Our clients have been Brain-Hacking using EarthPulse™ PEMF for 13 years without the necessity of of attaching tDCS electrodes. Brain-hacking neuromodulation with tDCS transcutaneous direct current stimulation popularity is exploding nearly as fast as the number of devices hitting the market.

tDCS vs PEMF Neuromodulation

After a month of experimentation this author believes you can get 90% of the brain-centric effects with PEMF (plus infinitely more full body effects) than either tDCS. tDCS / tPCS has advantage of directed electron flow but is vastly limited by the flow of current along the path of least resistance. PEMF / rTMS have the advantage of 3-Dimentional field distribution. And that’s a pretty large advantage.  If waveform rise-time is straight up, minute currents are being induced throughout and can take advantage of frequency specific effects. In tDCS there is no frequency. It is current (electron) flow only. tPCS is transcranial pulsed current stimulation or as Bob Beck called it CES for Cranial Electric Stimulation. His BT (Brain Tuner) series used 9.7 Hz.

The growing number of studies in field of tDCS is bound to raise awareness of electrotherapy in general as well as use of PEMF.  While pad electrodes aren’t comfortable or convenient, there are times when pure current may be the best alternative. The major problem though is how well can you target it though the target tissue…and do you even know what your specific target is? Toward this aim, some tDCS target guides are listed below. Again, this is all brain-centric and we believe you can target those same tissues easier and with much of the same effect using PEMF.

One very unique quality of tDCS and tPCS is flow of current (electrons) from positive to negative electrodes. This is something you can’t achieve with pulsed electromagnetic fields. We’re still trying to quantify these effects by playing with them. But, a reasonable person would expect that this would have some quantifiable and predictable effects. Evidently neuronal tissue will grow away from the positive electrode or as I like to say grow “downstream” with the current flow.

tDCS is 20 year old technology. Bob Beck’s Brain Tuner (BT-1) dates back to the 1980’s if i’m not mistaken. Currently Sota.com is selling the BT-8. Quite frankly, I tried it 20 years ago and didn’t think much of it. I didn’t like the tingle sensation and really couldn’t identify noticeable effects from the 7.83 (8?) Hz setting. Perhaps that was due to using the behind the ears location as per the instructions. Behind the ears was presumably designed to get current to the hypothalamic region of the brain. Perhaps front to back or back-to-front or side-to-side would have been more effective. Either way, current passes from point to point through the path of least resistance.

I rigged up two spare magnet lead wires into two sets of positive (anodal) and negative (cathodal) tDCS electrode wires. Then I stuffed the wires into holes on the side of 4 1 inch square sponge pads and connected them to the EarthPulse. After playing around with it at 9.6 Hz, 12 Hz and 14.1 Hz, I did lower my reaction time from 320 – 220 ms to 194 ms using this test.

And again to 182 (without any stimulation) a few days after ceasing the experiment, but I think after practice it could be due to being able to precognition / anticipate the test. Was that due to the tPCS during those weeks prior? Perhaps the learning experience with the tPCS did have an effect that took more days to manifest. I’ve not been able to match 182, or break 200 with or without tDCS. I do sleep on EarthPulse™ every night. A month later with no practice 233.

One of the most important factors to consider is that tDCS or tPCS is inherently limited to transcranial flow of current (electrons). By putting the anode on the foot and the cathode on the head and running that minute current would run though a greater amount of tissue, but then you’d be hooked up to electrodes all night and that was never the intention of creating EarthPulse™ PEMF. And still you have the current flowing through the path of least resistance and that isn’t necessarily the tissue you are targeting.

With pulsed electromagnetism, you’re able to direct the pulsed field (electron donors) to any particular area of the brain (or body) whenever necessary. Routine nighttime use exposes entire body system over long enough periods of time to produce effects that simply can never be achieved through any other technique.

Recent tDCS / tPCS articles in the news:

  1. Weird World of Brain Hacking  – Wall Street Journal
  2. Brain stimulation limits calories consumed in adults with obesity
  3. Electrical Stimulation Promising for Motor Function in Kids
  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation May Reduce Fibromyalgia Pain
  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promising for Multiple Sclerosis
  6. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Models
  7. Electrical Brain Stimulation Moves from Lab to Home, Experts Wary (expect the “authorities” and so called “experts” to do all they can to discourage use)
  8. 10 Hz tDCS Increases Creativity University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  9. Your Brain On Electricity University North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  10. Nice treatise on tDCS from Czech
  11. Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation from City College of New York
  12. Electrode Positioning 2
  13. Electrode Positioning 3
  14. Noninvasive brain stimulator may ease Parkinson’s symptoms (lets see them match what we’ve shown in these videos on Parkinson’s over a decade ago)
  15. Brain Stimulation Can Improve Motor Function in Parkinson’s Johns Hopkins gets 25% reduction in Parkinson’s rating with tDCS
  16. Your Electric Pharmacy Scientific American
  17. The Military’s Mind Zapping Project BBC
  18. Can Brain Stimulation Aid Brain Health Harvard Medical School
  19. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Models
  20. Reaction time benchmark test

Transranial Direct Current Stimulation – tDCS Research Bibliography:

J Neurosci. 2015 Oct 28;35(43):14544-56. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2322-15.2015.
Transcranial Stimulation over Frontopolar Cortex Elucidates the Choice Attributes and Neural Mechanisms Used to Resolve Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Offs.
Raja Beharelle A1, Polanía R2, Hare TA2, Ruff CC2.
Author information
Abstract
Optimal behavior requires striking a balance between exploiting tried-and-true options or exploring new possibilities. Neuroimaging studies have identified different brain regions in humans where neural activity is correlated with exploratory or exploitative behavior, but it is unclear whether this activity directly implements these choices or simply reflects a byproduct of the behavior. Moreover, it remains unknown whether arbitrating between exploration and exploitation can be influenced with exogenous methods, such as brain stimulation. In our study, we addressed these questions by selectively upregulating and downregulating neuronal excitability with anodal or cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over right frontopolar cortex during a reward-learning task. This caused participants to make slower, more exploratory or faster, more exploitative decisions, respectively. Bayesian computational modeling revealed that stimulation affected how much participants took both expected and obtained rewards into account when choosing to exploit or explore: Cathodal stimulation resulted in an increased focus on the option expected to yield the highest payout, whereas anodal stimulation led to choices that were less influenced by anticipated payoff magnitudes and were more driven by recent negative reward prediction errors. These findings suggest that exploration is triggered by a neural mechanism that is sensitive to prior less-than-expected choice outcomes and thus pushes people to seek out alternative courses of action. Together, our findings establish a parsimonious neurobiological mechanism that causes exploration and exploitation, and they provide new insights into the choice features used by this mechanism to direct decision-making.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:
We often must choose whether to try something new (exploration) or stick with a proven strategy (exploitation). Balancing this trade-off is important for survival and growth across species because, without exploration, we would perseverate with the same strategies and never discover better options. Which brain mechanisms are responsible for our ability to make these decisions? We show that applying different types of noninvasive brain stimulation over frontopolar cortex causes participants to explore more or less in uncertain environments. These changes in exploration reflect how much participants focus on expected payoffs and on memory of recent disappointments. Thus, our results characterize a neural mechanism that systematically incorporates anticipated rewards and past experiences to trigger exploration of alternative courses of action.
Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514544-13$15.00/0.
KEYWORDS:
brain stimulation; decision-making; frontal lobes; prediction error; reward; tDCS
PMID: 26511245 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26506950
2.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2015 Oct 27:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Role of tDCS in potentiating poststroke computerized cognitive rehabilitation: Lessons learned from a case study.
Leo A1, De Luca R1, Russo M1, Naro A1, Bramanti P1, Calabrò RS1.
Author information
Abstract
Cognitive impairment after stroke is quite common and can cause important disability with a relevant impact on quality of life. Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and related assistive technology may improve functional outcomes. A 30-year-old woman came to our research institute for an intensive CR cycle following a right parieto-temporal stroke. Because the patient was in the chronic phase, we decided to use 3 different rehabilitative protocols: (a) traditional cognitive training (TCT), (b) computerized cognitive training (CCT), and (c) CCT combined with transcranial direct stimulation (CCT plus) with a 2-week interval separating each session. Cognitive and language deficits were investigated using an ad-hoc psychometric battery at baseline (T0), post-TCT (T1), post-CCT (T2), and post-CCT plus (T3). Our patient showed the best neuropsychological improvement, with regard to attention processes and language domain, after T3. Our data showed that CCT plus should be considered a promising tool in the treatment of poststroke neuropsychological deficits.
KEYWORDS:
Computerized cognitive training (CCT); transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); young stroke
PMID: 26506950 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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3.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2015 Sep;27(9):2759-61. doi: 10.1589/jpts.27.2759. Epub 2015 Sep 30.
Effect of combination of transcranial direct current stimulation and feedback training on visuospatial neglect in patients with subacute stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Bang DH1, Bong SY2.
Author information
Abstract
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of a combination of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and feedback training (FT) on subacute stroke patients with unilateral visuospatial neglect. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly assigned to a tDCS + FT group (n=6) and a FT group (n=6). [Methods] Patients in the tDCS + FT group received tDCS for 20 minutes and then received FT for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. The control group received FT for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test (MVPT), line bisection test (LBT), and modified Barthel index (MBI) over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the rDCS + FT group showed more significant improvements in MVPT, LBT, and MBI. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that tDCS combined with FT has a positive effect on unilateral visuospatial neglect in patients with subacute stroke.
KEYWORDS:
Feedback training; Neglect; TDCS
PMID: 26504287 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4616088 Free PMC Article
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4.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Oct 7;9:550. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00550. eCollection 2015.
Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study.
Ulm L1, McMahon K2, Copland D3, de Zubicaray GI4, Meinzer M3.
Author information
Abstract
Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia.
KEYWORDS:
anomia; aphasia; functional magnetic resonance imaging; stroke; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26500522 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4595771 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26500499
5.
Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Oct 7;9:400. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00400. eCollection 2015.
Stimulating somatosensory psychophysics: a double-blind, sham-controlled study of the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS.
Hanley CJ1, Tommerdahl M2, McGonigle DJ1.
Author information
Abstract
The neuromodulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is thought to produce its effects on behavior by altering cortical excitability. Although the mechanisms underlying the observed effects are thought to rely on the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, the physiological principles of the technique are not completely understood. In this study, we examine the influence of tDCS on vibrotactile adaptation, using a simple amplitude discrimination paradigm that has been shown to exhibit modifications in performance due to changes in inhibitory neurotransmission. Double-blind tDCS (Anodal/Sham) of 1 mA was delivered for 600 s to electrodes positioned in a somatosensory/contralateral orbit montage. Stimulation was applied as part of a pre/post design, between blocks of the behavioral tasks. In accordance with previous work, results obtained before the application of tDCS indicated that amplitude discrimination thresholds were significantly worsened during adaptation trials, compared to those achieved at baseline. However, tDCS failed to modify amplitude discrimination performance. Using a Bayesian approach, this finding was revealed to constitute substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. The failure of DC stimulation to alter vibrotactile adaptation thresholds is discussed in the context of several factors that may have confounded the induction of changes in cortical plasticity.
KEYWORDS:
Bayesian statistics; GABA; NMDA; amplitude discrimination; neuromodulation; somatosensory; transcranial direct current stimulation; vibrotactile adaptation
PMID: 26500499 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4595660 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26500478
6.
Front Neurosci. 2015 Oct 9;9:349. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00349. eCollection 2015.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues.
Sauvaget A1, Trojak B2, Bulteau S3, Jiménez-Murcia S4, Fernández-Aranda F4, Wolz I4, Menchón JM5, Achab S6, Vanelle JM3, Grall-Bronnec M7.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.
METHODS:
A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction). Study selection, data analysis, and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.
RESULTS:
Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode/left prefrontal cathode) reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.
CONCLUSIONS:
Despite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.
KEYWORDS:
behavioral addiction; craving; eating disorders; food craving; neuromodulation; non-invasive brain stimulation; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26500478 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4598576 Free PMC Article
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Publication Types
Select item 26499250
7.
Trials. 2015 Oct 24;16(1):479. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0999-0.
Would transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhance the effects of working memory training in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Cheng CP1, Chan SS2, Mak AD3, Chan WC4, Cheng ST5, Shi L6, Wang D7, Lam LC8.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study.
METHODS/DESIGN:
This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory (WM-CD) groups. The primary outcome would be working memory test – the n-back task performance and the Chinese version of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes would be test performance of specific cognitive domains and mood. Intention-to-treat analysis would be carried out. Changes of efficacy indicators with time and intervention would be tested with mixed effect models.
DISCUSSION:
This study adopts the theory of neuroplasticity to evaluate the potential cognitive benefits of non-invasive electrical brain stimulation, working memory training and dual stimulation in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. It would also examine the tolerability, program adherence and adverse effects of this novel intervention. Information would be helpful for further research of dementia prevention studies.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ChiCTR-TRC- 14005036 Date of registration: 31 July 2014.
PMID: 26499250 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4619532 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26498289
8.
Neurol Sci. 2015 Oct 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation for treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Forogh B1, Mirshaki Z2, Raissi GR1, Shirazi A3, Mansoori K1, Ahadi T4.
Author information
Abstract
Subjective tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an identifiable external source. This distressing audiological symptom can severely affect the quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that can induce short-term relief in tinnitus in some patients. The purpose of this pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether repeated application of anodal tDCS over left temporoparietal area could induce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic tinnitus. Twenty-two patients with chronic tinnitus for at least 6 months were randomly allocated into two groups and received five sessions of anodal (N = 11) or sham (N = 11) stimulation in five consecutive days. A current intensity of 2 mA for 20 min was used for anodal stimulation. Outcomes were assessed using Persian version of tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), loudness and distress visual analog scale (VAS) scores and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. The trial is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the reference ID of IRCT2014082018871N1. No statistically significant difference was found between anodal and sham stimulation regarding either immediate or long-lasting effects over the 2 weeks follow-up period. Deterioration of symptoms and alteration in tinnitus characteristics were reported by a few patients. There were no significant long-term beneficial effects following tDCS of the left temporoparietal area.
KEYWORDS:
Neuromodulation; Temporoparietal area; Tinnitus; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Treatment; tDCS
PMID: 26498289 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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9.
Cereb Cortex. 2015 Oct 22. pii: bhv252. [Epub ahead of print]
Mechanisms of Nicotinic Modulation of Glutamatergic Neuroplasticity in Humans.
Lugon MD1, Batsikadze G2, Fresnoza S2, Grundey J2, Kuo MF2, Paulus W2, Nakamura-Palacios EM3, Nitsche MA4.
Author information
Abstract
The impact of nicotine (NIC) on plasticity is thought to be primarily determined via calcium channel properties of nicotinic receptor subtypes, and glutamatergic plasticity is likewise calcium-dependent. Therefore glutamatergic plasticity is likely modulated by the impact of nicotinic receptor-dependent neuronal calcium influx. We tested this hypothesis for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced long-term potentiation-like plasticity, which is abolished by NIC in nonsmokers. To reduce calcium influx under NIC, we blocked N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We applied anodal tDCS combined with 15 mg NIC patches and the NMDA-receptor antagonist dextromethorphan (DMO) in 3 different doses (50, 100, and 150 mg) or placebo medication. Corticospinal excitability was monitored by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potential amplitudes after plasticity induction. NIC abolished anodal tDCS-induced motor cortex excitability enhancement, which was restituted under medium dosage of DMO. Low-dosage DMO did not affect the impact of NIC on tDCS-induced plasticity and high-dosage DMO abolished plasticity. For DMO alone, the low dosage had no effect, but medium and high dosages abolished tDCS-induced plasticity. These results enhance our knowledge about the proposed calcium-dependent impact of NIC on plasticity in humans and might be relevant for the development of novel nicotinic treatments for cognitive dysfunction.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
KEYWORDS:
dextromethorphan; neuroplasticity; nicotine; nicotinic receptors; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26494801 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26493498
10.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep 1. pii: S1935-861X(15)01115-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.08.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Efficacy of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation is Related to Sensitivity to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
Labruna L1, Jamil A2, Fresnoza S2, Batsikadze G2, Kuo MF2, Vanderschelden B3, Ivry RB4, Nitsche MA5.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has become an important non-invasive brain stimulation tool for basic human brain physiology and cognitive neuroscience, with potential applications in cognitive and motor rehabilitation. To date, tDCS studies have employed a fixed stimulation level, without considering the impact of individual anatomy and physiology on the efficacy of the stimulation. This approach contrasts with the standard procedure for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) where stimulation levels are usually tailored on an individual basis.
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS:
The present study tests whether the efficacy of tDCS-induced changes in corticospinal excitability varies as a function of individual differences in sensitivity to TMS.
