conclusion that multiple sclerosis and many neurological diseases share similar electrophysiological anomalies.  The anomalies can be found in many neurological disease states including;

MS, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, migraine, cluster and other headache syndromes, severe PMS, and exaggerated menstrual related symptoms, attention deficit disorder ADD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, insomnia / sleeping disorders, tremor disorders, muscle twitch.


Magnetic Therapy Multiple Sclerosis Bibliography of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) & Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMF) 

These two studies are important from a diagnostic standpoint; especially taken with Dr. Wahls’ video Minding Your Mitochondria

To read the original source, use Pubmed and search for Title of the citation

Brain Stimul. 2014 November – December;7(6):849-854. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.09.014. Epub 2014 Oct 16.
Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis: A Review of tDCS, rTMS and ECT Results.
Palm U1, Ayache SS2, Padberg F3, Lefaucheur JP2.

Clin Neurophysiol. 2014 Nov;125(11):2150-206. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.05.021. Epub 2014 Jun 5.
Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).
Lefaucheur JP1, André-Obadia N2, Antal A3, Ayache SS4, Baeken C5, Benninger DH6, Cantello RM7, Cincotta M8, de Carvalho M9, De Ridder D10, Devanne H11, Di Lazzaro V12, Filipović SR13, Hummel FC14, Jääskeläinen SK15, Kimiskidis VK16, Koch G17, Langguth B18, Nyffeler T19, Oliviero A20, Padberg F21, Poulet E22, Rossi S23, Rossini PM24, Rothwell JC25, Schönfeldt-Lecuona C26, Siebner HR27, Slotema CW28, Stagg CJ29, Valls-Sole J30, Ziemann U31, Paulus W3, Garcia-Larrea L32.

Brain Stimul. 2014 Jul-Aug;7(4):580-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.05.001. Epub 2014 May 9.
Jitter of corticospinal neurons during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Method and possible clinical implications.
Caliandro P1, Padua L2, Rossi A3, Rossini PM4, Stalberg E5, Feurra M3, Ulivelli M3, Bartalini S3, Giannini F3, Rossi S6.

J Mol Neurosci. 2012 Sep;48(1):144-53. doi: 10.1007/s12031-012-9791-8. Epub 2012 May 17.
Electromagnetic field stimulation potentiates endogenous myelin repair by recruiting subventricular neural stem cells in an experimental model of white matter demyelination.
Sherafat MA1, Heibatollahi M, Mongabadi S, Moradi F, Javan M, Ahmadiani A.
Abstract
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may affect the endogenous neural stem cells within the brain. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of EMFs on the process of toxin-induced demyelination and subsequent remyelination. Demyelination was induced using local injection of lysophosphatidylcholine within the corpus callosum of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. EMFs (60 Hz; 0.7 mT) were applied for 2 h twice a day for 7, 14, or 28 days postlesion. BrdU labeling and immunostaining against nestin, myelin basic protein (MBP), and BrdU were used for assessing the amount of neural stem cells within the tissue, remyelination patterns, and tracing of proliferating cells, respectively. EMFs significantly reduced the extent of demyelinated area and increased the level of MBP staining within the lesion area on days 14 and 28 postlesion. EMFs also increased the number of BrdU- and nestin-positive cells within the area between SVZ and lesion as observed on days 7 and 14 postlesion. It seems that EMF potentiates proliferation and migration of neural stem cells and enhances the repair of myelin in the context of demyelinating conditions.

Mult Scler. 2011 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Cortical dysfunction underlies disability in multiple sclerosis.
Vucic S, Burke T, Lenton K, Ramanathan S, Gomes L, Yannikas C, Kiernan MC.
Source
Sydney Medical School Westmead, University of Sydney, Australia.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Sep 21. doi: 10.1002/bem.20703. [Epub ahead of print]
Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): A systematic literature review.
Hug K1, Röösli M.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2011 Nov-Dec;17(6):22-8.
Long-term effects of Bio-Electromagnetic-Energy Regulation therapy on fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Haase R1, Piatkowski J, Ziemssen T.

Prog Brain Res. 2009;175:429-39. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(09)17528-3.
The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of spasticity.
Mori F1, Koch G, Foti C, Bernardi G, Centonze D.

Ann Neurol. 2008 Sep;64(3):255-65.
Gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.
Fisher E, Lee JC, Nakamura K, Rudick RA.
Source
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. fishere@ccf.org

Mult Scler. 2008 Aug;14(7):995-8. doi: 10.1177/1352458508088710. Epub 2008 Jun 23.
Improvement of hand dexterity following motor cortex rTMS in multiple sclerosis patients with cerebellar impairment.
Koch G1, Rossi S, Prosperetti C, Codecà C, Monteleone F, Petrosini L, Bernardi G, Centonze D.

Neuroradiol J. 2007 Dec 31;20(6):676-93. Epub 2007 Dec 31.
Extremely low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields and multiple sclerosis: effects on neurotransmission alone or also on immunomodulation? Building a working hypothesis.
Bistolfi F1.

J Neurol Sci. 2005 Jun 15;233(1-2):145-62.
Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular stress response in Friedreich’s ataxia.
Calabrese V, Lodi R, Tonon C, D’Agata V, Sapienza M, Scapagnini G, Mangiameli A, Pennisi G, Stella AM, Butterfield DA.
Source
Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95100

Clin Neurophysiol. 2014 Nov;125(11):2150-2206. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.05.021. Epub 2014 Jun 5.
Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

In Vivo. 2004 May-Jun;18(3):245-67.
Nitric oxide and cellular stress response in brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders: the role of vitagenes.
Calabrese V, Boyd-Kimball D, Scapagnini G, Butterfield DA.
Source
Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. calabres@mbox.unict.it

Prog Brain Res. 2009;175:429-39.
The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of spasticity.
Mori F, Koch G, Foti C, Bernardi G, Centonze D.
Source
Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Mult Scler. 2008 Aug;14(7):995-8. Epub 2008 Jun 23.
Improvement of hand dexterity following motor cortex rTMS in multiple sclerosis patients with cerebellar impairment.
Koch G, Rossi S, Prosperetti C, Codecà C, Monteleone F, Petrosini L, Bernardi G, Centonze D.
Source
Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Mult Scler. 2007 Mar;13(2):269-71. Epub 2007 Jan 29.
Effects of motor cortex rTMS on lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.
Centonze D, Petta F, Versace V, Rossi S, Torelli F, Prosperetti C, Rossi S, Marfia GA, Bernardi G, Koch G, Miano R, Boffa L, Finazzi-Agrò E.
Source
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Clinica Neurologica, Università Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy and Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Neurology. 2007 Mar 27;68(13):1045-50.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex ameliorates spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
Centonze D, Koch G, Versace V, Mori F, Rossi S, Brusa L, Grossi K, Torelli F, Prosperetti C, Cervellino A, Marfia GA, Stanzione P, Marciani MG, Boffa L, Bernardi G.
Source
Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. centonze@uniroma2.it

Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2005 Oct;7(5):381-90.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression in neurologic disorders.
Fregni F, Pascual-Leone A.
Source
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ffregni@bidmc.harvard.edu

Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):38-48.
Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and 
quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED.
Energy Medicine Developments, (North America), Inc., Burke, Va., USA.
CONTEXT: There is a growing literature on the biological and clinical effects of  pulsed electromagnetic fields. Some studies suggest that electromagnetic  therapies may be useful in the treatment of chronic illnesses. This study is a 
follow-up to a placebo controlled pilot study in which multiple sclerosis (MS)  patients exposed to weak, extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields  showed significant improvements on a composite symptom measure.
OBJECTIVE: To  evaluate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on MS related fatigue,  spasticity, bladder control, and overall quality of life. DESIGN: A multi-site,  double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Each subject received 4 weeks  of the active and placebo treatments separated by a 2-week washout period. 
SETTING: The University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle Wash, the  Neurology Center of Fairfax in Fairfax, Va, and the headquarters of the Multiple  Sclerosis Association of America in Cherry Hill, NJ.
SUBJECTS: 117 patients with  clinically definite MS.
INTERVENTION: Daily exposure to a small, portable  pulsing electromagnetic field generator.
MAIN OUTCOME: The MS Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI) was used to assess changes in fatigue, bladder control,  spasticity, and a quality of life composite.
RESULTS: Paired t-tests were used  to assess treatment differences in the 117 subjects (81% of the initial sample)  who completed both treatment sessions. Improvements in fatigue and overall  quality of life were significantly greater on the active device. There were no  treatment effects for bladder control and a disability composite, and mixed  results for spasticity.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this randomized, double-bind,  placebo controlled trial is consistent with results from smaller studies  suggesting that exposure to pulsing, weak electromagnetic fields can alleviate  symptoms of MS. The clinical effects were small, however, and need to be  replicated. Additional research is also needed to examine the possibility that  ambulatory patients and patients taking interferons for their MS may be most 
responsive to this kind of treatment.
Publication Types: 
Clinical Trial 
Multicenter Study 
Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 12868251 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