METHODS:
We performed an archival review to examine the relationship between the TMS intensity required to induce 1 mV motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and the efficacy of (fixed-intensity) tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1). For the latter, we examined tDCS-induced changes in corticospinal excitability, operationalized by comparing MEPs before and after anodal or cathodal tDCS. For comparison, we performed a similar analysis on data sets in which MEPs had been obtained before and after paired associative stimulation (PAS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique in which the stimulation intensity is adjusted on an individual basis.
RESULTS:
MEPs were enhanced following anodal tDCS. This effect was larger in participants more sensitive to TMS as compared to those less sensitive to TMS, with sensitivity defined as the TMS intensity required to produce MEPs amplitudes of the size of 1 mV. While MEPs were attenuated following cathodal tDCS, the magnitude of this attenuation was not related to TMS sensitivity nor was there a relationship between TMS sensitivity and responsiveness to PAS.
CONCLUSION:
Accounting for variation in individual sensitivity to non-invasive brain stimulation may enhance the utility of tDCS as a tool for understanding brain-behavior interactions and as a method for clinical interventions.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
KEYWORDS:
Intensity; TMS; Variability; tDCS
PMID: 26493498 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26490343
11.
Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2015 Oct 22:1-15. [Epub ahead of print]
The rehabilitative effects on written language of a combined language and parietal dual-tDCS treatment in a stroke case.
De Tommaso B1, Piedimonte A2, Caglio MM3, D’Agata F3, Campagnoli M4, Orsi L3, Raimondo S1, Vighetti S3, Mortara P3, Massazza G4, Pinessi L3.
Author information
Abstract
In this paper we report the effect of a combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and speech language therapy on linguistic deficits following left brain damage in a stroke case. We show that simultaneous electrical excitatory stimulation to the left and inhibitory stimulation to the right parietal regions (dual-tDCS) affected writing and reading rehabilitation, enhancing speech therapy outcomes. The results of a comparison with healthy controls showed that application of dual-tDCS could improve, in particular, sub-lexical transcoding and, specifically, the reading of non-words with increasing length and complexity. Positive repercussions on patient’s quality of functional communication were also ascertained. Significant changes were also found in other language and cognitive tasks not directly treated (comprehension and constructive apraxia).
KEYWORDS:
Reading and writing rehabilitation; Speech language therapy; Stroke; tDCS
PMID: 26490343 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26488591
12.
J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Oct 21:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Reduction of Dual-task Costs by Noninvasive Modulation of Prefrontal Activity in Healthy Elders.
Manor B1,2,3, Zhou J4, Jor’dan A1,2,3, Zhang J4, Fang J4, Pascual-Leone A2,3.
Author information
Abstract
Dual tasking (e.g., walking or standing while performing a cognitive task) disrupts performance in one or both tasks, and such dual-task costs increase with aging into senescence. Dual tasking activates a network of brain regions including pFC. We therefore hypothesized that facilitation of prefrontal cortical activity via transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would reduce dual-task costs in older adults. Thirty-seven healthy older adults completed two visits during which dual tasking was assessed before and after 20 min of real or sham tDCS targeting the left pFC. Trials of single-task standing, walking, and verbalized serial subtractions were completed, along with dual-task trials of standing or walking while performing serial subtractions. Dual-task costs were calculated as the percent change in markers of gait and postural control and serial subtraction performance, from single to dual tasking. Significant dual-task costs to standing, walking, and serial subtraction performance were observed before tDCS (p < .01). These dual-task costs were less after real tDCS as compared with sham tDCS as well as compared with either pre-tDCS condition (p < .03). Further analyses indicated that tDCS did not alter single task performance but instead improved performance solely within dual-task conditions (p < .02). These results demonstrate that dual tasking can be improved by modulating prefrontal activity, thus indicating that dual-task decrements are modifiable and may not necessarily reflect an obligatory consequence of aging. Moreover, tDCS may ultimately serve as a novel approach to preserving dual-task capacity into senescence.
PMID: 26488591 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26487179
13.
Exp Brain Res. 2015 Oct 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of anodal tDCS of the lower limb M1 on ankle reaction time in young adults.
Devanathan D1, Madhavan S2.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that modulates cortical excitability and influences motor behavior. There is limited information available regarding the effects of anodal tDCS on lower limb reaction time. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of anodal tDCS on lower limb simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time (CRT). We probed this question further by examining the effects of anodal tDCS of the lower limb M1 on an upper limb RT task and a cognitive measure. Fourteen healthy young adults received anodal tDCS and sham tDCS to the lower limb M1 on two separate testing days in a counterbalanced order. After stimulation, we assessed the effects of tDCS on ankle dorsiflexion SRT and CRT, ankle plantarflexion SRT and CRT, wrist extension SRT and CRT and the symbol digit modality test (SDMT). Anodal tDCS significantly improved response times from baseline for ankle CRT but not for ankle SRT or wrist SRT or CRT. A significant decrement (i.e., longer response time) was noted for the sham tDCS conditions. There was a significant difference between anodal and sham conditions for all RT tasks, suggesting that anodal tDCS improved RT compared to sham. No change in SDMT scores was observed for both conditions. Anodal tDCS appeared to differentially modulate ankle SRT and CRT, suggesting an influence of anodal tDCS on complex motor processes and/or the supplementary motor area. Absence of effects on wrist CRT or SDMT suggests a spatial specificity of the influence of tDCS. Anodal tDCS also appears to potentially negate the effects of fatigue or task switching that was detrimental to RT in the sham condition.
KEYWORDS:
Ankle; Lower limb motor cortex; Motor processing; Reaction time; tDCS
PMID: 26487179 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26484700
14.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Oct 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Stimulation targeting higher motor areas in stroke rehabilitation: A proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study of effectiveness and underlying mechanisms.
Cunningham DA1,2, Varnerin N1, Machado A3, Bonnett C1, Janini D1, Roelle S1, Potter-Baker K1, Sankarasubramanian V1, Wang X4, Yue G5, Plow EB1,3,6.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
To demonstrate, in a proof-of-concept study, whether potentiating ipsilesional higher motor areas (premotor cortex and supplementary motor area) augments and accelerates recovery associated with constraint induced movement.
METHODS:
In a randomized, double-blinded pilot clinical study, 12 patients with chronic stroke were assigned to receive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (n = 6) or sham (n = 6) to the ipsilesional higher motor areas during constraint-induced movement therapy. We assessed functional and neurophysiologic outcomes before and after 5 weeks of therapy.
RESULTS:
Only patients receiving tDCS demonstrated gains in function and dexterity. Gains were accompanied by an increase in excitability of the contralesional rather than the ipsilesional hemisphere.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our proof-of-concept study provides early evidence that stimulating higher motor areas can help recruit the contralesional hemisphere in an adaptive role in cases of greater ipsilesional injury. Whether this early evidence of promise translates to remarkable gains in functional recovery compared to existing approaches of stimulation remains to be confirmed in large-scale clinical studies that can reasonably dissociate stimulation of higher motor areas from that of the traditional primary motor cortices.
KEYWORDS:
Stroke rehabilitation; constraint-induced movement therapy; motor recovery; premotor cortex; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26484700 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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15.
NeuroRehabilitation. 2015 Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print]
A double-blinded randomised controlled trial exploring the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and uni-lateral robot therapy for the impaired upper limb in sub-acute and chronic stroke.
Tedesco Triccas L1, Burridge JH1, Hughes A1, Verheyden G2, Desikan M3, Rothwell J3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Neurorehabilitation technologies such as robot therapy (RT) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) can promote upper limb (UL) motor recovery after stroke.
OBJECTIVE:
To explore the effect tDCS with uni-lateral and three-dimensional RT for the impaired UL in people with sub-acute and chronic stroke.
METHODS:
A pilot randomised controlled trial was conducted. Stroke participants had 18 one-hour sessions of RT (Armeo®Spring) over eight weeks during which they received 20 minutes of either real tDCS or sham tDCS during each session. The primary outcome measure was the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) for UL impairments and secondary were: UL function, activities and stroke impact collected at baseline, post-intervention and three-month follow-up.
RESULTS:
22 participants (12 sub-acute and 10 chronic) completed the trial. No significant difference was found in FMA between the real and sham tDCS groups at post-intervention and follow-up (p = 0.123). A significant ‘time’ x ‘stage of stroke’ was found for FMA (p = 0.016). A higher percentage improvement was noted in UL function, activities and stroke impact in people with sub-acute compared to chronic stroke.
CONCLUSIONS:
Adding tDCS did not result in an additional effect on UL impairment in stroke. RT may be of more benefit in the sub-acute than chronic phase.
KEYWORDS:
Transcranial direct current stimulation; motor recovery; rehabilitation; robot therapy; stroke; upper limb
PMID: 26484510 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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16.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Oct 2;9:544. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00544. eCollection 2015.
Editorial: The safety and efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation in development and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Oberman LM1, Enticott PG2.
Author information
KEYWORDS:
noninvasive brain stimulation; pediatric; safety; transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
PMID: 26483661 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4591428 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26481859
17.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep 25. pii: S1935-861X(15)01128-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.09.007. [Epub ahead of print]
The Dichotic Right Ear Advantage Does not Change with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).
D’Anselmo A1, Prete G2, Tommasi L2, Brancucci A2.
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PMID: 26481859 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26471400
18.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep 14. pii: S1935-861X(15)01049-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.07.024. [Epub ahead of print]
Clinical Response to tDCS Depends on Residual Brain Metabolism and Grey Matter Integrity in Patients With Minimally Conscious State.
Thibaut A1, Di Perri C2, Chatelle C3, Bruno MA2, Bahri MA4, Wannez S2, Piarulli A5, Bernard C6, Martial C2, Heine L2, Hustinx R6, Laureys S2.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was recently shown to promote recovery of voluntary signs of consciousness in some patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). However, it remains unclear why clinical improvement is only observed in a subgroup of patients.
OBJECTIVES:
In this retrospective study, we investigated the relationship between tDCS responsiveness and neuroimaging data from MCS patients.
METHODS:
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and clinical electroencephalography (EEG) were acquired in 21 sub-acute and chronic MCS patients (8 tDCS responders) who subsequently (<48 h) received left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) tDCS in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial. The behavioral data have been published elsewhere (Thibaut et al., Neurology, 2014).
RESULTS:
Grey matter atrophy was observed in non-responders as compared with responders in the left DLPF cortex, the medial-prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the hippocampi, part of the rolandic regions, and the left thalamus. FDG-PET showed hypometabolism in non-responders as compared with responders in the left DLPF cortex, the medial-prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the thalamus. EEG did not show any difference between the two groups.
CONCLUSION:
Our findings suggest that the transient increase of signs of consciousness following left DLPF tDCS in patients in MCS require grey matter preservation and residual metabolic activity in cortical and subcortical brain areas known to be involved in attention and working memory. These results further underline the critical role of long-range cortico-thalamic connections in consciousness recovery, providing important information for guidelines on the use of tDCS in disorders of consciousness.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Disorders of consciousness; Magnetic resonance imaging; Minimally conscious state; Positron emission tomography; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Treatment; Voxel-based morphometry
PMID: 26471400 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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19.
Life Sci. 2015 Oct 12. pii: S0024-3205(15)30037-0. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.10.011. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) neuromodulatory effects on mechanical hyperalgesia and cortical BDNF levels in ovariectomized rats.
da Silva Moreira SF1, Medeiros LF2, de Souza A2, de Oliveira C3, Scarabelot VL4, Fregni F5, Caumo W3, Torres IL6.
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KEYWORDS:
BDNF; Ovariectomy; Pain; TDCS
PMID: 26471218 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26469395
20.
Pain. 2015 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print]
Reduction of chronic abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease via transcranial direct current stimulation: a randomized controlled trial.
Volz MS1, Farmer A, Siegmund B.
Author information
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequently associated with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proven to reduce chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tDCS in patients with CAP due to IBD.This randomized, sham-controlled, parallel designed study included 20 patients with either Crohn´s disease or ulcerative colitis suffering from CAP (≥3/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) in 3/6months). Anodal or sham tDCS was applied over the primary motor cortex for 5consecutive days (2mA, 20min). Assessments included VAS, pressure pain threshold (PPT), inflammatory markers, and questionnaires on quality of life, functional and disease specific symptoms (Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS)), disease activity, and pain catastrophizing. Follow-up data were collected one week after the end of the stimulation. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and t-tests.There was a significant reduction of abdominal pain in the anodal tDCS group compared to sham tDCS. This effect was evident in changes in VAS and PPT on the left and right side of the abdomen. Additionally, one week after stimulation pain reduction remained significantly decreased in the right abdominal side. There was also a significant reduction in scores on pain catastrophizing and on IBS-SSS when comparing both groups. Inflammatory markers and disease activity did not differ significantly between groups throughout the experiment.TDCS proved to be an effective and clinically relevant therapeutic strategy for CAP in IBD. The analgesic effects observed are unrelated to inflammation and disease activity emphasizing central pain mechanisms in CAP.
PMID: 26469395 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26465001
21.
eNeuro. 2015 Aug 31;2(4). pii: ENEURO.0072-14.2015. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0072-14.2015.
No Effect of 2 mA Anodal tDCS Over the M1 on Performance and Practice Effect on Grooved Pegboard Test and Trail Making Test B(1,2,3).
Fagerlund AJ1, Freili JL1, Danielsen TL1, Aslaksen PM1.
Author information
Abstract
Previous studies suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can facilitate motor performance and learning. In this double-blind experiment, 60 healthy human subjects (29 females) were randomized into three groups (active tDCS, sham tDCS, and no-treatment control group) in order to investigate the effect of a 20 min session of 2 mA tDCS over the motor cortex contralateral to the dominant hand on practice effect and performance on the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) and Trail Making Test (TMT). Performance was operationalized as the time to complete the tests before, during, and after stimulation. The practice effect was termed as the difference in time to complete the tests from pretest to post-test. Data on body mass index (BMI), head circumference, sleep status, interelectrode impedance, and caffeine and nicotine use were sampled to control for the influence of individual differences on the effect of tDCS. Adverse effects were registered using a standardized form. The results indicated no effect of tDCS on performance and practice effects on the GPT and TMT. For all groups, BMI was a predictor for a practice effect on the TMT. In the active tDCS group, high caffeine intake and low impedance predicted a practice effect on the GPT for the dominant hand. The present results suggest that impedance levels in tDCS studies should be routinely reported in future studies, as it might not only provide valuable information on the efficacy of the blinding conditions and participant discomfort, but also correlate with individual differences that are relevant to the outcome of the stimulation.
KEYWORDS:
cognition; motor speed; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26465001 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4596020 Free PMC Article
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22.
Neurosci Lett. 2015 Oct 14;609:87-91. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.10.013. [Epub ahead of print]
Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can stabilize perception of movement: Evidence from the two-thirds power law illusion.
Scocchia L1, Bolognini N2, Convento S3, Stucchi N4.
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Abstract
Human movements conform to specific kinematic laws of motion. One of such laws, the “two-thirds power law”, describes the systematic co-variation between curvature and velocity of body movements. Noticeably, the same law also influences the perception of moving stimuli: the velocity of a dot moving along a curvilinear trajectory is perceived as uniform when the dot kinematics complies with the two-thirds power law. Instead, if the dot moves at constant speed, its velocity is perceived as highly non-uniform. This dynamic visual illusion points to a strong coupling between action and perception; however, how this coupling is implemented in the brain remains elusive. In this study, we tested whether the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary visual cortex (V1) play a role in the illusion by means of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). All participants underwent three tDCS sessions during which they received active or sham cathodal tDCS (1.5mA) over PM or V1 of the left hemisphere. During tDCS, participants were required to adjust the velocity of a dot moving along an elliptical trajectory until it looked uniform across the whole trajectory. Results show that occipital tDCS decreases the illusion variability both within and across participants, as compared to sham tDCS. This means that V1 stimulation increases individual sensitivity to the illusory motion and also increases coherence across different observers. Conversely, the illusion seems resistant to tDCS in terms of its magnitude, with cathodal stimulation of V1 or PM not affecting the amount of the illusory effect. Our results provide evidence for strong visuo-motor coupling in visual perception: the velocity of a dot moving along an elliptical trajectory is perceived as uniform only when its kinematics closely complies to the same law of motion that constrains human movement production. Occipital stimulation by cathodal tDCS can stabilize such illusory percept.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Biological motion; Motion perception; Premotor cortex; Two-thirds power law; Visual cortex; tDCS
PMID: 26463671 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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23.
Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 10. pii: S1053-8119(15)00897-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.003. [Epub ahead of print]
BOLD signal effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the alpha range: A concurrent tACS-fMRI study.
Vosskuhl J1, Huster RJ2, Herrmann CS3.