2: Wien Med Wochenschr. 2003;153(3-4):65-72.
[Therapy of day time fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis]
[Article in German]
Zifko UA.
Sonderkrankenanstalt fur Neurologie, Klinik Pirawarth, Kurhausstrasse 100,  A-2222 Bad Pirawarth.
Fatigue is the most common symptom of multiple sclerosis. 75%-90% of patients  with multiple sclerosis report having fatigue, and 50%-60% describe it as the  worst symptom of their disease. Fatigue is significantly associated with reduced  quality of life and is also a major reason for unemployment, especially for  patients with otherwise minor disability. The mechanisms underlying abnormal  levels of fatigue in multiple sclerosis are poorly understood. To date, drug  treatment has been only partially successful in alleviating fatigue, and effects  vary widely from patient to patient. Amantadine and modafinil showed to be  effective in the treatment of fatigue in some studies. Non-pharmacological 
management of fatigue in multiple sclerosis includes inpatient rehabilitation  and endurance training. There is also evidence, that pulsing electromagnetic  fields may improve fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis. This paper  summarizes the recent literature on pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy of  the most common symptom of multiple sclerosis.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 12658965 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Wiad Lek. 2002;55(3-4):136-43.
[Effect of variable magnetic field on motor impairment and quality of life in 
patients with multiple sclerosis]
[Article in Polish]
Brola W, Wegrzyn W, Czernicki J.
Oddzialu Neurologii Szpitala Sw. lukasza w Konskich.
Modern treatment of multiple sclerosis (SM) takes into consideration the current  stage of the disease, symptomatic treatment and modification of the course of  the disease. The most promising method of management is immunotherapy. It is,  however, effective only in some cases, in patients with low degree of  disability, and it is rather expensive. In view of some recent reports  concerning the possibility of utilisation of variable magnetic fields in the 
treatment of SM, the study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of  impulses generated by magnetic field obtained by means of VIOFOR JPS stimulator.  The study was carried out on 76 subjects with long-term history of clinically  confirmed SM. The mean duration of the disease was 8.5 years, and the mean age  of the patients 37.8 years. The patients were divided into two groups: the study  group and the controls. In the study group the patients were exposed to magnetic  fields generated by VIOFOR JPS. Magnetic stimulation was not applied in the  control group. The progress of the disease according to EDDS and the quality of  life according to Testa and Simonson Questionnaire were assessed on admission  and after 21 days of stimulation. No significant differences between the groups  were found with respect to motor impairment evaluated using the EDDS score (6.2  at the beginning of the study and 5.1 after 21 days; in the control group–6.1  and 5.6, respectively). The quality of life was found to be significantly better  in the group exposed to magnetic field stimulation than in the controls (p <  0.01). Particular variables contributing to the physical, psychological and  social component of quality of life were analysed in detail. The most  significant difference was observed with respect to the improvement of mental  condition of the patients (alleviation of depression, elimination of anxiety,  better emotional control), as well as to the decrease of muscle tone,  dysaesthesia and painful sensations. No side effects were observed in any of the  cases. The obtained effects encourage us to recommend magnetic stimulation as a method supplementing symptomatic treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis.
Publication Types: 
Clinical Trial 
Controlled Clinical Trial
PMID: 12181997 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Int J Neurosci. 1998 Jul;95(1-2):107-13.
Yawning and stretching–a behavioral syndrome associated with transcranial application of electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering and 
Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
Intracerebral administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) elicits in  experimental animals a yawning stretching behavior which is believed to reflect  an arousal response mediated through the septohippocampal cholinergic neurons. A  surge in plasma ACTH levels at night and just prior to awakening from sleep is  also associated in humans with yawning and stretching behavior. Recurrent  episodes of uncontrollable yawning and body stretching, identical to those  observed upon awakening from physiological sleep, occur in a subset of patients 
with multiple sclerosis (MS) during transcranial therapeutic application of AC  pulsed electromagnetic fields of picotesla flux density. This behavioral  response has been observed exclusively in young female patients who are fully 
ambulatory with a relapsing remitting course of the disease who also demonstrate  a distinctly favorable therapeutic response to magnetic stimulation. ACTH is  employed for the treatment of MS due to its immunomodulatory effects and a surge  in its release in response to AC pulsed magnetic stimulation could explain some  of the mechanism by which these fields improve symptoms of the disease.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9845021 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Mult Scler. 1996 Dec;2(5):227-32.
Treatment of spasticity with repetitive magnetic stimulation; a double-blind placebo-controlled stud
Nielsen JF, Sinkjaer T, Jakobsen J.
Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
The effect of repetitive magnetic stimulation on spasticity was evaluated in 38  patients with multiple sclerosis in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. One  group was treated with repetitive magnetic stimulation (n = 21) and the other  group with sham stimulation (n = 17). Both groups were treated twice daily for 7  consecutive days. Primary end-points of the study were changes in the patients  self-score, in clinical spasticity score, and in the stretch reflex threshold.  The self-score of ease of daily day activities improved by 22% (P = 0.007) after  treatment and by 29% (P = 0.004) after sham stimulation. The clinical spasticity  score improved -3.3 +/- 4.7 arbitrary unit (AU) in treated patients and 0.7 +/-  2.5 AU in sham stimulation (P = 0.003). The stretch reflex threshold increased  4.3 +/- 7.5 deg/s in treated patients and -3.8 +/- 9.7 deg/s in sham stimulation  (P = 0.001). The data presented in this study supports the idea that repetitive  magnetic stimulation has an antispastic effect in multiple sclerosis. Future  studies should clarify the optimal treatment regimen.
Publication Types: 
Clinical Trial 
Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 9050361 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995 Feb;58(2):254-5.
A new treatment of spasticity with repetitive magnetic stimulation in multiple sclerosis.
Nielsen JF, Klemar B, Hansen HJ, Sinkjaer T.
Publication Types: 
Letter
PMID: 7876869 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1994;94(4):60-1.
[The use of magnetic stimulation in organic and psychogenic diseases]
[Article in Russian]
Vein AM, Sadekov RA, Danilov AB, Kupershmidt LA.
PMID: 7856383 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1999 Mar;97(1-2):131-8.
Serotonergic neuronal sprouting as a potential mechanism of recovery in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering and  Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is widely considered as an animal  model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Damage to the bulbospinal serotonergic (5-HT)  neurons occurs in the early paralytic stages of EAE in rats with the severity of  neurologic signs corresponding to spinal serotonergic depletion. Neurologic  recovery of EAE rats is associated with reestablishment of spinal 5-HT  transmission possibly through sprouting of undamaged axons and nerve terminals. 
Damage to the bulbospinal serotonergic fibers also occurs in patients with MS  (as reflected by reduced lumbar CSF 5-HIAA levels) and may contribute to several  manifestations of the disease including autonomic dysregulation, sensory  symptoms (i.e., paresthesias, pain) and motor symptoms (weakness, spasticity,  clonus). Spinal serotonergic neuronal sprouting with regeneration of 5-HT nerve  terminals may also occur in the early stages of MS and may be associated with  spontaneous remission of MS symptoms following an acute relapse. Sprouting of serotonergic neurons may also explain the disparity in MS between the extent of  demyelinating plaques and clinical signs of the disease. The chronic course of  MS may be associated with progressive axonal degenerative changes with reduction 
of serotonergic nerve terminals and loss of their sprouting capability. It is  proposed that the beneficial effects of treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic  fields on the symptoms and course of the disease in patients with chronic  progressive MS may be related in part to renewed sprouting of serotonergic neurons.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 10681122 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1999;98(1-2):83-94.
Impairment of depth perception in multiple sclerosis is improved by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering and  Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Bay Shore, NY 11706, USA.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with postural instability and an increased  risk of falling which is facilitated by a variety of factors including  diminished visual acuity, diplopia, ataxia, apraxia of gait, and peripheral  neuropathy. Deficient binocular depth perception may also contribute to a higher  incidence of postural instability and falling in these patients who, for  example, find it an extremely difficult task to walk on uneven ground, over  curbs, or up and down steps. I report a 51 year old woman with secondary  progressive MS who experienced difficulties with binocular depth perception  resulting in frequent falls and injuries. Deficient depth perception was  demonstrated also on spontaneous drawing of a cube. Following a series of  transcranial treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7,5  picotesla flux density, the patient experienced a major improvement in depth  perception which was evident particularly on ascending and descending stairs.  These clinical changes were associated with an improvement in spatial  organization and depth perception on drawing a cube. These findings suggest that  in MS impairment of depth perception, which is encoded in the primary visual  cortex (area 17) and visual association cortex (areas 18 and 19), may be  improved by administration of AC pulsed EMFs of picotesla flux density. The 
primary visual cortex is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons which  modulate visual information processing. Cerebral serotonin concentrations are  diminished in MS patients and at least some aspects of deficient depth 
perception in MS may be related to dysfunction of serotonergic transmission in  the primary visual cortex. It is suggested that transcranial AC pulsed  applications of EMFs improve depth perception partly by augmenting serotonergic transmission in the visual cortex.
PMID: 10395363 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Neurology. 1999 Apr 12;52(6):1279-82.
Multiple sclerosis among utility workers.
Johansen C, Koch-Henriksen N, Rasmussen S, Olsen JH.
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, The Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen. 
christof@cancer.dk
The incidence of MS was assessed in a nationwide cohort study of 31,990  employees of Danish utility companies between 1900 and 1993. Overall, 32 cases  of MS were diagnosed, as compared with 23.7 expected from national incidence  rates, to yield a standardized incidence ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval,  0.92 to 1.91).
PMID: 10214760 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 1998 Aug;9(3):659-74.
Bioelectromagnetic applications for multiple sclerosis.
Richards TL, Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Stegbauer KC.
Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
There are EM effects on biology that are potentially both harmful and  beneficial. We have reviewed applications of EM fields that are relevant to MS.  It is possible that EM fields could be developed into a reproducible therapy for 
both symptom management and long-term care for MS. The long-term care for MS  would have to include beneficial changes in the immune system and in nerve  regeneration.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9894116 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1998 Jul;95(1-2):133-40.
Serotonergic neuronal atrophy with synaptic inactivation, not axonal  degeneration, are the main hallmarks of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering and  Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
The neurological manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been considered  to result from demyelination of axons with relative preservation of axonal  integrity. This concept has been challenged recently by a landmark pathological  study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which has demonstrated  that axonal degeneration is also present. The authors of the study hypothesized  that axonal degeneration is the pathological correlate of the irreversible  neurological impairment in this disease. However, this hypothesis cannot be 
reconciled with the clinical results obtained with transcranial applications of  AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of picotesla flux density which have  shown rapid and sustained improvement of symptoms including normalization of  evoked potential responses in patients with chronic progressive or secondary  progressive MS without demyelinated areas first undergoing remyelination or  transected axons undergoing regeneration. Biochemical studies have shown that MS  patients are serotonergically depleted with the extent of cerebral depletion  correlating with the degree of motor disability and a chronic progressive  course. It is believed that progressive serotonergic neuronal atrophy with  synaptic inactivation, not axonal degeneration, are the hallmarks of the disease 
and that administration of AC pulsed magnetic fields improves symptoms of MS  partly through reactivation of serotonergic neurons and amplification of  synaptic serotonergic transmission.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9845023 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Int J Neurosci. 1998 Apr;93(3-4):239-50.
Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields normalizes the latency of the visual evoked response in a multiple sclerosis patient with optic atrophy.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering and  Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
Visual evoked response (VER) studies have been utilized as supportive  information for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may be useful in  objectively monitoring the effects of various therapeutic modalities. Delayed 
latency of the VER, which reflects slowed impulse transmission in the optic  pathways, is the most characteristic abnormality associated with the disease.  Brief transcranial applications of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in  the picotesla flux density are efficacious in the symptomatic treatment of MS  and may also reestablish impulse transmission in the optic pathways. A 36 year  old man developed an attack of right sided optic neuritis at the age of 30. On  presentation he had blurring of vision with reduced acuity on the right and  fundoscopic examination revealed pallor of the optic disc. A checkerboard  pattern reversal VER showed a delayed latency to right eye stimulation (P100 =  132 ms; normal range: 95-115 ms). After he received two successive applications  of AC pulsed EMFs of 7.5 picotesla flux density each of 20 minutes duration  administered transcranially, there was a dramatic improvement in vision and the  VER latency reverted to normal (P100= 107 ms). The rapid improvement in vision  coupled with the normalization of the VER latency despite the presence of optic  atrophy, which reflects chronic demyelination of the optic nerve, cannot be  explained on the basis of partial or full reformation of myelin. It is proposed  that in MS synaptic neurotransmitter deficiency is associated with the visual  impairment and delayed VER latency following optic neuritis and that the  recovery of the VER latency by treatment with pulsed EMFs is related to  enhancement of synaptic neurotransmitter functions in the retina and central 
optic pathways. Recovery of the VER latency in MS patients may have important  implications with respect to the treatment of visual impairment and prevention  of visual loss. Specifically, repeated pulsed applications of EMFs may maintain  impulse transmission in the optic nerve and thus potentially sustain its  viability.
PMID: 9639241 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Nov;92(1-2):95-102.
Treatment with electromagnetic fields improves dual-task performance (talking while walking) in multiple sclerosis
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased risk of falling  resulting from visual disturbances, difficulties with gait and balance, apraxia  of gait and peripheral neuropathy. These factors often interact synergistically 
to compromise the patient’s gait stability. It has long been recognized that  walking involves a cognitive component and that simultaneous cognitive and motor  operations (dual-task) such as talking while walking may interfere with normal ambulation. Talking while walking reflects an example of a dual-task which is  frequently impaired in MS patients. Impaired dual-task performance during  walking may compromise the patient’s gait and explain why in some circumstances,  MS patients unexpectedly lose their balance and fall. Frontal lobe dysfunction,  which commonly occurs in MS patients, may disrupt dual-task performance and  increase the risk of falling in these patients. This report concerns a 36 old  man with remitting-progressive MS with an EDSS score of 5.5 who experienced 
marked increase in spasticity in the legs and trunk and worsening of his gait  and balance, occasionally resulting in falling, when talking while walking. His  gait and balance improved dramatically after he received two successive  transcranial treatments, each of 45 minutes, with AC pulsed electromagnetic  fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla flux density. Simultaneously, there was  improvement in dual-task performance to the extent that talking while walking  did not adversely affect his ambulation. In addition, neuropsychological testing 
revealed an almost 5-fold increase in word output on the Thurstone’s  Word-Fluency Test, which is sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction. It is  suggested that facilitation of dual-task performance during ambulation contributes to the overall improvement of gait and balance observed in MS patients receiving transcranial treatment with AC pulsed EMFs.
PMID: 9522259 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Winter;3(4):365-86.
Therapeutic effects of alternating current pulsed electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Biomedical Engineering and  Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, New York, USA.
Multiple sclerosis is the third most common cause of severe disability in  patients between the ages of 15 and 50 years. The cause of the disease and its  pathogenesis remain unknown. The last 20 years have seen only meager advances in  the development of effective treatments for the disease. No specific treatment  modality can cure the disease or alter its long-term course and eventual  outcome. Moreover, there are no agents or treatments that will restore premorbid  neuronal function. A host of biological phenomena associated with the disease  involving interactions among genetic, environmental, immunologic, and hormonal factors, cannot be explained on the basis of demyelination alone and therefore  require refocusing attention on alternative explanations, one of which  implicates the pineal gland as pivotal. The pineal gland functions as a  magnetoreceptor organ. This biological property of the gland provided the  impetus for the development of a novel and highly effective therapeutic  modality, which involves transcranial applications of alternating current (AC) 
pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla flux density. This review summarizes recent clinical work on the effects of transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields for the symptomatic treatment of the disease.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9449058 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Fall;3(3):267-90.
Role of the pineal gland in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering and  Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, NY, USA.
Despite intensive research over the past several decades, the etiology and  pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. The last 20 years have  seen only meager advances in the treatment of the disease in part because too  much attention has been devoted to the process of demyelination and its  relationship to the neurologic symptoms and recovery of the disease. A host of  biological phenomena associated with the disease involving interactions among  genetic, environmental, immunologic, and hormonal factors, cannot be explained on the basis of demyelination and, therefore, require refocusing attention on alternative explanations, one of which implicates the pineal gland as the pivotal mover of the disease. This review summarizes the evidence linking dysfunction of the pineal gland with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and course of the disease. The pineal hypothesis of MS also provided the impetus for the development of a novel and highly effective 