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Abstract
Many studies have proven transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to manipulate brain activity. Until now it is not known, however, how these manipulations in brain activity are represented in brain metabolism or how spatially specific these changes are. Alpha-tACS has been shown to enhance the amplitude of the individual alpha frequency (IAF) and a negative correlation between alpha amplitude and occipital BOLD signal was reported in numerous EEG/fMRI experiments. Thus, alpha-tACS was chosen to test the effects of tACS on the BOLD signal. A reduction thereof was expected during alpha-tACS which shows the spatial extent of tACS effects beyond modeling studies. Three groups of subjects were measured in an MRI scanner, receiving tACS at either their IAF (N=11), 1Hz (control; N=12) or sham (i.e., no stimulation – a second control; N=11) while responding to a visual vigilance task. Stimulation was administered in an interleaved pattern of tACS-on runs and tACS-free baseline periods. The BOLD signal was analyzed in response to tACS-onset during resting state and in response to seldom target stimuli. Alpha-tACS at 1.0mA reduced the task-related BOLD response to visual targets in the occipital cortex as compared to tACS-free baseline periods. The deactivation was strongest in an area where the BOLD signal was shown to correlate negatively with alpha amplitude. A direct effect of tACS on resting state BOLD signal levels could not be shown. Our findings suggest that tACS-related changes in BOLD activity occur only as a modulation of an existing BOLD response.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Alpha-tACS; Event-related fMRI; Resting-state fMRI; Transcranial alternating current stimulation
PMID: 26458516 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26457823
24.
Cortex. 2015 Sep 21;73:188-194. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.09.003. [Epub ahead of print]
Electrically stimulating prefrontal cortex at retrieval improves recollection accuracy.
Gray SJ1, Brookshire G2, Casasanto D2, Gallo DA2.
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Abstract
Neuroimaging and brain damage studies suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is involved in the cognitive control of episodic recollection. If dlPFC is causally involved in retrieval, then transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of this brain region should increase recollection accuracy, especially when recollection is difficult and requires cognitive control. Here, we report the first brain stimulation experiment to directly test this hypothesis. We administered tDCS to dlPFC immediately after studying to-be-learned material but just prior to recollection testing, thereby targeting retrieval processes. We found that stimulation of dlPFC significantly increased recollection accuracy, relative to a no-stimulation sham condition and also relative to active stimulation of a comparison region in left parietal cortex. There was no significant difference in the size of this increase between hemispheres. Moreover, these dlPFC stimulation effects were behaviorally selective, increasing accuracy only when participants needed to recollect difficult information. Electrically stimulating dlPFC allowed people to more accurately recollect specific details of their experiences, demonstrating a causal role of dlPFC in the retrieval of episodic memories.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Brain stimulation; Criterial recollection; Retrieval monitoring; Source memory; tDCS
PMID: 26457823 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26456677
25.
J Pain. 2015 Oct 5. pii: S1526-5900(15)00884-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2015.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Clinically effective treatment of fibromyalgia pain with HD-tDCS – Phase II open-label dose-optimization.
Castillo Saavedra L1, Gebodh N2, Bikson M3, Diaz-Cruz C1, Brandao R4, Coutinho L1, Truong D3, Datta A5, Shani-Hershkovich R6, Weiss M6, Laufer I6, Reches A6, Peremen Z7, Geva A8, Parra LC3, Fregni F9.
Author information
Abstract
Despite promising preliminary results in treating fibromyalgia (FM) pain, no neuromodulation technique has been adopted in clinical practice due to limited efficacy, low response rate, or poor tolerability. This Phase II open-label trial aims to define methodology for a clinically effective treatment of pain in FM by establishing treatment protocols and screening procedures to maximize efficacy and response rate. High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) provides targeted sub-threshold brain stimulation, combining tolerability with specificity. We aimed to establish the number of HD-tDCS sessions required to achieve a 50% FM pain reduction, and to characterize biometrics of response including Brain Network Activation (BNA) pain scores of contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), among others. We report a clinically significant benefit of a 50% pain reduction in half (n=7) of subjects (n=14), with responders and non-responders alike benefiting from a cumulative effect of treatment, reflected in significant pain reduction (p=0.035) as well as improved quality of life (p=0.001) over time. We also report an aggregate 6-week response rate of 50% of subjects, and estimate 15 as the median number of HD-tDCS sessions to reach clinically meaningful outcomes. Methodology for a pivotal FM neuromodulation clinical trial with individualized treatment is thus supported.
ONLINE REGISTRATION:
Registered in Clinicaltrials.gov under registry number NCT01842009 PERSPECTIVE: This article presents the effort to outline an optimized protocol for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain with targeted sub-threshold brain stimulation using High-Definition tDCS.
Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Fibromyalgia; HD-tDCS; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Pain; motor cortex
PMID: 26456677 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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26.
Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 9. pii: S1053-8119(15)00891-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.068. [Epub ahead of print]
Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields.
Garcia-Cossio E1, Witkowski M2, Robinson SE3, Cohen LG4, Birbaumer N5, Soekadar SR6.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not be confirmed due to the difficulty to record such activity simultaneously during tDCS. The aim of this proof-of-principal study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-head source localization and reconstruction of neuromagnetic brain activity during tDCS and to confirm the direct effect of tDCS on ongoing neuromagnetic activity in task-related brain areas. Here we show for the first time that tDCS has an immediate impact on slow cortical magnetic fields (SCF, 0-4Hz) of task-related areas that are identical with brain regions previously described in metabolic neuroimaging studies. 14 healthy volunteers performed a choice reaction time (RT) task while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Task-related source-activity of SCFs was calculated using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) in absence of stimulation and while anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS was delivered over the right primary motor cortex (M1). Source reconstruction revealed task-related SCF modulations in brain regions that precisely matched prior metabolic neuroimaging studies. Anodal and cathodal tDCS had a polarity-dependent impact on RT and SCF in primary sensorimotor and medial centro-parietal cortices. Combining tDCS and whole-head MEG is a powerful approach to investigate the direct effects of transcranial electric currents on ongoing neuromagnetic source activity, brain function and behavior.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
KEYWORDS:
Magnetoencephalography; Slow cortical fields; Source-reconstruction; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26455796 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26455793
27.
Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 9. pii: S1053-8119(15)00892-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.069. [Epub ahead of print]
On the relationship between cortical excitability and visual oscillatory responses – A concurrent tDCS-MEG study.
Marshall TR1, Esterer S2, Herring JD2, Bergmann TO3, Jensen O4.
Author information
Abstract
Neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz) in visual cortex are considered to instantiate ‘attentional gating’ via the inhibition of activity in regions representing task-irrelevant parts of space. In contrast, visual gamma-band activity (40-100Hz) is regarded as representing a bottom-up drive from incoming visual information, with increased synchronisation producing a stronger feedforward impulse for relevant information. However, little is known about the direct relationship between excitability of the visual cortex and these oscillatory mechanisms. In this study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in an Oz-Cz montage in order to stimulate visual cortex, concurrently recording whole-brain oscillatory activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) whilst participants performed a visual task known to produce strong modulations of alpha- and gamma-band activity. We found that visual stimuli produced expected modulations of alpha and gamma – presenting a moving annulus stimulus led to a strong gamma increase and alpha decrease – and that this pattern was observable both during active (anodal and cathodal) tDCS and sham tDCS. However, tDCS did not seem to produce systematic alterations of these oscillatory responses. The present study thus demonstrates that concurrent tDCS/MEG of the visual system is a feasible tool for investigating visual neuronal oscillations, and we discuss potential reasons for the apparent inability of tDCS to effectively change the amplitude of visual stimulus induced oscillatory responses in the current study.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
PMID: 26455793 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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28.
Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 8. pii: S1053-8119(15)00890-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.067. [Epub ahead of print]
Cutaneous retinal activation and neural entrainment in transcranial alternating current stimulation: A systematic review.
Schutter DJ1.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applies exogenous oscillatory electric field potentials to entrain neural rhythms and is used to investigate brain-function relationships and its potential to enhance perceptual and cognitive performance. However, due to current spread tACS can cause cutaneous activation of the retina and phosphenes. Several lines of evidence suggest that retinal phosphenes are capable of inducing neural entrainment, making the contributions of central and peripheral stimulation to the effects in the brain difficult to disentangle. In this literature review, the importance of this issue is further illustrated by the fact that photic stimulation can have a direct impact on perceptual and cognitive performance. This leaves open the possibility that peripheral photic stimulation can at least in part explain the central effects that are attributed to tACS. The extent to which phosphene perception contributes to the effects of exogenous oscillatory electric fields in the brain and influence perception and cognitive performance needs to be examined to understand the working mechanisms of tACS in neurophysiology and behaviour.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
KEYWORDS:
Cognition; Neural entrainment; Oscillatory field potentials; Perception; Phosphenes; Retina; Synchronization; Transcranial alternating current stimulation
PMID: 26453929 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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29.
Brain Res Bull. 2015 Oct 9;119(Pt A):25-33. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2015.09.011. [Epub ahead of print]
Ten minutes of 1mA transcranial direct current stimulation was well tolerated by children and adolescents: Self-reports and resting state EEG analysis.
Moliadze V1, Andreas S2, Lyzhko E3, Schmanke T2, Gurashvili T4, Freitag CM2, Siniatchkin M5.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising and well-tolerated method of non-invasive brain stimulation, by which cortical excitability can be modulated. However, the effects of tDCS on the developing brain are still unknown, and knowledge about its tolerability in children and adolescents is still lacking. Safety and tolerability of tDCS was assessed in children and adolescents by self-reports and spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Nineteen typically developing children and adolescents aged 11-16 years participated in the study. Anodal and cathodal tDCS as well as sham stimulation were applied for a duration of 10min over the left primary motor cortex (M1), each with an intensity of 1mA. Subjects were unable to identify whether they had received active or sham stimulation, and all participants tolerated the stimulation well with a low rate of adverse events in both groups and no serious adverse events. No pathological oscillations, in particular, no markers of epileptiform activity after 1mA tDCS were detected in any of the EEG analyses. In summary, our study demonstrates that tDCS with 1mA intensity over 10min is well tolerated, and thus may be used as an experimental and treatment method in the pediatric population.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Adolescent; Child; Safety; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26449209 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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30.
Neural Plast. 2015;2015:903265. Epub 2015 Sep 2.
Corrigendum to “Efficacy and Interindividual Variability in Motor-Cortex Plasticity following Anodal tDCS and Paired-Associative Stimulation”.
Strube W1, Bunse T1, Malchow B1, Hasan A1.
Author information
Abstract
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/530423.].
Erratum for
Efficacy and interindividual variability in motor-cortex plasticity following anodal tDCS and paired-associative stimulation. [Neural Plast. 2015]
PMID: 26448881 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] PMCID: PMC4572466 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26442519
31.
Lab Anim. 2015 Oct 6. pii: 0023677215610708. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial direct current stimulation in the male mouse to promote recovery after stroke.
Pikhovych A1, Walter HL2, Mahabir E3, Fink GR4, Graf R5, Schroeter M4, Rueger MA6.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) constitutes a promising approach for promoting recovery of function after stroke, although the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unclear. To conduct translational research in animal models, stimulation parameters should not lead to neuronal lesions. Liebetanz et al. recommend charge densities for cathodal stimulation in rats, but parameters for mice are not established. We established tDCS in the wild-type mouse, enabling studies with genetically-engineered mice (GEM). tDCS equipment was adapted to fit the mouse skull. Using different polarities and charge densities, tDCS was safe to apply in the mouse where the charge density was below 198 kC/m2 for single or repeated stimulations. These findings are crucial for future investigations of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying tDCS using GEM.
© The Author(s) 2015.
KEYWORDS:
brain; electric stimulation; lesion threshold; neuromodulation; stroke model
PMID: 26442519 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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32.
Front Immunol. 2015 Sep 22;6:488. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00488. eCollection 2015.
Therapeutic Potential of Hyporesponsive CD4(+) T Cells in Autoimmunity.
Maggi J1, Schafer C1, Ubilla-Olguín G1, Catalán D1, Schinnerling K1, Aguillón JC1.
Author information
Abstract
The interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells is crucial on immunity or tolerance induction. In an immature or semi-mature state, DCs induce tolerance through T-cell deletion, generation of regulatory T cells, and/or induction of T-cell anergy. Anergy is defined as an unresponsive state that retains T cells in an “off” mode under conditions in which immune activation is undesirable. This mechanism is crucial for the control of T-cell responses against self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs), generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors or patients with autoimmune pathologies, were shown to modulate immune responses by inducing T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Animal models of autoimmune diseases confirmed the impact of T-cell anergy on disease development and progression in vivo. Thus, the induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness by tDCs has become a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. Here, we review recent findings in the area and discuss the potential of anergy induction for clinical purposes.
KEYWORDS:
T-cell anergy; autoimmune diseases; hyporesponsiveness; immunotherapy; regulatory T cells; tolerogenic dendritic cells
PMID: 26441992 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4585084 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26441642
33.
Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Sep 23;7:183. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00183. eCollection 2015.
Commentary: Duration-dependent effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on anodal tDCS induced motor cortex plasticity in older adults: a group and individual perspective.
Shpektor A1, Bartrés-Faz D2, Feurra M3.
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KEYWORDS:
BDNF; aging; primary motor cortex; synaptic plasticity; tDCS
PMID: 26441642 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4585066 Free PMC Article
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34.
Front Behav Neurosci. 2015 Sep 23;9:257. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00257. eCollection 2015.
Cathodal HD-tDCS on the right V5 improves motion perception in humans.
Zito GA1, Senti T1, Cazzoli D1, Müri RM2, Mosimann UP3, Nyffeler T4, Nef T5.
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Abstract
Brain lesions in the visual associative cortex are known to impair visual perception, i.e., the capacity to correctly perceive different aspects of the visual world, such as motion, color, or shapes. Visual perception can be influenced by non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In a recently developed technique called high definition (HD) tDCS, small HD-electrodes are used instead of the sponge electrodes in the conventional approach. This is believed to achieve high focality and precision over the target area. In this paper we tested the effects of cathodal and anodal HD-tDCS over the right V5 on motion and shape perception in a single blind, within-subject, sham controlled, cross-over trial. The purpose of the study was to prove the high focality of the stimulation only over the target area. Twenty one healthy volunteers received 20 min of 2 mA cathodal, anodal and sham stimulation over the right V5 and their performance on a visual test was recorded. The results showed significant improvement in motion perception in the left hemifield after cathodal HD-tDCS, but not in shape perception. Sham and anodal HD-tDCS did not affect performance. The specific effect of influencing performance of visual tasks by modulating the excitability of the neurons in the visual cortex might be explained by the complexity of perceptual information needed for the tasks. This provokes a “noisy” activation state of the encoding neuronal patterns. We speculate that in this case cathodal HD-tDCS may focus the correct perception by decreasing global excitation and thus diminishing the “noise” below threshold.
KEYWORDS:
HD-tDCS; motion perception; shape perception; unilateral brain stimulation; visual test
PMID: 26441582 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4585077 Free PMC Article
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35.
Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Sep 14;9:355. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00355. eCollection 2015.
Potentials and limits to enhance cognitive functions in healthy and pathological aging by tDCS.
Prehn K1, Flöel A1.
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Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is increasingly used in research and clinical settings to enhance the effects of cognitive training. In our present review, we will first summarize studies using tDCS alone and in combination with cognitive training in older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). We will also review one study (Meinzer et al., 2014c) that showed an improvement in cognitive performance during anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) which is regarded as a prodromal stage of AD. Although promising short-term results have been reported, evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with sufficient sample sizes is scarce. In addition, stimulation protocols (in terms of intensity, duration, and repetition of stimulation) that lead to sustained improvements in outcome measures relevant for daily life still remain to be established. Following, we will discuss modulating factors such as technical parameters as well as the question whether there are specific cognitive functions (e.g., learning, memory consolidation, executive control) which are more amenable to tDCS enhancement than others. Finally, we will highlight future directions and limitations in this field and emphasize the need to conduct RCTs to establish efficacy of interventions for activities of daily life for a given patient population.
KEYWORDS:
Alzheimer’s dementia (AD); executive control; memory; mild cognitive impairment (MCI); transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
PMID: 26441526 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4568338 Free PMC Article
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36.
Nervenarzt. 2015 Oct 8. [Epub ahead of print]
[Transcranial alternating current stimulation : Entrainment and function control of neuronal networks].