therapeutic modality, one that involves the transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla flux density.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9430330 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):177-85.
Treatment with electromagnetic fields reverses the long-term clinical course of a patient with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
It is estimated that 10-20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a  chronic progressive (CP) course characterized by an insidious onset of  neurological deficits followed by steady progression of disability in the 
absence of symptomatic remission. To date no therapeutic modality has proven  effective in reversing the clinical course of CP MS although there are  indications that prolonged treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields 
(EMFs) alters the clinical course of patients with CP MS. A 40 year-old woman presented in December of 1992 with CP MS with symptoms of spastic paraplegia,  loss of trunk control, marked weakness of the upper limbs with loss of fine and  gross motor hand functions, severe fatigue, cognitive deficits, mental  depression, and autonomic dysfunction with neurogenic bladder and bowel  incontinence. Her symptoms began at the age of 18 with weakness of the right leg and fatigue with long distance walking and over the ensuing years she experienced steady deterioration of functions. In 1985 she became wheelchair dependent and it was anticipated that within 1-2 years she would become functionally quadriplegic. In December of 1992 she began experimental treatment with EMFs. While receiving regularly weekly transcortical treatments with AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla range intensity she experienced during the first year improvement in mental functions, return of strength in the upper 
extremities, and recovery of trunk control. During the second year she experienced the return of more hip functions and recovery of motor functions began in her legs. For the first time in years she can now initiate dorsiflexion of her ankles and actively extend her knees voluntarily. Over the past year she started to show signs of redevelopment of reciprocal gait. Presently, with enough function restored in her legs, she is learning to walk with a walker and is able to stand unassisted and maintain her balance for a few minutes. She also regained about 80% of functions in the upper limbs and hands. Most remarkably, there was no further progression of the disease during the 4 years course of magnetic therapy. This patient’s clinical recovery cannot be explained on the basis of a spontaneous remission. It is suggested that pulsed applications of 
picotesla EMFs affect the neurobiological and immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CP MS.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9352426 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):145-57.
Resolution of sleep paralysis by weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
Sleep paralysis refers to episodes of inability to move during the onset of  sleep or more commonly upon awakening. Patients often describe the sensation of  struggling to move and may experience simultaneous frightening vivid 
hallucinations and dreams. Sleep paralysis and other manifestations of  dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep, which reflect deficient  monoaminergic regulation of neural modulators of REM sleep, have been reported 
in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A 40 year old woman with  remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) experienced episodes of sleep  paralysis since the age of 16, four years prior to the onset of her neurological 
symptoms. Episodes of sleep paralysis, which manifested at a frequency of about  once a week, occurred only upon awakening in the morning and were considered by  the patient as a most terrifying experience. Periods of mental stress, sleep  deprivation, physical fatigue and exacerbation of MS symptoms appeared to  enhance the occurrence of sleep paralysis. In July of 1992 the patient began  experimental treatment with AC pulsed applications of picotesla intensity  electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of which were applied extracerebrally 1-2 times per  week. During the course of treatment with EMFs the patient made a dramatic  recovery of symptoms with improvement in vision, mobility, balance, bladder  control, fatigue and short term memory. In addition, her baseline pattern reversal visual evoked potential studies, which showed abnormally prolonged latencies in  both eyes, normalized 3 weeks after the initiation of magnetic therapy and remained normal more than 2.5 years later. Since the introduction of magnetic therapy episodes of sleep paralysis gradually diminished and abated completely over the past 3 years. This report suggests that MS may be associated with deficient REM sleep inhibitory neural mechanisms leading to sleep paralysis secondary to the intrusion of REM sleep atonia and dream imagery into the waking state. Pineal melatonin and monoaminergic 
neurons have been implicated in the induction and maintenance of REM sleep and the pathogenesis of sleep paralysis and it is suggested that resolution of sleep paralysis in this patient by AC pulsed applications of EMFs was related to enhancement of melatonin circadian rhythms and cerebral serotoninergic neurotransmission.
Publication Types: 
Review 
Review, Tutorial
PMID: 9352423 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jun;90(1-2):59-74.
Immediate recovery of cognitive functions and resolution of fatigue by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Dix Hills, NY, 
USA.
Cognitive deficits are common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The  pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment in MS are unknown  and there is presently no effective therapeutic modality which has shown  efficacy in improving cognitive deficits in MS. A 53 year old college professor  with a long history of secondary progressive MS experienced, over the preceding  year, noticeable deterioration in cognitive functions with difficulties in short  and long term memory, word finding in spontaneous speech, attention and  concentration span. Unable to pursue his academic activities, he was considering  early retirement. Mental examination disclosed features of subcortical and cortical dementia involving frontal lobe, left hemispheric and right hemispheric dysfunction. Almost immediately following the extracerebral application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla intensity and a 4-Hz sinusoidal wave, the patient experienced a heightend sense of well being, which he defined as enhancement of cognitive functions with a feeling “like a cloud lifted off my head.” He reported heightend clarity of thinking and during the application of EMFs he felt that words were formed faster and he experienced no difficulty finding the appropriate words. His speech was stronger and well modulated and he felt “energized” with resolution of his fatigue. There was improvement in manual dexterity and handwriting and testing of constructional praxis demonstrated improvement in visuospatial, visuoperceptive and visuomotor functions. It is suggested that some of the cognitive deficits associated with MS, which are caused by synaptic disruption of neurotransmitter functions, may be reversed through pulsed applications of picotesla range EMFs.
PMID: 9285288 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jan;89(1-2):39-51.
Progressive cognitive improvement in multiple sclerosis from treatment with electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.
It has long been recognized that cognitive impairment occurs in patients with  multiple sclerosis (MS) particularly among patients with a chronic progressive  course. MS is considered a type of “subcortical dementia” in which cognitive and  behavioral abnormalities resemble those observed in patients with a frontal lobe  syndrome. The Bicycle Drawing Test is employed for the neuropsychological  assessment of cognitive impairment specifically that of mechanical reasoning and  visuographic functioning. It also provides clues concerning the patient’s  organizational skills which are subserved by the frontal lobes. Extracerebral  pulsed applications of picotesla flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs)  have been shown to improve cognitive functions in patients with MS. I present 
three patients with long standing symptoms of MS who, on the initial baseline,  pretreatment Bicycle Drawing Test, exhibited cognitive impairment manifested by omissions of essential details and deficient organizational skills. All patients demonstrated progressive improvement in their performance during treatment with EMFs lasting from 6-18 months. The improvement in cognitive functions, which occurred during the initial phases of the treatment, was striking for the changes in organizational skills reflecting frontal lobe functions. These findings demonstrate that progressive recovery of cognitive functions in MS 
patients are observed over time through continued administration of picotesla flux intensity EMFs. It is believed that the beneficial cognitive effects of these EMFs are related to increased synaptic neurotransmission and that the progressive cognitive improvement noted in these patients is associated with slow recovery of synaptic functions in monoaminergic neurons of the frontal lobe or its projections from subcortical areas.
PMID: 9134447 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jan;89(1-2):29-38.
Lack of a correlation between demyelinating plaques on MRI scan and clinical recovery in multiple sclerosis by treatment with electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
A 50 year-old woman presented in January of 1995 with a prolonged history of  symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and was classified at the time with a  remitting-progressive course. Her chief symptoms included slurring of speech,  impairment of vision with intermittent diplopia, difficulties with gait and  balance with spastic-ataxic gait, mental depression, insomnia, fatigue, impaired  cognitive functions notably poor short term memory and recurrent urinary tract  and sinus infections. An MRI scan showed multiple nodular demyelinating lesions  scattered in the subcortical white matter and periventricularly of both cerebral  hemispheres. Over the following 18 months, while receiving three treatment  sessions per week with picotesla electro-magnetic fields (EMFs) which were  applied extracranially, she showed a significant recovery in both physical and mental symptoms and additionally experienced decreased susceptibility to infections. In addition, the course of her disease appeared to have stabilized as opposed to the preceding 5 years during which time she experienced insidious, steady deterioration in her functioning. Despite this remarkable clinical recovery through the application of EMFs, and MRI scan obtained at the same diagnostic center 18 months after initiation of treatment with EMFs showed no changes in the number and size of the demyelinating plaques. These findings demonstrate lack of a correlation between recovery of symptoms and the number and extent of demyelinating plaques on MRI scan. It has been known since the days of Charcot in the latter half of the 19th century that in MS there is a great disparity between the histopathological changes of the disease and neurologic deficits. This report enhances the notion that demyelination may reflect an epiphenomenon of the disease.