[Article in German]
Vosskuhl J1, Strüber D1,2, Herrmann CS3,4.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a new technique for the modulation of oscillatory brain activity as measured in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In contrast to well-established stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, tACS applies a sinusoidal alternating current at a specific frequency. This enables the modulation of the amplitude and frequency of endogenous brain oscillations as well as related cognitive processes. Therefore, the use of tACS has the possibility to evaluate well-known correlations between brain oscillations and cognitive processes in terms of causality. Such causal relationships have been documented in numerous neurocognitive studies on sensory, motor and perceptual processes; however, the clinical application of tACS is still in its infancy. In principle, any pathology that can reliably be connected with brain oscillations of a defined frequency is treatable. A current main focus of clinical research is on symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and to a lesser degree, tinnitus. For an effective application of tACS it is important to choose the electrode positions as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the stimulation in a theory-based and symptom-related manner. A successful therapeutic intervention requires the persistence of the tACS effect after stimulation has ceased. A mechanism that offers not only an explanation to the origin of persistent tACS effects but is also of high therapeutic benefit is neural plasticity. Therefore, one current focus of research aims at a better understanding of tACS after effects.
KEYWORDS:
Brain oscillations; Cognitive processes; Parkinson’s disease; Tinnitus; Transcranial brain stimulation
PMID: 26440521 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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37.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 8;65:153-157. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.10.001. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial direct current stimulation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: An open-label pilot study.
Bation R1, Poulet E2, Haesebaert F3, Saoud M4, Brunelin J3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe mental illness. OCD symptoms are often resistant to available treatments. Abnormalities within the orbitofronto-striato-pallido-thalamic circuitry, especially orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) hyperactivity and cerebellar hypoactivity have been observed in patients. Non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a useful alternative to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in various neuropsychiatric conditions.
METHODS:
In an open-label pilot study, 8 patients with treatment-resistant OCD received 10 sessions (twice a day) of 2mA tDCS applied with the cathode over the left OFC and the anode over the right cerebellum. OCD (Y-BOCS and OCD-VAS) as well as depressive (MADRS) symptoms were measured 4 times: one time before tDCS and 3 times after (immediately after, 1 and 3months after the 10th tDCS session).
RESULTS:
We reported a significant 26.4% (±15.8) decrease of Y-BOCS score (p=0.002). The beneficial effect lasted during the 3month follow-up. No effect of tDCS was observed on depressive symptoms. At end point, 5 out of 8 patients had a decrease of ≥25%; and 3 out of 8 patients had a decrease of ≥35% in Y-BOCS score. tDCS was well tolerated.
CONCLUSION:
tDCS with the cathode placed over the left OFC combined with the anode placed over the right cerebellum is a suitable and safe approach to decrease OCD symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant OCD. Large scale randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm this promising result.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cerebellum; OCD; OFC; Obsessive–compulsive disorder; Orbitofrontal cortex; Transcranial direct current stimulation; tDCS
PMID: 26439873 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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38.
J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Oct 6:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
The Role of the Frontal and Parietal Cortex in Proactive and Reactive Inhibitory Control: A Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Study.
Cai Y1, Li S1, Liu J1, Li D2, Feng Z1, Wang Q1, Chen C3, Xue G1.
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Abstract
Mounting evidence suggests that response inhibition involves both proactive and reactive inhibitory control, yet its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In particular, the roles of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in proactive and reactive inhibitory control are still under debate. This study aimed at examining the causal role of the right IFG and IPL in proactive and reactive inhibitory control, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and the stop signal task. Twenty-two participants completed three sessions of the stop signal task, under anodal tDCS in the right IFG, the right IPL, or the primary visual cortex (VC; 1.5 mA for 15 min), respectively. The VC stimulation served as the active control condition. The tDCS effect for each condition was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-tDCS performance. Proactive control was indexed by the RT increase for go trials (or preparatory cost), and reactive control by the stop signal RT. Compared to the VC stimulation, anodal stimulation of the right IFG, but not that of the IPL, facilitated both proactive and reactive control. However, the facilitation of reactive control was not mediated by the facilitation of proactive control. Furthermore, tDCS did not affect the intraindividual variability in go RT. These results suggest a causal role of the right IFG, but not the right IPL, in both reactive and proactive inhibitory control.
PMID: 26439269 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26438382
39.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Cognitive flexibility and performance in children and adolescents with threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder.
Dickstein DP1,2, Axelson D3, Weissman AB4, Yen S5, Hunt JI4, Goldstein BI6, Goldstein TR7, Liao F7, Gill MK7, Hower H5, Frazier TW8, Diler RS7, Youngstrom EA9, Fristad MA10, Arnold LE10, Findling RL11, Horwitz SM12, Kowatch RA3, Ryan ND7, Strober M13, Birmaher B7, Keller MB14.
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Abstract
Greater understanding of cognitive function in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) is of critical importance to improve our ability to design targeted treatments to help with real-world impairment, including academic performance. We sought to evaluate cognitive performance among children with either BD type I, II, or “not otherwise specified” (NOS) participating in multi-site Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study compared to typically developing controls (TDC) without psychopathology. In particular, we sought to test the hypothesis that BD-I and BD-II youths with full threshold episodes of mania or hypomania would have cognitive deficits, including in reversal learning, vs. those BD-NOS participants with sub-threshold episodes and TDCs. N = 175 participants (BD-I = 81, BD-II = 11, BD-NOS = 28, TDC = 55) completed Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Testing Battery (CANTAB) tasks. A priori analyses of the simple reversal stage of the CANTAB intra-/extra-dimensional shift task showed that aggregated BD-I/II participants required significantly more trials to complete the task than either BD-NOS participants with sub-syndromal manic/hypomanic symptoms or than TDCs. BD participants across sub-types had impairments in sustained attention and information processing for emotionally valenced words. Our results align with prior findings showing that BD-I/II youths with distinct episodes have specific alterations in reversal learning. More broadly, our study suggests that further work is necessary to see the interaction between neurocognitive performance and longitudinal illness course. Additional work is required to identify the neural underpinnings of these differences as targets for potential novel treatments, such as cognitive remediation.
KEYWORDS:
Adolescent; Bipolar disorder; Child; Cognitive performance; Reversal learning
PMID: 26438382 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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40.
J Stroke. 2015 Sep;17(3):354-8. doi: 10.5853/jos.2015.17.3.354. Epub 2015 Sep 30.
The Effects of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation on Cognition in Stroke Patients.
Yun GJ1, Chun MH1, Kim BR2.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
To investigate whether transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can improve cognition in stroke patients.
METHODS:
Forty-five stroke patients (20 males and 25 females, average age: 62.7 years) with cognitive dysfunction were included in this prospective, double-blinded, randomized case-control study. All patients were right-handed and the mean elapsed time after stroke was 39.3 days. Three different treatments groups were used: (1) anodal stimulation of the left anterior temporal lobe, (2) anodal stimulation of the right anterior temporal lobe, and (3) sham stimulation. tDCS was delivered for 30 minutes at 2 mA with 25 cm(2) electrodes, five times/week, for a total of 3 weeks, using a Phoresor II Auto Model PM 850 (IOMED(®)). The evaluation of cognitive impairment was based on a Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT), Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE). The Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) was used to assess activities of daily living functionality. These evaluations were conducted in all patients before and after treatment.
RESULTS:
Each group included 15 patients. Pre-treatment evaluation showed no significant differences between the three groups for any of the parameters. There was significant improvement in the verbal learning test on the CNT in the left anodal stimulation group (P < 0.05). There were, however, no significant differences in the K-MMSE or K-MBI scores among the three groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results demonstrated the beneficial effects of anodal tDCS on memory function. Thus, tDCS can successfully be used as a treatment modality for patients with cognitive dysfunction after stroke.
KEYWORDS:
Cognition; Stroke; Transcranial direct stimulation
PMID: 26438001 [PubMed] Free full text
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Select item 26433609
41.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep 7. pii: S1935-861X(15)01120-1. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Motor Recovery Studies Exhibit a Dose-Response Relationship.
Chhatbar PY1, Ramakrishnan V2, Kautz S3, George MS4, Adams RJ1, Feng W5.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown mixed results in post-stroke motor recovery, possibly because of tDCS dose differences. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore whether the outcome has a dose-response relationship with various dose-related parameters.
METHODS:
The literature was searched for double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials investigating the role of tDCS (≥5 sessions) in post-stroke motor recovery as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (FM-UE) scale. Improvements in FM-UE scores were compared between active and sham groups by calculating standardized mean differences (Hedge’s g) to derive a summary effect size. Inverse-variance-weighted linear meta-regression across individual studies was performed between various tDCS parameters and Hedge’s g to test for dose-response relationships.
RESULTS:
Eight studies with total of 213 stroke subjects were included. Summary Hedge’s g was statistically significant in favor of the active group (Hedge’s g = 0.61, p = 0.02) suggesting moderate effect. Specifically, studies that used bihemispheric tDCS montage (Hedge’s g = 1.30, p = 0.08) or that recruited chronic stroke patients (Hedge’s g = 1.23, p = 0.02) showed large improvements in the active group. A positive dose-response relationship was found with current density (p = 0.017) and charge density (p = 0.004), but not with current amplitude. Moreover, a negative dose-response relationship was found with electrode size (p < 0.001, smaller electrodes were more effective).
CONCLUSIONS:
Our meta-analysis and meta-regression results suggest superior motor recovery in the active group when compared to the sham group and dose-response relationships relating to electrode size, charge density and current density. These results need to be confirmed in future dedicated studies.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Dose–response relationship; Hedge’s g; Meta-analysis; Meta-regression; Motor recovery; Stroke; Transcranial direct current stimulation; tDCS
PMID: 26433609 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26423511
42.
Vis Neurosci. 2015 Jan;32:E023. doi: 10.1017/S0952523815000255.
A cortical locus for anisotropic overlay suppression of stimuli presented at fixation.
Hansen BC1, Richard B2, Andres K1, Johnson AP2, Thompson B3, Essock EA4.
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Abstract
Human contrast sensitivity for narrowband Gabor targets is suppressed when superimposed on narrowband masks of the same spatial frequency and orientation (referred to as overlay suppression), with suppression being broadly tuned to orientation and spatial frequency. Numerous behavioral and neurophysiological experiments have suggested that overlay suppression originates from the initial lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) inputs to V1, which is consistent with the broad tuning typically reported for overlay suppression. However, recent reports have shown narrowly tuned anisotropic overlay suppression when narrowband targets are masked by broadband noise. Consequently, researchers have argued for an additional form of overlay suppression that involves cortical contrast gain control processes. The current study sought to further explore this notion behaviorally using narrowband and broadband masks, along with a computational neural simulation of the hypothesized underlying gain control processes in cortex. Additionally, we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in order to test whether cortical processes are involved in driving narrowly tuned anisotropic suppression. The behavioral results yielded anisotropic overlay suppression for both broadband and narrowband masks and could be replicated with our computational neural simulation of anisotropic gain control. Further, the anisotropic form of overlay suppression could be directly modulated by tDCS, which would not be expected if the suppression was primarily subcortical in origin. Altogether, the results of the current study provide further evidence in support of an additional overlay suppression process that originates in cortex and show that this form of suppression is also observable with narrowband masks.
KEYWORDS:
Broadband noise; Contrast sensitivity; Horizontal effect; Overlay suppression; tDCS
PMID: 26423511 [PubMed – in process]
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43.
Trials. 2015 Sep 29;16(1):435. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0945-1.
Neurostimulation for cognitive rehabilitation in stroke (NeuroCog): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Andrade SM1, Fernández-Calvo B2, Boggio PS3, de Oliveira EA4, Gomes LF5, Pinheiro Júnior JE6, Rodrigues RM7, de Almeida NL8, Moreira GM9, Alves NT10.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Stroke patients may present severe cognitive impairments, primarily related to executive functions. Transcranial direct current stimulation has shown promising results, with neuromodulatory and neuroplastic effects. This study is a double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial aiming to compare the long-term effects of stimulation in two different cognitive regions after a stroke.
METHODS/DESIGN:
Sixty patients who suffer from chronic strokes will be randomized into one of four groups: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulo-opercular network, motor primary cortex and sham stimulation. Each group will receive transcranial direct current stimulation at an intensity of 2 mA for 20 minutes daily for 10 consecutive days. Patients will be assessed with a Dysexecutive Questionnaire, Semantic Fluency Test, categorical verbal fluency and Go-no go tests, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, Letter Comparison and Pattern Comparison Tasks at baseline and after their tenth stimulation session. Those who achieve clinical improvement with neurostimulation will be invited to receive treatment for 12 months as part of a follow-up study.
DISCUSSION:
Long-term stimulation could be analyzed in regard to possible adaptive changes on plasticity after structural brain damage and if these changes are different in terms of clinical improvement when applied to two important cognitive centers.
TRIALS REGISTRATION:
Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02315807 . 9 December 2014.
PMID: 26420269 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4589066 Free PMC Article
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44.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015 Sep 30. doi: 10.1111/jog.12817. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-lasting analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in treatment of chronic endometriosis pain.
Rostami R1,2,3, Badran BW1, Kazemi R3,4, Habibnezhad M3,5, George MS1,6.
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Abstract
Approximately 10-20% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, with 70-90% of these women reporting chronic pain symptoms that persist during their menstrual cycle. We are presenting a case in which a novel form of noninvasive brain stimulation called transcranial direct current stimulation was used as an intervention in a 32-year-old woman with persistent, chronic pain symptoms caused by endometriosis for 20 years. Ten daily, 20-min sessions of 2-mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation were applied over the left primary motor cortex. Acutely, visual analog scale pain symptoms were reduced by 60%. There were also significant decreases in modules of the Endometriosis Health Profile. At the 4-month follow-up, the patient still expressed an overall decrease in pain symptoms of 30%.
© 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
KEYWORDS:
endometriosis; motor cortex; pain; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26419900 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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45.
Exp Brain Res. 2015 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Vocal response inhibition is enhanced by anodal tDCS over the right prefrontal cortex.
Castro-Meneses LJ1,2, Johnson BW3, Sowman PF3,4.
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Abstract
Stopping outright (reactive inhibition) and slowing down (proactive inhibition) are types of response inhibition which have mainly been investigated in the manual effector system. This study compared reactive inhibition across manual and vocal effector systems, examined the effects of excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS) over the right prefrontal cortex (right-PFC) and looked at the relationship between reactive and proactive inhibition. We hypothesised (1) that vocal reactive inhibition would be less effective than manual reactive inhibition as evidenced by longer stop signal reaction times; (2) that anodal tDCS would enhance both vocal and manual reactive inhibitions and (3) that proactive and reactive inhibitions would be positively related. We tested 14 participants over two sessions (one session with anodal tDCS and one session with sham stimulation) and applied stimulation protocol in the middle of the session, i.e. only during the second of three phases. We used a stop signal task across two stop conditions: relevant and irrelevant stop conditions in which stopping was required or ignored, respectively. We found that reactive inhibition was faster during and immediately after anodal tDCS relative to sham. We also found that greater level of proactive inhibition enhanced reactive inhibition (indexed by shorter stop signal reaction times). These results support the hypothesis that the right-PFC is part of a core network for reactive inhibition and supports previous contention that proactive inhibition is possibly modulated via preactivating the reactive inhibition network.
KEYWORDS:
Anodal tDCS; Reactive inhibition and proactive inhibition; Response inhibition; Stop signal task; Vocal inhibition
PMID: 26419662 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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46.
Expert Rev Med Devices. 2015 Sep 28:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Novel methods to optimize the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a systematic review of transcranial direct current stimulation patents.
Malavera A1, Vasquez A1, Fregni F.
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Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been extensively studied. While there have been initial positive results in some clinical trials, there is still variability in tDCS results. The aim of this article is to review and discuss patents assessing novel methods to optimize the use of tDCS. A systematic review was performed using Google patents database with tDCS as the main technique, with patents filling date between 2010 and 2015. Twenty-two patents met our inclusion criteria. These patents attempt to address current tDCS limitations. Only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials (i.e., high-definition tDCS), and indeed most of them have not been tested before in human trials. Further clinical testing is required to assess which patents are more likely to optimize the effects of tDCS. We discuss the potential optimization of tDCS based on these patents and the current experience with standard tDCS.
KEYWORDS:
high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation; optimization; patent; safety; systematic review; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26415093 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26414683
47.
Eur J Neurosci. 2015 Sep 28. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13086. [Epub ahead of print]
The effect of oppositional parietal transcranial direct current stimulation on lateralised brain functions.
Li LM1, Leech R1, Scott G1, Malhotra P2, Seemungal B3, Sharp DJ1.