PMID: 9134446 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov;88(1-2):75-82.
Treatment with electromagnetic field alters the clinical course of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis–a case report.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
It is estimated that 10-20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a  chronic progressive (CP) course characterized by an insidious of neurological  deficits followed by steady progression of disability in the absence of 
symptomatic remission. No therapeutic modality has shown specific efficacy in the treatment of patients with CP MS and there are no data to indicate that any pharmacologic or other modality alters the clinical course of CP MS. Treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is a highly effective modality for the symptomatic management of MS including the chronic progressive form. In addition, this treatment also appears to alter the natural course of the disease in CP patients. A 36 year-old man experienced, at the age of 31, insidious weakness in the legs and several months later developed difficulties with balance with ataxia of gait. His gait abnormality progressed slowly over the following years and at the age of 35 he was severely disabled with spastic paraparesis and ataxia using a rolling walker for ambulation and a scooter for longer distances. In particular, his disability had progressed rapidly over the six months preceding the initiation of treatment with EMFs. He as classified have CP MS and his prognosis was considered extremely unfavorable due to the degree of cerebellar and pyramidal tract involvement and the rapid course of deterioration. In July 1995 the patient began experimental treatment with EMFs. While receiving three treatment sessions a week over 12 months he experienced  improvement in cerebellar functions such as gait, balance and tremor as well as bowel and bladder functions, mood, sleep and cognitive function and resolution of diplopia, blurring of vision, dysarthria, paresthesias in the hands, and fatigue. Most remarkably, there was no further progression of the disease during the course of magnetic therapy. This case illustrated that treatment with EMFs, in addition to producing symptomatic improvement, also reverses the clinical course of CP MS.
PMID: 9003966 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Oct;87(1-2):5-15.
Suicidal behavior is attenuated in patients with multiple sclerosis by treatment with electromagnetic fields
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
A marked decrease in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite (5-HIAA)  has been demonstrated in postmortem studies of suicide victims with various  psychiatric disorders. Depression is the most common mental manifestation of  multiple sclerosis (MS) which accounts for the high incidence of suicide in this  disease. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are reduced in MS patients and nocturnal  plasma melatonin levels were found to be lower in suicidal than in nonsuicidal  patients. These findings suggest that the increased risk of suicide in MS  patients may be related to decreased 5-HT functions and blunted circadian  melatonin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that extracerebral  applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla range  rapidly improved motor, sensory, affective and cognitive deficits in MS.  Augmentation of cerebral 5-HT synthesis and resynchronization of circadian melatonin secretion has been suggested as a key mechanism by which these EMFs improved symptoms of the disease. Therefore, the prediction was made that this  treatment modality would result in attenuation of suicidal behavior in MS  patients. The present report concerns three women with remitting-progressive MS  who exhibited suicidal behavior during the course of their illness. All patients  had frequent suicidal thoughts over several years and experienced resolution of  suicidal behavior within several weeks after introduction of EMFs treatment with  no recurrence of symptoms during a follow-up of months to 3.5 years. These  findings demonstrate that in MS pulsed applications of picotesla level EMFs  improve mental depression and may reduce the risk of suicide by a mechanism 
involving the augmentation of 5-HT neurotransmission and resynchronization of  circadian melatonin secretion.
PMID: 8913816 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Oct;87(1-2):1-4.
Electromagnetic fields for treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Publication Types: 
Editorial
PMID: 8913815 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):79-85.
Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on body image perception in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Cerebellar ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis  (MS) and also one of the least responsive to pharmacotherapy. However,  cerebellar symptoms often improve dramatically in MS patients by brief, 
extracerebral applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This  report concerns two MS patients with chronic disabling ataxia who experienced  rapid improvement in gait and balance after receiving a series of treatments with EMFs. To assess whether improvement in cerebellar gait is accompanied by  changes in body image perception, a parietal lobe function, both patients were  administered the Human Figure Drawing Test before and after a series of brief  treatments with EMFs. Prior to application of EMFs these patients’ free drawings  of a person showed a figure with a wide-based stance characteristic of  cerebellar ataxia. After receiving a series of EMFs treatments both patients  demonstrated a change in body image perception with the drawings of the human
figure showing a normal stance. These findings demonstrate that in MS  improvement in cerebellar symptoms by pulsed applications of picotesla EMFs is  associated with changes in the body image.
PMID: 8828062 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):67-77.
Treatment with weak electromagnetic fields attenuates carbohydrate craving in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Pharmacological studies have implicated serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the  regulation of food intake and food preference. It has been shown that the urge  to consume carbohydrate rich foods is regulated by 5-HT activity and that  carbohydrate craving is triggered by 5-HT deficiency in the medical  hypothalamus. Ingestion of carbohydrate foods stimulates insulin secretion which  accelerates the uptake of tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT and melatonin, into  the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Thus, carbohydrate craving might be  considered a form of “self medication” aimed at correcting an underlying  dysfunction of cerebral 5-HT and pineal melatonin functions. A 51 year old woman  with remitting-progressive MS experienced carbohydrate craving during childhood  and adolescence and again in temporal association with the onset of her first  neurological symptoms at the age of 45. Carbohydrate craving, which resembled  the pattern observed in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), was  attenuated by a series of extracranial AC pulsed applications of picotesla  (10(-12) Tesla) flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It is suggested  that AC pulsed EMFs applications activated retinal mechanisms which, through  functional interactions with the medial hypothalamus, initiated an increased  release of 5-HT and resynchronization of melatonin secretion ultimately leading 
to a decrease in carbohydrate craving. The occurrence of carbohydrate craving in  early life may have increased the patient’s vulnerability to viral infection  given the importance of 5-HT and melatonin in immunomodulation and the 
regulation of the integrity of the blood brain barrier. The recurrence of this  craving in temporal relation to the onset of neurological symptoms suggests that  5-HT deficiency and impaired pineal melatonin functions are linked to the timing of onset of the clinical symptoms of the disease. The report supports the role of experimental factors in the pathophysiology of MS.
PMID: 8828061 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):33-45.
Reversal of an acute parkinsonian syndrome associated with multiple sclerosis by application of weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
The occurrence of movement disorders and particularly Parkinsonian symptoms is uncommon in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite the rather frequent  presence of demyelinating plaques in the basal ganglia. This disparity between  the occurrence of clinical symptoms in MS and the distribution of demyelinating  plaques suggests that impairment of neurotransmitter functions rather than  demyelination may be critical to the clinical manifestations of the disease. A  48 year old woman with remitting-progressive MS developed a bilateral  Parkinsonian syndrome in association with acute emotional stress which resolved  after she received two brief successive extracerebral applications of low  frequency picotesla flux density electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It is believed  that in this patient Parkinsonism may have existed in a subclinical form and  that acute stress, which previously has been shown to precipitate symptoms of  Parkinson’s disease, triggered the onset of Parkinsonism by further reducing  dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The rapid  reversal of the Parkinsonian syndrome by EMFs was related to a presumed  augmentation of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission which, on the  basis of CSF studies, is reduced in chronic MS patients. The efficacy of EMFs in  the treatment of Parkinson’s disease had been documented previously but this  report demonstrates that this treatment modality is beneficial also for the  treatment of Parkinsonism developing in the setting of other neurodegenerative disorders.
PMID: 8828058 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):125-9.
Weak electromagnetic fields potentiate the effects of 4-aminopyridine in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Publication Types: 
Letter
PMID: 8727688 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):101-10.
Application of weak electromagnetic fields facilitates sensory-motor integration in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Electrophysiological studies in behaving animals have shown the function of  cerebral serotonin (5-HT) neurons to be altered in association with motor output  in both the tonic and repetitive modes and also in relation to an orienting 