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Abstract
Cognitive functions such as numerical processing and spatial attention show varying degrees of lateralisation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be used to investigate how modulating cortical excitability affects performance of these tasks. We investigated the effect of bi-parietal tDCS on numerical processing, spatial and sustained attention. We hypothesised that tDCS would have distinct effects on these tasks because of varying lateralisation (numerical processing left, spatial attention right) and that these effects are partly mediated by modulation of sustained attention. We performed a single-blinded, cross-over, sham-controlled study. Eighteen healthy right-handed participants performed cognitive tasks during three sessions of oppositional parietal tDCS stimulation: sham, right anodal with left cathodal (RA/LC) and right cathodal with left anodal (RC/LA). Participants performed a number comparison task, a modified Posner task, a choice reaction task (CRT) and the Rapid Visual Processing task (RVP). RA/LC tDCS impaired number comparison performance compared with sham, with slower responses to numerically close numbers pairs. RA/LC and RC/LA tDCS had distinct effects on CRT performance, specifically affecting vigilance level during the final block of the task. We found no effect of stimulation on the Posner or RVP tasks. We demonstrate that oppositional parietal tDCS affected both numerical performance and vigilance level in a polarity dependent manner. The effect of tDCS on numerical processing may partly be due to attentional effects. The behavioural effects of tDCS were specifically observed under high task demands, demonstrating the consequences of an interaction between stimulation type and cognitive load. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Non-invasive brain stimulation; numerical processing; parietal cortex; spatial attention; sustained attention
PMID: 26414683 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26410579
48.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Jun 17;33(3):357-68. doi: 10.3233/RNN-140474.
Combined effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic stroke: A pilot, double blind, randomized controlled trial.
Picelli A1, Chemello E1, Castellazzi P1, Roncari L1, Waldner A2, Saltuari L3,4, Smania N1,5.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
Preliminary evidence has shown no additional effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on robotic gait training in chronic stroke, probably due to the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. Our aim was to compare the combined effects of tDCS and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on robotic gait training in chronic stroke.
METHODS:
Thirty chronic stroke patients received ten 20-minute robot-assisted gait training sessions, five days a week, for 2 consecutive weeks combined with anodal tDCS + sham tsDCS (group 1; n = 10) or sham tDCS + cathodal tsDCS (group 2; n = 10) or tDCS + cathodal tsDCS (group 3; n = 10). The primary outcome was the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) performed before, after, 2 weeks and 4 weeks post-treatment.
RESULTS:
Significant differences in the 6MWT distance were noted between group 3 and group 1 at the post-treatment and 2-week follow-up evaluations (post-treatment P = 0.015; 2-week follow-up P = 0.001) and between group 3 and group 2 (post-treatment P = 0.010; 2-week follow-up P = 0.015). No difference was found between group 2 and group 1.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that anodal tDCS combined with cathodal tsDCS may be useful to improve the effects of robotic gait training in chronic stroke.
KEYWORDS:
Central nervous system; brain; rehabilitation; spinal cord
PMID: 26410579 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26409690
49.
NeuroRehabilitation. 2015 Aug 22;37(1):11-24. doi: 10.3233/NRE-151237.
Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease: Current concepts and outlook 2015.
Benninger DH1, Hallett M2.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
In advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation as an alternative therapeutic tool. The rationale for its use draws from the concept that reversing abnormalities in brain activity and physiology thought to cause the clinical deficits may restore normal functioning. Currently the best evidence in support of this concept comes from DBS, which improves motor deficits, and modulates brain activity and motor cortex physiology, though whether a causal interaction exists remains largely undetermined.
CONCLUSION:
Most trials of non-invasive brain stimulation in PD have applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the primary motor cortex and cortical areas of the motor circuit. Published studies suggest a possible therapeutic potential of rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), but clinical effects so far have been small and negligible regarding functional independence and quality of life. Approaches to potentiate the efficacy of rTMS, including increasing stimulation intensity and novel stimulation parameters, derive their rationale from studies of brain physiology. These novel parameters simulate normal firing patterns or act on the hypothesized role of oscillatory activity in the motor cortex and basal ganglia in motor control. There may also be diagnostic potential of TMS in characterizing individual traits for personalized medicine.
KEYWORDS:
Non-invasive brain stimulation; Parkinson’s disease; neurophysiology; plasticity; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS); therapeutic study; transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)
PMID: 26409690 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26409409
50.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Aug 19;33(4):509-19. doi: 10.3233/RNN-140490.
Anodal direct current stimulation in the healthy aged: Effects determined by the hemisphere stimulated.
Marquez J1,2, Conley A2,3, Karayanidis F2,3, Lagopoulos J4, Parsons M1,2,5.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
Research popularity and scope for the application of transcranial direct current stimulation have been steadily increasing yet many fundamental questions remain unanswered. We sought to determine if anodal stimulation of either hemisphere leads to improved performance of the contralateral hand and/or altered function of the ipsilateral hand, or affects movement preparation, in older subjects.
METHOD:
In this cross-over, double blind, sham controlled study, 34 healthy aged participants (age range 40- 86) were randomised to receive 20 minutes of stimulation to either the dominant or non-dominant motor cortex. The primary outcome was functional performance of both upper limbs measured by the Jebsen Taylor Test and hand grip strength. Additionally, we measured motor preparation using electrophysiological (EEG) recordings.
RESULTS:
Anodal stimulation resulted in statistically significantly improved performance of the non-dominant hand (p <  0.01) but did not produce significant changes in the dominant hand on any measure (p >  0.05). This effect occurred irrespective of the hemisphere stimulated. Stimulation did not produce significant effects on measures of gross function, grip strength, reaction times, or electrophysiological measures on the EEG data.
CONCLUSION:
This study demonstrated that the hemispheres respond differently to anodal stimulation and the response appears to be task specific but not mediated by age.
KEYWORDS:
ageing; tDCS; transcranial direct current stimulation; upper limb function
PMID: 26409409 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26409407
51.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Aug 19;33(4):487-92. doi: 10.3233/RNN-150495.
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of motor cortex does not ameliorate spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
Iodice R, Dubbioso R, Ruggiero L, Santoro L, Manganelli F.
Abstract
PURPOSE:
To assess whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is effective in modulating lower limb spasticity in MS patients. Previously, anodal tDCS has been shown to improve motor deficits in several neurological diseases and, recently, it has been proposed as effective in decreasing spasticity after stroke. However, the effect of anodal tDCS on spasticity is not examined in MS.
METHODS:
We performed a single-centre randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study to investigate efficacy of anodal vs sham tDCS in 20 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Ten patients received anodal tDCS stimulation to the primary motor cortex of the more affected side, 20 minutes/day for 5 consecutive days. Ten patients received sham tDCS stimulation. Spasticity was assessed by using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS), the self-scoring MSSS-88 (Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale) and Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) at baseline and at the end of protocol stimulation.
RESULTS:
No side effects were detected during either anodal tDCS or sham. In both groups, there was no significant improvement in MAS, MSSS-88 and MSWS-12 scores. Moreover the comparison between anodal tDCS and sham showed no difference.
CONCLUSIONS:
Five-daily sessions of anodal tDCS to the primary motor cortex does do not improve lower limb spasticity in MS patients.
KEYWORDS:
Multiple sclerosis; anodal transcranial direct current stimulation; lower limb spasticity
PMID: 26409407 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26409404
52.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Aug 19;33(4):447-60. doi: 10.3233/RNN-150525.
Visuo-motor integration in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: A piece of the puzzle towards consciousness detection?
Naro A1, Leo A1, Filoni S2, Bramanti P1, Salvatore Calabrò R1.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is characterized by either a profound unawareness or an impairment of large-scale cortico/subcortical connectivity. Nevertheless, some individuals with UWS could show residual markers of consciousness and cognition. In this study, we applied an electrophysiological approach aimed to identify the residual visuomotor connectivity patterns that are thought to be linked to awareness, in patients with chronic disorder of consciousness (DOC).
METHODS:
We measured some markers of visuomotor and premotor-motor integration in 14 patients affected by DOC, before and after the application of transcranial direct current stimulation, delivered over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parieto-occipital area, paired to transorbital alterning current stimulation.
RESULTS:
Our protocol induced a potentiation of the electrophysiological markers of visuomotor and premotor-motor connectivity, paired to a clinical improvement, in all of the patients with minimally conscious state and in one individual affected by UWS.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our protocol could be a promising approach to potentiate the functional connectivity within large-scale visuomotor networks, thus allowing identifying the patients suffering from a functional locked-in syndrome (i.e. individuals showing an extreme behavioral motor dysfunction although with somehow preserved cognitive functions that can be identified only through para-clinical tests) within individuals with UWS.
KEYWORDS:
DLPFC; MCS; UWS; functional connectivity; parieto-occipital area; tDCS; visuomotor integration
PMID: 26409404 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26409343
53.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Oct;57:187-98. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.09.010. Epub 2015 Sep 26.
Imaging human brain networks to improve the clinical efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation.
Sale MV1, Mattingley JB2, Zalesky A3, Cocchi L4.
Author information
Abstract
The flexible integration of segregated neural processes is essential to healthy brain function. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have revealed that psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by anomalies in the dynamic integration of widespread neural populations. Re-establishing optimal neural activity is an important component of the treatment of such disorders. Non-invasive brain stimulation is emerging as a viable tool to selectively restore both local and widespread neural activity in patients affected by psychiatric and neurological disorders. Importantly, the different forms of non-invasive brain stimulation affect neural activity in distinct ways, which has important ramifications for their clinical efficacy. In this review, we discuss how non-invasive brain stimulation techniques influence widespread neural integration across brain regions. We suggest that the efficacy of such techniques in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological conditions is contingent on applying the appropriate stimulation paradigm to restore specific aspects of altered neural integration.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Connectivity; Connectomics; Depression; EEG; Networks; Neurology; OCD; Psychiatry; Schizophrenia; Stroke; Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS); fMRI; rTMS; tDCS
PMID: 26409343 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26406696
54.
Opt Express. 2015 Sep 21;23(19):24962-73. doi: 10.1364/OE.23.024962.
Enhanced single-photon time-of-flight 3D ranging.
Lussana R, Villa F, Mora AD, Contini D, Tosi A, Zappa F.
Abstract
We developed a system for acquiring 3D depth-resolved maps by measuring the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of single photons. It is based on a CMOS 32 × 32 array of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and 350 ps resolution Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) into each pixel, able to provide photon-counting or photon-timing frames every 10 µs. We show how such a system can be used to scan large scenes in just hundreds of milliseconds. Moreover, we show how to exploit TDC unwarping and refolding for improving signal-to-noise ratio and extending the full-scale depth range. Additionally, we merged 2D and 3D information in a single image, for easing object recognition and tracking.
PMID: 26406696 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26400923
55.
Cereb Cortex. 2015 Sep 23. pii: bhv193. [Epub ahead of print]
Enhancement of Working Memory and Task-Related Oscillatory Activity Following Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Healthy Controls.
Hoy KE1, Bailey N1, Michael M1, Fitzgibbon B1, Rogasch NC2, Saeki T1, Fitzgerald PB1.
Author information
Abstract
Noninvasive brain stimulation is increasingly being investigated for the enhancement of cognition, yet current approaches appear to be limited in their degree and duration of effects. The majority of studies to date have delivered stimulation in “standard” ways (i.e., anodal transcranial direct current stimulation or high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation). Specialized forms of stimulation, such as theta burst stimulation (TBS), which more closely mimic the brains natural firing patterns may have greater effects on cognitive performance. We report here the findings from the first-ever investigation into the persistent cognitive and electrophysiological effects of intermittent TBS (iTBS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In 19 healthy controls, active iTBS significantly improved performance on an assessment of working memory when compared with sham stimulation across a period of 40 min post stimulation. The behavioral findings were accompanied by increases in task-related fronto-parietal theta sychronization and parietal gamma band power. These results have implications for the role of more specialized stimulation approaches in neuromodulation.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
KEYWORDS:
cortical oscillations; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; theta burst stimulation; working memory
PMID: 26400923 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26399806
56.
Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):436-7. doi: 10.1038/525436a.
Brain stimulation in children spurs hope – and concern.
Geddes L.
PMID: 26399806 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 26399249
57.
Neurocrit Care. 2015 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Other Neuromodulation Methods for Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury.
Neren D1,2, Johnson MD3, Legon W4, Bachour SP1, Ling G5, Divani AA6,7,8.
Author information
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in preclinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as discuss the potential role of VNS along with alternative neuromodulation approaches in the treatment of human TBI. Data from previous studies have demonstrated VNS-mediated improvement following TBI in animal models. In these cases, VNS was observed to enhance motor and cognitive recovery, attenuate cerebral edema and inflammation, reduce blood brain barrier breakdown, and confer neuroprotective effects. Yet, the underlying mechanisms by which VNS enhances recovery following TBI remain to be fully elucidated. Several hypotheses have been offered including: a noradrenergic mechanism, reduction in post-TBI seizures and hyper-excitability, anti-inflammatory effects, attenuation of blood-brain barrier breakdown, and cerebral edema. We present other potential mechanisms by which VNS acts including enhancement of synaptic plasticity and recruitment of endogenous neural stem cells, stabilization of intracranial pressure, and interaction with the ghrelin system. In addition, alternative methods for the treatment of TBI including deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and focused ultrasound stimulation are discussed. Although the primary source data show that VNS improves TBI outcomes, it remains to be determined if these findings can be translated to clinical settings.
KEYWORDS:
Deep brain stimulation; Neuromodulation; Traumatic brain injury; Ultrasound; Vagus nerve stimulation
PMID: 26399249 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26397863
58.
Mol Med Rep. 2015 Nov;12(5):6969-75. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2015.4320. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
Fms‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand is required for thymic dendritic cell generation from bone marrow‑derived CD117+ hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Xu Y1, Jiang D2, Hu Y3, Li Y1, Zhang X2, Wang J1, Wang Y4.
Author information
Abstract
Thymic dendritic cells (TDCs) are a type of dendritic cell (DC) in the thymus, which can enhance the proliferation of thymic T lymphocytes, regulate negative selection and induce central tolerance through autoantigen presentation. However, further investigations using TDCs has been restricted due to insufficient numbers. Therefore, an effective expansion method for TDCs in vitro is urgently required to further examine their biological characteristics. In the present study, a novel system was established using fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC) and a hanging drop culture system in the presence of fms‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), termed the Flt3L/FTOC system. TDCs were successfully generated and expanded from CD117+ bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conventional DCs (cDCs; CD11c+B220‑ DCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs; CD11c+B220+ DCs) were found in the TDCs generated using the Flt3L/FTOC system. These cells exhibited the specific morphological features of DCs, which were confirmed using Giemsa staining. Furthermore, the cytokine and surface marker profiles were also analyzed. Higher expression levels of interferon‑α and interleukin‑12 were observed in the pDCs, compared with the cDCs, and higher expression levels of toll‑like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 were found in the pDCs than in the cDCs. In addition, the Flt3L/FTOC‑derived TDCs also exhibited the ability to stimulate the allogenic T cell response. In conclusion, a novel in vitro culture system of thymic cDCs and pDCs using Flt3L was established, and this may provide a methodological basis for understanding the properties of TDCs.
PMID: 26397863 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26397150
59.
J ECT. 2015 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocol for Treating Depression Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Trial.
Dias DR1, Trevizol AP, Miorin LA, Bikson M, Aboseria M, Shiozawa P, Cordeiro Q.
Author information
PMID: 26397150 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26396038
60.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2015 Nov;15(11):72. doi: 10.1007/s11910-015-0593-6.
Brain Stimulation and the Role of the Right Hemisphere in Aphasia Recovery.
Turkeltaub PE1,2.
Author information
Abstract
Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemisphere stroke and causes a disabling loss of language and communication ability. Current treatments for aphasia are inadequate, leaving a majority of aphasia sufferers with ongoing communication difficulties for the rest of their lives. In the past decade, two forms of noninvasive brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, have emerged as promising new treatments for aphasia. The most common brain stimulation protocols attempt to inhibit the intact right hemisphere based on the hypothesis that maladaptive activity in the right hemisphere limits language recovery in the left. There is now sufficient evidence to demonstrate that this approach, at least for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, improves specific language abilities in aphasia. However, the biological mechanisms that produce these behavioral improvements remain poorly understood. Taken in the context of the larger neurobiological literature on aphasia recovery, the role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery remains unclear. Additional research is needed to understand biological mechanisms of recovery, in order to optimize brain stimulation treatments for aphasia. This article summarizes the current evidence on noninvasive brain stimulation methods for aphasia and the neuroscientific considerations surrounding treatments using right hemisphere inhibition. Suggestions are provided for further investigation and for clinicians whose patients ask about brain stimulation treatments for aphasia.
KEYWORDS:
Aphasia; Neuromodulation; Noninvasive brain stimulation; Stroke recovery; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26396038 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26395620
61.
Med Probl Perform Art. 2015 Sep;30(3):178-84.
Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Neurorehabilitation of Task-Specific Dystonia: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.
Rosset-Llobet J1, Fàbregas-Molas S, Pascual-Leone Á.
Author information
Abstract
Task-specific focal hand dystonia can disable affected individuals. Although neurorehabilitation techniques such as sensory motor retuning can result in complete recovery in some patients, it requires many months of treatment. Combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with neurorehabilitation is a new and promising approach that can help these patients. However, the results in different studies are contradictory.
OBJECTIVE:
Analyze whether delivering tDCS (cathode over left and anode over right parietal region) during the neurorehabilitation process for musicians with dystonia can increase the effectiveness of therapy.