response. Brainstem 5-HT neurons increase their firing rate two to five-fold during repetitive motor activity to facilitate motor output while simultaneously  suppressing transmission in sensory pathways. Reciprocally, during an orienting  response motor activity is suppressed and 5-HT neuronal activity is inhibited to  facilitate transmission of sensory information. These reciprocal changes in 5-HT  neuronal activity serve to facilitate brainstem reticular sensory-motor  integration which, due to 5-HT neurotransmission deficiency, may be disrupted in  patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). For instance, MS patients are unable to  process auditory information in the presence of competing ambient stimuli, while  under a controlled laboratory environment they demonstrate unimpaired verbal 
information processing. This report concerns three MS patients who experienced  rapid deterioration in balance resulting in falling when subjected, during  ambulation, to distracting external auditory stimuli. After receiving a series  of treatments with low frequency picotesla range intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which were applied extracranially for brief periods, these patients experienced resolution of these symptoms with ambulation being unaffected by auditory stimuli. It is suggested that application of picotesla 
EMFs may restore abnormal reticular sensory-motor integration in MS patients with the effect being related to facilitation of 5-HT neurotransmission at both junctional (synaptic) and nonjunctional neuronal target sites.
PMID: 8727686 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):93-9.
Bidirectional effect of electromagnetic fields on ketanserin-induced yawning in patients with multiple sclerosis: the role of melatonin.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
5-HT2 receptors regulate sleep including yawning behavior. Ritanserin, a  selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, increases the duration of slow wave in  rats and humans. This effect is more pronounced during the light period when 
melatonin plasma levels are low; melatonin inhibits the sleep effects of  ritanserin. These findings indicate that melatonin co-determines the effects of  ritanserin on sleep. In a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients ketanserin, 
a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, induces recurrent yawning particularly  when administered in daytime. The frequency of yawning induced by the drug was  modified by AC pulsed picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs) which affect  melatonin secretion. Two MS patients are presented in whom the frequency of  ketanserin-induced yawning was altered in opposite directions by these EMFs. The  first patient, a 50 year old woman with a remitting-relapsing course, developed  recurrent yawning and sleepiness after administration of ketanserin (10 mg, PO).  Yawning was decreased dramatically during application of EMFs but was unaffected  by a placebo EMFs treatment. The second patient, a 35 year old man with a chronic progressive course, manifested a single and brief yawn after 
administration of an equal dose of ketanserin. Yawning was increased dramatically during application of EMFs while remaining unchanged during a placebo EMFs treatment. These observations demonstrate a bidirectional effect of picotesla flux EMFs on ketanserin-induced yawning which may be related to  differences in daytime melatonin plasma levels among MS patients. If validated by estimations of melatonin plasma levels in a larger cohort of patients the information derived from the effects of picotesla EMFs on ketanserin-induced yawning could be used to: (a) assess pineal melatonin functions in patients with MS; (b) indicate differences in pineal functions between male and female MS patients; and (c) indicate a relationship between plasma melatonin levels and the fatigue of MS.
PMID: 8727685 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):79-91.
Weak electromagnetic fields increase the amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP response in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Visual evoked potential (VEP) studies are widely used for the diagnosis of  multiple sclerosis (MS) and are also useful in monitoring the effects of various  therapeutic modalities in the disease. Brief, extracerebral applications of 
picotesla (pT) range flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of low  frequency have been shown efficacious in the treatment of motor and cognitive  symptoms in MS implying that this treatment modality improves action potential 
transmission in demyelinating pathways. This report documents three MS patients  with a remitting-progressive course in whom two successive brief extracerebral  applications of pT range EMFs caused an immediate increase (and normalization) of the amplitudes of the visual evoked response in the eye previously affected by optic neuritis. However, the pretreatment prolonged latencies of the evoked responses remained essentially unchanged after the administration of EMFs. Since the latency of the VEP reflects the degree of conduction velocity and the amplitude the degree of conduction block in demyelinating optic pathways, the report demonstrates that extracerebral applications of these EMFs may rapidly reverse conduction block in demyelinating fibers. Reversal of the conduction block, which is though to be related to changes in axonal Na+ and K+ channels and synaptic neurotransmitter release, accounts for the immediate improvement of vision and other neurological deficits observed in MS patients following exposure to these EMFs.
PMID: 8727684 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):177-86.
Treatment with weak electromagnetic fields improves fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
It is estimated that 75-90% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience  fatigue at some point during the course of the disease and that in about half of  these patients, subjective fatigue is a primary complaint. In the majority of  patients fatigue is present throughout the course of the day being most  prominent in the mid to late afternoon. Sleepiness is not prominent, but  patients report that rest may attenuate fatigability. The pathophysiology of the 
fatigue of MS remains unknown. Delayed impulse conduction in demyelinated zones  may render transmission in the brainstem reticular formation less effective. In  addition, the observation that rest may restore energy and that administration  of pemoline and amantadine, which increase the synthesis and release of  monoamines, often improve the fatigue of MS suggest that depletion of  neurotransmitter stores in damaged neurons may contribute significantly to the  development of fatigue in these patients. The present report concerns three MS  patients who experienced over several years continuous and debilitating fatigue  throughout the course of the day. Fatigue was exacerbated by increased physical  activity and was not improved by rest. After receiving a course of treatments  with picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which were applied extracranially, all patients experienced improvement in fatigue. Remarkably, patients noted that several months after initiation of treatment with EMFs they were able to recover, after a short period of rest, from fatigue which followed increased physical activity. These observations suggest that replenishment of  monoamine stores in neurons damaged by demyelination in the brainstem reticular  formation by periodic applications of picotesla flux intensity EMFs may lead to more effective impulse conduction and thus to improvement in fatigue including rapid recovery of fatigue after rest.
PMID: 8707480 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):165-75.
Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP response in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Visual evoked potential (VEP) studies are widely used for the diagnosis of  multiple sclerosis (MS) and are also useful in monitoring the effects of various  therapeutic modalities in the disease. Prolongation of the VEP latencies has 
been demonstrated in patients with MS and in other neurodegenerative disorders  including Parkinson’s disease (PD), a disorder characterized by deficient  cerebral dopamine (DA) functions. Pharmacological and biochemical studies have  demonstrated a positive correlation between the amplitude of the VEP response  and cerebral DA levels. Since brief, extracerebral applications of picotesla  (pT) range flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of low frequency have  been shown to produce rapid improvement in motor and cognitive symptoms in PD,  it is expected that application these EMFs would lead also to an increase in the  amplitude of VEP response. This report documents three randomly selected PD patients who, following two successive brief extracerebral applications of pT 
range EMFs, showed an almost 3-fold increase of the mean pretreatment amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP in response to monocular stimulation. One patient underwent also a placebo EMF treatment which did not result in a significant change in the posttreatment amplitude. The study demonstrates that in 
Parkinsonian patients extracerebral application of these EMFs rapidly increases in amplitude of the VEP response and, by inference, cerebral DA levels presumably by increasing DA release.
Publication Types: 
Clinical Trial 
Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 8707479 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):157-64.
Resolution of partial cataplexy in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Cataplexy, an ancillary symptom of narcolepsy, involves the sudden loss of  muscle tone without altered consciousness usually brought on by sudden  excitement or emotional influence and extreme exertions (Guilleminault et al.,  1974; Parks et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1992; 1993; Scrima, 1981; Baker, 1985). Attacks of generalized cataplexy produce complete atnic, areflexic partial or complete paralysis of striated muscles commonly involving the leg muscles resulting in collapse of the knees and falling while milder forms often termed partial cataplexy may manifest by sagging of the face, eyelid, or jaw, dysarthria, blurred vision, drooping of the head, weakness of an 
arm or leg, buckling at the knees, or simply a momentary sensation of weakness that is imperceptible to observers (Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1993). The duration of cataplexy is usually a few seconds, although severe episodes can last several minutes and rarely several hours or days in the case of “status cataplecticus” (Parkes et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Billiard & Cadilhac, 1985; Aldrich, 1992; 1993). This report concerns a 51 year old man with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis who exhibited daily episodes of partial cataplexy which resolved within 3 weeks after he received treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields.
PMID: 8707478 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] 