METHOD:
A parallel double-blind randomized design was used to study 30 musicians with right-hand primary focal dystonia. All patients underwent a 2-week course of neurorehabilitation based on sensory motor retuning therapy coupled with either real or sham tDCS for the first 30 minutes of each daily 1-hour therapy session (total 10 sessions). The therapist and patient were blind to the tDCS condition. A dystonia severity score was obtained before and after the 2-week protocol. The therapist also rated the evolution of each patient.
RESULTS:
Both groups significantly improved their dystonia severity score during the 2 weeks. Score differences were 88.23 (±40.51) and 63.36 (±30.57) for the active and sham groups, respectively. The active group showed a statistically significant greater improvement.
CONCLUSIONS:
Biparietal tDCS with left-sided cathode is a safe technique that does not interfere with the neurorehabilitation procedure and can increase therapy effectiveness in rehabilitation patients with right-hand task-specific focal dystonia.
PMID: 26395620 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26388835
62.
Front Neurol. 2015 Sep 3;6:193. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00193. eCollection 2015.
The Neurophysiologist Perspective into MS Plasticity.
Houdayer E1, Comi G2, Leocani L2.
Author information
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a frequent, highly debilitating inflammatory demyelinating disease, starting to manifest in early adulthood and presenting a wide variety of symptoms, which are often resistant to pharmacological treatments. Cortical dysfunctions have been demonstrated to be key components of MS condition, and plasticity of the corticospinal motor system is highly involved in major MS symptoms, such as fatigue, spasticity, or pain. Cortical dysfunction in MS can be studied with neurophysiological tools, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and related techniques (evoked potentials) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). These techniques are now widely used to provide essential elements of MS diagnosis and can also be used to modulate plasticity. Indeed, the recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques able to induce cortical plasticity, such as repetitive TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation, has brought promising results as add-on treatments. In this review, we will focus on the use of these tools (EEG and TMS) to study plasticity in MS and on the major techniques used to modulate plasticity in MS.
KEYWORDS:
electroencephalography; multiple sclerosis; non-invasive brain stimulation; plasticity; transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26388835 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4558527 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26388788
63.
Front Psychol. 2015 Sep 1;6:1104. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01104. eCollection 2015.
Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation.
Gray JC1, MacKillop J2.
Author information
Abstract
This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target.
KEYWORDS:
addiction; behavior economics; behavioral economics; delayed reward discounting; drug abuse; intertemporal choice; substance use disorders
PMID: 26388788 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4554956 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26388712
64.
Front Neurosci. 2015 Sep 1;9:294. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00294. eCollection 2015.
Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques.
Boggio PS1, Asthana MK1, Costa TL1, Valasek CA1, Osório AA1.
Author information
Abstract
Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams Syndrome (WS). There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity.
KEYWORDS:
Williams syndrome; autism; brain stimulation; developmental disorders; neuromodulation; schizophrenia; social cognition
PMID: 26388712 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4555066 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26381733
65.
Trials. 2015 Sep 17;16(1):415. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0938-0.
Analgesic effect of cathodal transcranial current stimulation over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in subjects with muscular temporomandibular disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Brandão Filho RA1,2, Baptista AF3, Brandão Rde A4,5, Meneses FM6, Okeson J7, de Sena EP8.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Temporomandibular disorders are a group of orofacial pain conditions that are commonly identified in the general population. Like many other chronic pain conditions, they can be associated with anxiety/depression, which can be related to changes in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Some studies have demonstrated clinical improvement in subjects with chronic pain who are given therapeutic neuromodulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of neuronal membranes. This therapy can enhance or inhibit action potential generation in cortical neurons. In some instances, medications acting in the central nervous system may be helpful despite their adverse side effects. It is important to determine if cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an area that modulates emotion and motor cortex excitability, has an analgesic effect on chronic temporomandibular disorders pain.
METHOD/DESIGN:
The investigators will run a randomized, controlled crossover double blind study with 15 chronic muscular temporomandibular disorder subjects. Each subject will undergo active (1 mA and 2 mA) and sham transcranial direct current stimulation. Inclusion criteria will be determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders questionnaire, with subjects who have a pain visual analogic scale score of greater than 4/10 and whose pain has been present for the previous 6 months, and with a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score of more than 42. The influence of transcranial direct current stimulation will be assessed through a visual analogic scale, quantitative sensory testing, quantitative electroencephalogram, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score.
DISCUSSION:
Some studies have demonstrated a strong association between anxiety/depression and chronic pain, where one may be the cause of the other. This is especially true in chronic temporomandibular disorders, and breaking this cycle may have an effect over the symptoms and associated dysfunction. We believe that by inhibiting activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex though cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation, there may be a change in both anxiety/depression and pain level. Transcranial direct current stimulation may emerge as a new tool to be considered for managing these patients. We envision that the information obtained from this study will provide a better understanding of the management of chronic temporomandibular disorders.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov on 24 May 2014 (Identifier: NCT02152267 ).
PMID: 26381733 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4574533 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26381352
66.
Elife. 2015 Sep 18;4. doi: 10.7554/eLife.08789. [Epub ahead of print]
Modulation of GABA and resting state functional connectivity by transcranial direct current stimulation.
Bachtiar V1, Near J2, Johansen-Berg H1, Stagg CJ3.
Author information
Abstract
We previously demonstrated that network-level functional connectivity in the human brain could be related to levels of inhibition in a major network node at baseline (Stagg et al., 2014). Here, we build upon this finding to directly investigate the effects of perturbing M1 GABA and resting state functional connectivity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a neuromodulatory approach that has previously been demonstrated to modulate both metrics. FMRI data and GABA levels, as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, were measured before and after 20 minutes of 1mA anodal or sham tDCS. In line with previous studies, baseline GABA levels were negatively correlated with the strength of functional connectivity within the resting motor network. However, although we confirm the previously reported findings that anodal tDCS reduces GABA concentration and increases functional connectivity in the stimulated motor cortex, these changes are not correlated, suggesting they may be driven by distinct underlying mechanisms.
KEYWORDS:
GABA; TDCS; brain stimulation; functional connectivity; human; neuroscience; plasticity; resting state networks
PMID: 26381352 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Free full text
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Select item 26379560
67.
Front Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 26;6:119. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00119. eCollection 2015.
Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Symptoms Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
Dhaliwal SK1, Meek BP1, Modirrousta MM1.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of physical, psychological, and cognitive impairment, but many current treatments for TBI are ineffective or produce adverse side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation could help ameliorate some common trauma-induced symptoms.
OBJECTIVE:
This review summarizes instances in which repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been used to treat symptoms following a TBI. A subsequent discussion attempts to determine the value of these methods in light of their potential risks.
METHODS:
The research databases of PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO were electronically searched using terms relevant to the use of rTMS and tDCS as a tool to decrease symptoms in the context of rehabilitation post-TBI.
RESULTS:
Eight case-studies and four multi-subject reports using rTMS and six multi–subject studies using tDCS were found. Two instances of seizure are discussed.
CONCLUSION:
There is evidence that rTMS can be an effective treatment option for some post-TBI symptoms, such as depression, tinnitus, and neglect. Although the safety of this method remains uncertain, the use of rTMS in cases of mild TBI without obvious structural damage may be justified. Evidence on the effectiveness of tDCS is mixed, highlighting the need for additional investigations.
KEYWORDS:
altered states of consciousness; depression; non-invasive brain stimulation; rehabilitation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; trancranial direct current stimulation; traumatic brain injury
PMID: 26379560 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4549551 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26377469
68.
J Neurosci. 2015 Sep 16;35(37):12824-32. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2376-15.2015.
Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation.
Rohan JG1, Carhuatanta KA2, McInturf SM3, Miklasevich MK4, Jankord R2.
Author information
Abstract
Investigations into the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving symptoms of neurological disorders and enhancing cognitive or motor performance have exhibited promising results. However, the mechanisms by which tDCS effects brain function remain under scrutiny. We have demonstrated that in vivo tDCS in rats produced a lasting effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as measured using extracellular recordings. Ex vivo preparations of hippocampal slices from rats that have been subjected to tDCS of 0.10 or 0.25 mA for 30 min followed by 30 min of recovery time displayed a robust twofold enhancement in long-term potentiation (LTP) induction accompanied by a 30% increase in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). The magnitude of the LTP effect was greater with 0.25 mA compared with 0.10 mA stimulations, suggesting a dose-dependent relationship between tDCS intensity and its effect on synaptic plasticity. To test the persistence of these observed effects, animals were stimulated in vivo for 30 min at 0.25 mA and then allowed to return to their home cage for 24 h. Observation of the enhanced LTP induction, but not the enhanced PPF, continued 24 h after completion of 0.25 mA of tDCS. Addition of the NMDA blocker AP-5 abolished LTP in both control and stimulated rats but maintained the PPF enhancement in stimulated rats. The observation of enhanced LTP and PPF after tDCS demonstrates that non-invasive electrical stimulation is capable of modifying synaptic plasticity.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:
Researchers have used brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation on human subjects to alleviate symptoms of neurological disorders and enhance their performance. Here, using rats, we have investigated the potential mechanisms of how in vivo brain stimulation can produce such effect. We recorded directly on viable brain slices from rats after brain stimulation to detect lasting changes in pattern of neuronal activity. Our results showed that 30 min of brain stimulation in rats induced a robust enhancement in synaptic plasticity, a neuronal process critical for learning and memory. Understanding such molecular effects will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which brain stimulation produces its effects on cognition and performance.
Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512824-09$15.00/0.
KEYWORDS:
brain stimulation; extracellular recording; hippocampus; long term potentiation; rat; tDCS
PMID: 26377469 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26375450
69.
Neuropsychologia. 2015 Oct;77:400-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.09.016. Epub 2015 Sep 13.
Increasing the role of belief information in moral judgments by stimulating the right temporoparietal junction.
Sellaro R1, Güroǧlu B2, Nitsche MA3, van den Wildenberg WP4, Massaro V5, Durieux J5, Hommel B5, Colzato LS5.
Author information
Abstract
Morality plays a vital role in our social life. A vast body of research has suggested that moral judgments rely on cognitive processes mediated by the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), an area thought to be involved in belief attribution. Here we assessed the role of the rTPJ in moral judgments directly by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) – a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that, by applying a weak current to the scalp, allows modulating cortical excitability of the area being stimulated. Participants were randomly and equally assigned to receive anodal stimulation (to increase cortical excitability), cathodal stimulation (to decrease cortical excitability), or sham (placebo) stimulation over the rTPJ before completing a moral judgment task. Participants read stories in which protagonists produced either a negative or a neutral outcome based on either a negative or a neutral belief that they were causing harm or no harm, respectively. Results revealed a selective group difference when judging the moral permissibility of accidental harms (belief neutral, outcome negative), but not intentional harms (belief negative, outcome negative), attempted harms (belief negative, outcome neutral), or neutral acts (belief neutral, outcome neutral). Specifically, participants who received anodal stimulation assigned less blame to accidental harms compared to participants who received cathodal or sham stimulation. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that the degree of rTPJ activation reflects reliance on the agent’s innocent intention. Crucially, our findings provide direct evidence supporting the critical role of the rTPJ in mediating belief attribution for moral judgment.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Belief; Moral judgment; Right temporoparietal junction; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26375450 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26361512
70.
J Med Life. 2015;8 Spec Issue:52-6.
Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.
Blesneag AV1, Popa L1, Stan AD1.
Author information
Abstract
The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed.
ABBREVIATIONS:
AAT = Aachen Aphasia Test, BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IFG = inferior frontal gyrus, M1 = primary motor cortex, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, NIBS = non-invasive brain stimulation, PET = positron emission tomography, rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, SLT = speech and language therapy, STG = superior temporal gyrus, tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation, NIHSS = National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.
KEYWORDS:
neurorehabilitation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; stroke; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26361512 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4564042 Free PMC Article
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71.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015 Aug 28;11:2265-70. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S79108. eCollection 2015.
Prefronto-cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves visuospatial memory, executive functions, and neurological soft signs in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder.
Minichino A1, Bersani FS1, Bernabei L1, Spagnoli F1, Vergnani L1, Corrado A1, Taddei I1, Biondi M1, Delle Chiaie R1.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of the study was to improve neuropsychological functioning of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to cerebellar and prefrontal cortices.
METHODS:
Twenty-five BD outpatients underwent prefrontal (anodal) and cerebellar (cathodal) tDCS for 3 consecutive weeks. All participants were assessed through the Rey Complex Figure Test delay and copy and the Neurological Examination Scale at baseline and after therapy with tDCS.
RESULTS:
After tDCS treatment, patients showed significant improvements in visuospatial memory tasks. Patients with worse baseline cognitive performances also showed a significant improvement in executive functioning tasks. Neurological Examination Scale total score and motor coordination subscale significantly improved.
CONCLUSION:
Prefrontal-excitatory and cerebellar-inhibitory stimulations in euthymic BD patients may lead to better neurocognitive performances. This improvement could result from the modulation of prefronto-thalamic-cerebellar circuit activity pattern, which can be disrupted in BD.
KEYWORDS:
cerebellum; cognition; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; neuropsychology
PMID: 26356034 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4559250 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26351965
72.
Neuroreport. 2015 Nov 11;26(16):988-93. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000456.
Direct current stimulation of the left temporoparietal junction modulates dynamic humor appreciation.
Slaby I1, Holmes A, Moran JM, Eddy MD, Mahoney CR, Taylor HA, Brunyé TT.
Author information
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) on humor appreciation during a dynamic video rating task. In a within-participants design, we targeted the left TPJ with anodal, cathodal, or no transcranial direct current stimulation, centered at electrode site C3 using a 4×1 targeted stimulation montage. During stimulation, participants dynamically rated a series of six stand-up comedy videos for perceived humor. We measured event-related (time-locked to crowd laughter) modulation of humor ratings as a function of stimulation condition. Results showed decreases in rated humor during anodal (vs. cathodal or none) stimulation; this pattern was evident for the majority of videos and was only partially predicted by individual differences in humor style. We discuss the possibility that upregulation of neural circuits involved in the theory of mind and empathizing with others may reduce appreciation of aggressive humor. In conclusion, the present data show that neuromodulation of the TPJ can alter the mental processes underlying humor appreciation, suggesting critical involvement of this cortical region in detecting, comprehending, and appreciating humor.
PMID: 26351965 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26350410
73.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Aug 14. pii: S1935-861X(15)01098-0. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.08.003. [Epub ahead of print]
The Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Electrode Size and Current Intensity on Motor Cortical Excitability: Evidence From Single and Repeated Sessions.
Ho KA1, Taylor JL2, Chew T1, Gálvez V1, Alonzo A1, Bai S3, Dokos S4, Loo CK5.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Current density is considered an important factor in determining the outcomes of tDCS, and is determined by the current intensity and electrode size. Previous studies examining the effect of these parameters on motor cortical excitability with small sample sizes reported mixed results.
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS:
This study examined the effect of current intensity (1 mA, 2 mA) and electrode size (16 cm2, 35 cm2) on motor cortical excitability over single and repeated tDCS sessions.
METHODS:
Data from seven studies in 89 healthy participants were pooled for analysis. Single-session data were analyzed using mixed effects models and repeated-session data were analyzed using mixed design analyses of variance. Computational modeling was used to examine the electric field generated.
RESULTS:
The magnitude of increases in excitability after anodal tDCS was modest. For single-session tDCS, the 35 cm2 electrodes produced greater increases in cortical excitability compared to the 16 cm2 electrodes. There were no differences in the magnitude of cortical excitation produced by 1 mA and 2 mA tDCS. The repeated-sessions data also showed that there were greater increases in excitability with the 35 cm2 electrodes. Further, repeated sessions of tDCS with the 35 cm2 electrodes resulted in a cumulative increase in cortical excitability. Computational modeling predicted higher electric field at the motor hotspot for the 35 cm2 electrodes.
CONCLUSIONS:
2 mA tDCS does not necessarily produce larger effects than 1 mA tDCS in healthy participants. Careful consideration should be given to the exact positioning, size and orientation of tDCS electrodes relative to cortical regions.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cortical excitability; Electrode size; Motor cortex; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26350410 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26349403
74.
J Neurol Sci. 2015 Sep 2. pii: S0022-510X(15)02047-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.08.1551. [Epub ahead of print]
Pain reduction associated with improved functional interhemispheric balance following transcranial direct current stimulation for post-stroke central pain: A case study.
Morishita T1, Hyakutake K2, Saita K2, Takahara M3, Shiota E4, Inoue T3.
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KEYWORDS:
Interhemispheric inhibition; Near infrared spectroscopy; Neuromodulation; Post-stroke central pain; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26349403 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26347634
75.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Aug 19;9:447. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00447. eCollection 2015.
Translational treatment of aphasia combining neuromodulation and behavioral intervention for lexical retrieval: implications from a single case study.
Galletta EE1, Vogel-Eyny A1.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive method of brain stimulation, is an adjunctive research-therapy for aphasia. The concept supporting translational application of tDCS is that brain plasticity, facilitated by language intervention, can be enhanced by non-invasive brain stimulation. This study combined tDCS with an ecologically focused behavioral approach that involved training nouns and verbs in sentences.
METHOD:
PARTICIPANT:
A 43-year-old, right-handed male with fluent-anomic aphasia who sustained a single-left-hemisphere-temporal-parietal stroke was recruited.
TREATMENT:
Instrumentation included the Soterix Medical 1 × 1 Device. Anodal tDCS was applied over Broca’s area. Behavioral materials included: sentence production, naming in the sentence context, and implementation of a social-conversational-discourse treatment.
DESIGN AND PROCEDURES:
The independent variable of this crossover case-study was tDCS, and the dependent variables were language and quality-of-life measures. In each session the subject received language treatment with the first 20 minutes additionally including tDCS.
RESULTS:
Performance in naming nouns and verbs in single words and sentences were obtained. Verb production in the sentence context increased after active anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment.
CONCLUSION:
Aphasia treatment that involves naming in the sentence context in conjunction with translational application of tDCS may be a promising approach for language-recovery post stroke.
KEYWORDS:
aphasia; lexical retrieval; neuromodulation; tDCS; treatment
PMID: 26347634 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4541259 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26344092
76.
Curr Biol. 2015 Sep 21;25(18):2447-51. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.014. Epub 2015 Sep 3.
Transcranial Current Stimulation of the Temporoparietal Junction Improves Lie Detection.
Sowden S1, Wright GR2, Banissy MJ3, Catmur C4, Bird G5.
Author information
Abstract
The ability to detect deception is of vital importance in human society, playing a crucial role in communication, cooperation, and trade between societies, businesses, and individuals. However, numerous studies have shown, remarkably consistently, that we are only slightly above chance when it comes to detecting deception [1]. Here we investigate whether inconsistency between one’s own opinion and the stated opinion of another impairs judgment of the veracity of that statement, in the same way that one’s own mental, affective, and action states, when inconsistent, can interfere with representation of those states in another [2]. Within the context of lie detection, individuals may be less accurate when judging the veracity of another’s opinion when it is inconsistent with their own opinion. Here we present a video-mediated lie-detection task to confirm this prediction: individuals correctly identified truths or lies less often when the other’s expressed opinion was inconsistent with their own (experiment 1). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) has previously been shown to improve the ability to selectively represent the self or another [3-5]. We therefore predicted that TPJ stimulation would enable lie detectors to inhibit their own views, enhance those of the other, and improve their ability to determine whether another was presenting their true opinion. Experiment 2 confirmed this second prediction: anodal tDCS of the TPJ improved lie detection specifically when one’s own and others’ views were conflicting.
Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
PMID: 26344092 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4580333 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26343591
77.
J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Oct;69:27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.07.018. Epub 2015 Jul 17.
Enhancing decision-making and cognitive impulse control with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC): A randomized and sham-controlled exploratory study.
Ouellet J1, McGirr A2, Van den Eynde F1, Jollant F3, Lepage M4, Berlim MT5.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Decision-making and impulse control (both cognitive and motor) are complex interrelated processes which rely on a distributed neural network that includes multiple cortical and subcortical regions. Among them, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) seems to be particularly relevant as demonstrated by several neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations.
METHODS:
In the present study we assessed whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied bilaterally over the OFC is able to modulate decision-making and cognitive impulse control. More specifically, 45 healthy subjects were randomized to receive a single 30-min session of active or sham anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) applied over either the left or the right OFC (coupled with contralateral cathodal tDCS). They were also assessed pre- and post-tDCS with a battery of computerized tasks.
RESULTS:
Our results show that participants who received active anodal tDCS (irrespective of laterality), vs. those who received sham tDCS, displayed more advantageous decision-making (i.e., increased Iowa Gambling Task “net scores” [p = 0.04]), as well as improved cognitive impulse control (i.e., decreased “interference” in the Stroop Word-Colour Task [p = 0.007]). However, we did not observe tDCS-related effects on mood (assessed by visual analogue scales), attentional levels (assessed by the Continuous Performance Task) or motor impulse control (assessed by the Stop-Signal Task).
CONCLUSIONS:
Our study potentially serves as a key translational step towards the development of novel non-invasive neuromodulation-based therapeutic interventions directly targeting vulnerability factors for psychiatric conditions such as suicidal behaviour and addiction.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Decision-making; Impulse control; Neuromodulation; Orbitofrontal cortex; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26343591 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26343527
78.
Soc Neurosci. 2015 Sep 17:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
Altering risky decision-making: Influence of impulsivity on the neuromodulation of prefrontal cortex.
Cheng GL1,2,3, Lee TM1,2,3,4.
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Abstract
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves complex cognitive abilities, including risky decision-making; the modulation of this brain area is shown to alter the way people take risks. Yet, neuromodulation of the PFC in relation to risk-taking behavior remains relatively less well-studied. Moreover, the psychological variables that influence such neuromodulation remain poorly understood. To address these issues, 16 participants took part in 3 experimental sessions on separate days. They received: (i) left anodal-right cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); (ii) left cathodal-right anodal stimulation; or (iii) sham stimulation while they completed two risk-taking tasks. They also measured on several cognitive-affective abilities and personality traits. It was revealed that left cathodal-right anodal stimulation led to significantly reduced risk-taking under a context of haste. The reduction of risk-taking (relative to sham) correlated with state and trait impulsivity, such that the effect was larger in more impulsive individuals. For these individuals, the tDCS effect size was considered to be large (generalized partial η2 > .17). The effect of prefrontal-neuromodulation in reducing risk-taking was influenced by baseline impulsivity, reflecting a state-dependent effect of neuromodulation on the PFC. The results of this study carry important insights into the use of neuromodulation to alter higher cognition.
KEYWORDS:
Barratt Impulsivity Scale; Frontal lobe; Risky decision-making; Stroop; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26343527 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26342062
79.
Hum Factors. 2015 Sep;57(6):1051-62. doi: 10.1177/0018720814565189. Epub 2014 Dec 29.
Reducing the Disruptive Effects of Interruptions With Noninvasive Brain Stimulation.
Blumberg EJ1, Foroughi CK2, Scheldrup MR2, Peterson MS2, Boehm-Davis DA2, Parasuraman R2.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
The authors determine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can reduce resumption time when an ongoing task is interrupted.
BACKGROUND:
Interruptions are common and disruptive. Working memory capacity has been shown to predict resumption lag (i.e., time to successfully resume a task after interruption). Given that tDCS applied to brain areas associated with working memory can enhance performance, tDCS has the potential to improve resumption lag when a task is interrupted.
METHOD:
Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups that received anodal (active) stimulation of 2 mA tDCS to one of two target brain regions, left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), or to one of two control areas, active stimulation of the left primary motor cortex or sham stimulation of the right DLPFC, while completing a financial management task that was intermittently interrupted with math problem solving.
RESULTS:
Anodal stimulation to the right and left DLPFC significantly reduced resumption lags compared to the control conditions (sham and left motor cortex stimulation). Additionally, there was no speed-accuracy tradeoff (i.e., the improvement in resumption time was not accompanied by an increased error rate).
CONCLUSION:
Noninvasive brain stimulation can significantly decrease resumption lag (improve performance) after a task is interrupted.
APPLICATION:
Noninvasive brain stimulation offers an easy-to-apply tool that can significantly improve interrupted task performance.
© 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
KEYWORDS:
resumption lag; speed-accuracy tradeoff; tDCS; working memory
PMID: 26342062 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26341690
80.
Nervenarzt. 2015 Sep 6. [Epub ahead of print]
[Non-invasive brain stimulation for treatment of schizophrenic psychoses].
[Article in German]
Hasan A1, Wobrock T, Palm U, Strube W, Padberg F, Falkai P, Fallgatter A, Plewnia C.
Author information
Abstract
Despite many different available pharmacological and psychosocial treatment options, an optimal control of symptoms is only partly possible for most schizophrenia patients. Especially, persistent auditory hallucinations, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment are difficult to treat symptoms. Several non-invasive brain stimulation techniques are increasingly being considered as new therapeutic add on options for the management of schizophrenia, targeting these symptom domains. The technique which has been available for the longest time and that is best established in clinical care is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). New stimulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) allow a more pathophysiological-based approach. This review article introduces various non-invasive brain stimulation techniques and discusses recent treatment studies on schizophrenia. In total, the novel brain stimulation techniques discussed here can be considered relevant add on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia. In this context, the best evidence is available for the application of rTMS for the treatment of negative symptoms and persistent auditory hallucinations; however, negative studies have also been published for both indications. Studies using other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques showed promising results but further research is needed to establish the clinical efficacy. Based on a growing pathophysiological knowledge, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques provide new treatment perspectives for patients with schizophrenia.
PMID: 26341690 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26341449
81.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Aug 17. pii: S1935-861X(15)01105-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.08.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Interruption of Epilepsia Partialis Continua by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.
Grippe TC1, Brasil-Neto JP2, Boechat-Barros R3, Cunha NS1, Oliveira PL4.
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PMID: 26341449 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26339678
82.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015 Aug;2(8):843-56. doi: 10.1002/acn3.226. Epub 2015 Jul 3.
Acute seizure suppression by transcranial direct current stimulation in rats.
Dhamne SC1, Ekstein D2, Zhuo Z3, Gersner R1, Zurakowski D4, Loddenkemper T1, Pascual-Leone A5, Jensen FE6, Rotenberg A7.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a focal neuromodulation technique that suppresses cortical excitability by low-amplitude constant electrical current, and may have an antiepileptic effect. Yet, tDCS has not been tested in status epilepticus (SE). Furthermore, a combined tDCS and pharmacotherapy antiseizure approach is unexplored. We therefore examined in the rat pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) SE model whether cathodal tDCS (1) suppresses seizures, (2) augments lorazepam (LZP) efficacy, and (3) enhances GABAergic cortical inhibition.
METHODS:
Experiment 1 aimed to identify an effective cathodal tDCS intensity. Rats received intraperitoneal PTZ followed by tDCS (sham, cathodal 1 mA, or cathodal 0.1 mA; for 20 min), and then a second PTZ challenge. In Experiment 2, two additional animal groups received a subtherapeutic LZP dose after PTZ, and then verum or sham tDCS. Clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) epileptic activity were compared between all groups. In Experiment 3, we measured GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) in rats that received PTZ or saline, and either verum or sham tDCS.
RESULTS:
Cathodal 1 mA tDCS (1) reduced EEG spike bursts, and suppressed clinical seizures after the second PTZ challenge, (2) in combination with LZP was more effective in seizure suppression and improved the clinical seizure outcomes compared to either tDCS or LZP alone, and (3) prevented the loss of ppTMS motor cortex inhibition that accompanied PTZ injection.
INTERPRETATION:
These results suggest that cathodal 1 mA tDCS alone and in combination with LZP can suppress seizures by augmenting GABAergic cortical inhibition.
PMID: 26339678 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4554445 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26339204
83.
Yale J Biol Med. 2015 Sep 3;88(3):219-25. eCollection 2015.
A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants.
Xu J1, Healy SM1, Truong DQ2, Datta A2, Bikson M2, Potenza MN3.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study’s aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study.
KEYWORDS:
affect; cognitive function; non-invasive brain stimulation; tDCS; working memory
PMID: 26339204 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4553641 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26338339
84.
J Neurosci. 2015 Sep 2;35(35):12287-302. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1827-15.2015.
Altering Effort Costs in Parkinson’s Disease with Noninvasive Cortical Stimulation.
Salimpour Y1, Mari ZK2, Shadmehr R3.
Author information
Abstract
In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the human brain is capable of producing motor commands, but appears to require greater than normal subjective effort, particularly for the more-affected side. What is the nature of this subjective effort and can it be altered? We used an isometric task in which patients produced a goal force by engaging both arms, but were free to assign any fraction of that force to each arm. The patients preferred their less-affected arm, but only in some directions. This preference was correlated with lateralization of signal-dependent noise: the direction of force for which the brain was less willing to assign effort to an arm was generally the direction for which that arm exhibited greater noise. Therefore, the direction-dependent noise in each arm acted as an implicit cost that discouraged use of that arm. To check for a causal relationship between noise and motor cost, we used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex, placing the cathode on the more-affected side and the anode on the less-affected side. This stimulation not only reduced the noise on the more-affected arm, it also increased the willingness of the patients to assign force to that arm. In a 3 d double-blind study and in a 10 d repeated stimulation study, bilateral stimulation of the two motor cortices with cathode on the more-affected side reduced noise and increased the willingness of the patients to exert effort. This stimulation also improved the clinical motor symptoms of the disease.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:
In Parkinson’s disease, patients are less willing to assign force to their affected arm. Here, we find that this pattern is direction dependent: directions for which the arm is noisier coincide with directions for which the brain is less willing to assign force. We hypothesized that if we could reduce the noise on the affected arm, then we may increase the willingness for the brain to assign force to that arm. We found a way to do this via noninvasive cortical stimulation. In addition to reducing effort costs associated with the affected arm, the cortical stimulation also improved clinical motor symptoms of the disease.
Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512287-16$15.00/0.
KEYWORDS:
Parkinson’s disease; motor costs; signal-dependent noise; tDCS
PMID: 26338339 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4556793 [Available on 2016-03-02]
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Select item 26338333
85.
J Neurosci. 2015 Sep 2;35(35):12232-40. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1717-15.2015.
Medial-Frontal Stimulation Enhances Learning in Schizophrenia by Restoring Prediction Error Signaling.
Reinhart RM1, Zhu J1, Park S2, Woodman GF2.
Author information
Abstract
Posterror learning, associated with medial-frontal cortical recruitment in healthy subjects, is compromised in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report novel evidence for the mechanisms underlying learning dysfunctions in schizophrenia. We show that, by noninvasively passing direct current through human medial-frontal cortex, we could enhance the event-related potential related to learning from mistakes (i.e., the error-related negativity), a putative index of prediction error signaling in the brain. Following this causal manipulation of brain activity, the patients learned a new task at a rate that was indistinguishable from healthy individuals. Moreover, the severity of delusions interacted with the efficacy of the stimulation to improve learning. Our results demonstrate a causal link between disrupted prediction error signaling and inefficient learning in schizophrenia. These findings also demonstrate the feasibility of nonpharmacological interventions to address cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:
When there is a difference between what we expect to happen and what we actually experience, our brains generate a prediction error signal, so that we can map stimuli to responses and predict outcomes accurately. Theories of schizophrenia implicate abnormal prediction error signaling in the cognitive deficits of the disorder. Here, we combine noninvasive brain stimulation with large-scale electrophysiological recordings to establish a causal link between faulty prediction error signaling and learning deficits in schizophrenia. We show that it is possible to improve learning rate, as well as the neural signature of prediction error signaling, in patients to a level quantitatively indistinguishable from that of healthy subjects. The results provide mechanistic insight into schizophrenia pathophysiology and suggest a future therapy for this condition.
Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512232-09$15.00/0.
KEYWORDS:
error-related negativity; executive control; learning; medial–frontal cortex; schizophrenia; transcranial direct-current stimulation
PMID: 26338333 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4556788 [Available on 2016-03-02]
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Select item 26329874
86.
Auton Neurosci. 2015 Aug 28. pii: S1566-0702(15)30021-7. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2015.08.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial direct current stimulation on the autonomic modulation and exercise time in individuals with spinal cord injury. A case report.
Silva FT1, Rêgo JT1, Raulino FR1, Silva MR1, Reynaud F2, Egito ES3, Dantas PM1.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
To report the effect of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of an individual, a sedentary male subject with complete chronic spinal cord injury at the T11-T12 levels.
METHODS:
The individual underwent three experimental sessions: control, sham and anodal tDCS. Before, during and after exercise sessions, the following variables were recorded: heart rate variability, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), power and glucose (this one only before and after the exercise).
RESULTS:
The anodal tDCS provided greater exercise time and power, lower perceived exertion, greater reduction in glucose, and an increase in time to reach the threshold of heart rate variability.
CONCLUSIONS:
tDCS caused an improvement in the exercise tolerance, probably due to the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and the pain, characterized by reduced RPE.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Heart rate variability; Perceived exertion; Spinal cord injury; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26329874 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26329381
87.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Sep 2. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.270. [Epub ahead of print]
Chronic Enhancement of Serotonin Facilitates Excitatory Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation-Induced Neuroplasticity.
Kuo HI1, Paulus W1, Batsikadze G1, Jamil A1, Kuo MF2, Nitsche MA1,2,3.