Int J Neurosci. 1995 Dec;83(3-4):187-98.
Premenstrual exacerbation of symptoms in multiple sclerosis is attenuated by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
It has been suspected that hormonal factors contribute to the etiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). A direct relationship between MS and endocrine functions is suggested by changes in disease activity during the phases of the menstrual cycle. A subset of women with MS experience premenstrual worsening of symptoms which improve dramatically with the onset of menstruation. The biological mechanisms underlying these changes in disease activity are unexplained but may be related to cyclical fluctuations in gonadal sex steroid hormones, abrupt changes in the activity of the endogenous opioid peptides and fluctuations in plasma melatonin levels which affect neuronal excitability and immune functions. Extracerebral application of weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla range intensity has been reported efficacious in the treatment of MS with patients experiencing sustained improvement in motor, sensory, autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. The present report concerns two women with chronic progressive stage MS who experienced, coincident with increasing functional disability, regular worsening of their symptomsbeginning about a week before menstruation and abating with the onset of menstruation. These symptoms resolved two months after the initiation oftreatment with EMFs. The report supports the association between the endocrine system and MS and indicates that brief, extracranial applications of these magnetic fields modifies the activity of neuroendocrine systems which precipitate worsening of MS symptoms premenstrually.

End of Multiple Sclerosis PEMF bibliography