Author information
Abstract
Serotonin affects memory formation via modulating long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). Accordingly, acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) administration enhanced LTP-like plasticity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans. However, it usually takes some time for SSRI to reduce clinical symptoms such as anxiety, negative mood, and related symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. This might be related to an at least partially different effect of chronic serotonergic enhancement on plasticity, as compared with single-dose medication. Here we explored the impact of chronic application of the SSRI citalopram (CIT) on plasticity induced by tDCS in healthy humans in a partially double-blinded, placebo (PLC)-controlled, randomized crossover study. Furthermore, we explored the dependency of plasticity induction from the glutamatergic system via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism. Twelve healthy subjects received PLC medication, combined with anodal or cathodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex. Afterwards, the same subjects took CIT (20 mg/day) consecutively for 35 days. During this period, four additional interventions were performed (CIT and PLC medication with anodal/cathodal tDCS, CIT and dextromethorphan (150 mg) with anodal/cathodal tDCS). Plasticity was monitored by motor-evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Chronic application of CIT increased and prolonged the LTP-like plasticity induced by anodal tDCS for over 24 h, and converted cathodal tDCS-induced LTD-like plasticity into facilitation. These effects were abolished by dextromethorphan. Chronic serotonergic enhancement results in a strengthening of LTP-like glutamatergic plasticity, which might partially explain the therapeutic impact of SSRIs in depression and other neuropsychiatric diseases.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 23 September 2015; doi:10.1038/npp.2015.270.
PMID: 26329381 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26327480
88.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2015 Aug;83(8):e11-e13. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in a Patient with PRES and Bipolar Depression.
Palm U1, Padberg F1, Remi J2.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool for brain stimulation and has proven efficacy in depressive disorders. Here, we report the case of a patient with recurrent bipolar depressive disorder and neurologic complications due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to parathyroid adenoma. During a long-term hospital stay, multiple drug regimens did not resolve depressive symptoms. Finally, an add-on therapy with tDCS brought improvement of symptoms. This case highlights the feasibility of tDCS in treatment-resistant depression and concomitant neurologic disorder.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
PMID: 26327480 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26327098
89.
J Vis. 2015 Sep 1;15(12):1410. doi: 10.1167/15.12.1410.
Transient disruption in the face perception network: combining TMS and fMRI.
Pitcher D.
Abstract
Faces contain structural information, for identifying individuals, as well as changeable information, that can convey emotion and direct attention. Neuroimaging studies reveal brain regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial aspects but the functional connections between these regions are unknown. This issue was addressed by causally disrupting two face-selective regions with thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) and measuring the effects of this disruption in local and remote face-selective regions with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were scanned, over two sessions, while viewing dynamic or static faces and objects. During these sessions, TBS was delivered over the right occipital face area (rOFA) or right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS). Disruption of the rOFA reduced the neural response to both static and dynamic faces in the downstream face-selective region in the fusiform gyrus. In contrast, the response to dynamic and static faces was doubly dissociated in the rpSTS. Namely, disruption of the rOFA reduced the response to static but not dynamic faces, while disruption of the rpSTS itself, reduced the response to dynamic but not static faces. These results suggest that dynamic and static facial aspects are processed via dissociable cortical pathways that begin in early visual cortex, a conclusion inconsistent with current models of face perception.
PMID: 26327098 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26326456
90.
J Vis. 2015 Sep 1;15(12):768. doi: 10.1167/15.12.768.
Cathodal trans-cranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) modifies discrimination thresholds of the slope of the amplitude spectrum.
Richard B, Birkett R, Hansen B, Johnson A.
Abstract
When asked to determine perceived contrast in natural scenes, humans rely more heavily on a subset of spatial frequency bands around the peak of the CSF (Haun & Peli, 2013). Interestingly, the bands used by observers shift as a function of the global amplitude spectra of natural images: observers use lower spatial frequencies for natural images with steeper slopes (α&gt;1), and higher spatial frequencies for natural images with shallower slopes (α&lt; 1). We aimed to explore this effect further by directly manipulating slope discrimination thresholds to both steep and shallow slopes with trans-cranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a neuro-stimulator that modulates the membrane potential of cortical neurons and alters their responses to visually presented stimuli. The effects of tDCS are spatial frequency dependent, and only modulate contrast perception to high spatial frequencies. Thus, if observers rely more heavily on contrast at high spatial frequencies when the amplitude spectrum slope of an image is shallow, cathodal-tDCS (c-tDCS) should decrease discrimination thresholds by increasing contrast sensitivity to high spatial frequencies. Conversely, anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) should increase discrimination thresholds for shallow slopes. Discrimination thresholds to steeper slopes should remain unaffected by tDCS. Participants completed two stimulation sessions, and began with either a-tDCS or c-tDCS, while a third group received sham both sessions. The c-tDCS first group showed a decrease in discrimination threshold for shallow slopes (α = 0.4, 0.7), and interestingly, also showed an increase in discrimination thresholds for steeper slopes (α = 1, 1.3, 1.6). An increase in contrast sensitivity to high spatial frequencies may benefit slope discrimination for shallow slopes, and furthermore, may also impede slope discrimination for steeper slopes. Our results are concordant with a mechanism, biased in spatial frequency, which encodes contrast in natural scenes in accordance to the relative responses of spatial frequency channels. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
PMID: 26326456 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26325728
91.
J Vis. 2015 Sep 1;15(12):40. doi: 10.1167/15.12.40.
Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation Enhances Visual Learning In Healthy Adults.
Herpich F, Melnick M, Huxlin K, Tadin D, Agosta S, Battelli L.
Abstract
Recent psychophysical studies have demonstrated that visuo-perceptual functions can improve over multiple training sessions, both in healthy adults (Sagi, 2011) and in hemianopic stroke patients (Das et al., 2014). To date, rehabilitative therapies for hemianopic patients have shown significant improvements only after many weeks of daily training. Recent studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown enhancement of visual performance in normal subjects. Notably, when current is applied in a random noise mode (tRNS), effects are seen earlier and are longer lasting. Here, we asked whether tDCS or tRNS can be used to boost visual perceptual learning of global direction discrimination, thus providing a proof-of-concept for the potential use of this approach in pathological populations. We tested 40 healthy, visually-intact subjects, aged 19-26 who were randomly assigned to 4 training groups: “anodal tDCS”, high frequency “hf-tRNS”, “sham” and “no-stimulation”. All subjects were trained to discriminate the left or right global motion direction of random-dot stimuli for 10 days (one session/day). Before and after training, we measured the subjects’ direction range and motion signal thresholds. Brain stimulation was delivered concurrently with the training task. For the active stimulation conditions, anodal tDCS was delivered over the occipital pole, while for hf-tRNS and sham, electrodes were positioned bilaterally over the left and right occipital poles. On average, all subjects improved over the two-weeks training period. However, the hf-tRNS group attained a direction range threshold of 162.88° (subtracting day10 from day1), while the “tDCS”, “sham” and “no stimulation” subjects attained a threshold of 53.57°, 126.6° and 88°, respectively. Paired sampled t-tests indicated a significant effect of hf-tRNS on performance relative to the other groups (p = .03). These results indicate that hf-tRNS may be a more effective intervention to boost visual perceptual learning than tDCS or no stimulation during visual training. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
PMID: 26325728 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26325689
92.
J Vis. 2015 Sep 1;15(12):1. doi: 10.1167/15.12.1.
The orientation dependence of the motion streak aftereffect reveals interactions between form and motion neurons.
Tang M, Dickinson J, Visser T, Badcock D.
Abstract
The extended integration time of visual neurons leads to fast-moving objects producing the neural equivalent of an orientation cue along the axis of motion. The dominant model [Geisler, W.S. (1999). Motion streaks provide a spatial code for motion direction. Nature, 400(6739), 65-69] proposes that these ‘motion streaks’ resolve the inherent directional uncertainty arising from the small size of receptive fields in V1, by combining spatial orientation with motion signals in V1. This model was tested using visual aftereffects, where adapting to a static grating causes the perceived direction of a subsequently-presented fast motion stimulus to be repelled away from the adapting orientation. Using a similar adaptation method, we measured the angular dependence of this effect and found in each human observer that a much broader range of adapting orientations (mean of 38.82º instead of 21.72°) produced aftereffects than predicted by the current model of motion streaks. This suggests that motion streaks influence motion perception at a later stage than V1. We also found that varying the spatial frequency of the adaptor by approximately two octaves changed the aftereffect from repulsive to attractive for motion, but not form stimuli. Finally, manipulations of V1 excitability, using transcranial direct current stimulation, reduced the aftereffect, suggesting that the orientation cue is dependent upon V1. These results can be accounted for if the orientation information from the motion streak, gathered in V1, enters the motion system at a later stage of motion processing, most likely V5. A new computational model of motion direction is presented incorporating gain modifications of broadly-tuned motion-selective neurons, most likely in V5, by narrowly-tuned orientation-selective cells in V1, which successfully accounts for the data in the current study. These results stress that orientation places strong constraints on motion processing in a different way than the current models predict. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
PMID: 26325689 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26324456
93.
J Med Ethics. 2015 Aug 31. pii: medethics-2015-102704. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2015-102704. [Epub ahead of print]
The practices of do-it-yourself brain stimulation: implications for ethical considerations and regulatory proposals.
Wexler A.
Abstract
Scientists and neuroethicists have recently drawn attention to the ethical and regulatory issues surrounding the do-it-yourself (DIY) brain stimulation community, which comprises individuals stimulating their own brains with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for self-improvement. However, to date, existing regulatory proposals and ethical discussions have been put forth without engaging those involved in the DIY tDCS community or attempting to understand the nature of their practices. I argue that to better contend with the growing ethical and safety concerns surrounding DIY tDCS, we need to understand the practices of the community. This study presents the results of a preliminary inquiry into the DIY tDCS community, with a focus on knowledge that is formed, shared and appropriated within it. I show that when making or acquiring a device, DIYers (as some members call themselves) produce a body of knowledge that is completely separate from that of the scientific community, and share it via online forums, blogs, videos and personal communications. However, when applying tDCS, DIYers draw heavily on existing scientific knowledge, posting links to academic journal articles and scientific resources and adopting the standardised electrode placement system used by scientists. Some DIYers co-opt scientific knowledge and modify it by creating their own manuals and guides based on published papers. Finally, I explore how DIYers cope with the methodological limitations inherent in self-experimentation. I conclude by discussing how a deeper understanding of the practices of DIY tDCS has important regulatory and ethical implications.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
KEYWORDS:
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain; Neuroethics; Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation; Regulation; Sociology
PMID: 26324456 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26321925
94.
Front Syst Neurosci. 2015 Aug 10;9:107. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00107. eCollection 2015.
Bidirectional interactions between neuronal and hemodynamic responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): challenges for brain-state dependent tDCS.
Dutta A1.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate cortical neural activity. During neural activity, the electric currents from excitable membranes of brain tissue superimpose in the extracellular medium and generate a potential at scalp, which is referred as the electroencephalogram (EEG). Respective neural activity (energy demand) has been shown to be closely related, spatially and temporally, to cerebral blood flow (CBF) that supplies glucose (energy supply) via neurovascular coupling. The hemodynamic response can be captured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which enables continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and blood volume. This neurovascular coupling phenomenon led to the concept of neurovascular unit (NVU) that consists of the endothelium, glia, neurons, pericytes, and the basal lamina. Here, recent works suggest NVU as an integrated system working in concert using feedback mechanisms to enable proper brain homeostasis and function where the challenge remains in capturing these mostly nonlinear spatiotemporal interactions within NVU for brain-state dependent tDCS. In principal accordance, we propose EEG-NIRS-based whole-head monitoring of tDCS-induced neuronal and hemodynamic alterations during tDCS.
KEYWORDS:
electroencephalogram; hemo-neural hypothesis; near-infrared spectroscopy; neurovascular coupling; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26321925 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4530593 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26321911
95.
Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Aug 11;9:307. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00307. eCollection 2015.
Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Munz MT1, Prehn-Kristensen A1, Thielking F1, Mölle M2, Göder R3, Baving L1.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF) and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO) during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD.
OBJECTIVE:
By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz) during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.
METHODS:
Fourteen boys (10-14 years) diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task.
RESULTS:
SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness, and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS.
CONCLUSION:
Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD.
KEYWORDS:
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; behavioral inhibition; prefrontal cortex; slow oscillations; transcranial direct-current stimulation
PMID: 26321911 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4531340 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26319971
96.
Cognition. 2015 Aug 27;145:73-76. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.08.010. [Epub ahead of print]
Transient reduction of visual distraction following electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex.
Cosman JD1, Atreya PV2, Woodman GF2.
Author information
Abstract
The ability to overcome distraction is critical to a number of goal-directed behaviors, but information that is not relevant to our goals often captures our attention and distracts us from the task at hand. Neuroimaging work has demonstrated that activity in specific regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is related to the suppression of distracting information, implicating PFC as a critical node in the goal-directed control network. In the current work we asked whether applying transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to PFC would influence the likelihood of attentional capture by salient, task-irrelevant visual information encountered during visual search. Our results showed that anodal stimulation, relative to sham or cathodal stimulation, led to a transient decrease in attentional capture lasting approximately 15min after stimulation. This provides causal evidence that PFC is involved in goal-directed control over distraction, and provides a basis for using PFC stimulation as a causal tool to understand deficits in goal-directed control in both neurologically healthy and impaired populations.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Attentional capture; Attentional control; Prefrontal cortex; Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS)
PMID: 26319971 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26319437
97.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 28. pii: jnnp-2015-311242. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2015-311242. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates motor learning post-stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kang N1, Summers JJ2, Cauraugh JH1.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an attractive protocol for stroke motor recovery. The current systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of tDCS on motor learning post-stroke. Specifically, we determined long-term learning effects by examining motor improvements from baseline to at least 5 days after tDCS intervention and motor practise. 17 studies reported long-term retention testing (mean retention interval=43.8 days; SD=56.6 days) and qualified for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Assessing primary outcome measures for groups that received tDCS and motor practise versus sham control groups created 21 valid comparisons: (1) 16 clinical assessments and (2) 5 motor skill acquisition tests. A random effects model meta-analysis showed a significant overall effect size=0.59 (p<0.0001; low heterogeneity, T2=0.04; I2=22.75%; and high classic fail-safe N=240). 4 moderator variable analyses revealed beneficial effects of tDCS on long-term motor learning: (1) stimulation protocols: anodal on the ipsilesional hemisphere, cathodal on the contralesional hemisphere, or bilateral; (2) recovery stage: subacute or chronic stroke; (3) stimulation timing: tDCS before or during motor practise; and (4) task-specific training or conventional rehabilitation protocols. This robust meta-analysis identified novel long-term motor learning effects with tDCS and motor practise post-stroke.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
KEYWORDS:
CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE; META-ANALYSIS; MOTOR CONTROL; STROKE; SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS
PMID: 26319437 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26319358
98.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Aug 6. pii: S1935-861X(15)01087-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.07.042. [Epub ahead of print]
Relationship Between Non-invasive Brain Stimulation-induced Plasticity and Capacity for Motor Learning.
López-Alonso V1, Cheeran B2, Fernández-Del-Olmo M3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Cortical plasticity plays a key role in motor learning (ML). Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) paradigms have been used to modulate plasticity in the human motor cortex in order to facilitate ML. However, little is known about the relationship between NIBS-induced plasticity over M1 and ML capacity.
HYPOTHESIS:
NIBS-induced MEP changes are related to ML capacity.
METHODS:
56 subjects participated in three NIBS (paired associative stimulation, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and intermittent theta-burst stimulation), and in three lab-based ML task (serial reaction time, visuomotor adaptation and sequential visual isometric pinch task) sessions.
ANALYSIS:
After clustering the patterns of response to the different NIBS protocols, we compared the ML variables between the different patterns found. We used regression analysis to explore further the relationship between ML capacity and summary measures of the MEPs change. We ran correlations with the “responders” group only.
RESULTS:
We found no differences in ML variables between clusters. Greater response to NIBS protocols may be predictive of poor performance within certain blocks of the VAT. “Responders” to AtDCS and to iTBS showed significantly faster reaction times than “non-responders.” However, the physiological significance of these results is uncertain.
CONCLUSION:
MEP changes induced in M1 by PAS, AtDCS and iTBS appear to have little, if any, association with the ML capacity tested with the SRTT, the VAT and the SVIPT. However, cortical excitability changes induced in M1 by AtDCS and iTBS may be related to reaction time and retention of newly acquired skills in certain motor learning tasks.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cortical plasticity; Motor learning; Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS); Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
PMID: 26319358 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26316227
99.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Aug 14. pii: S1935-861X(15)01095-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.08.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Nicotine Smoking Prevents the Effects of Frontotemporal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Hallucinating Patients With Schizophrenia.
Brunelin J1, Hasan A2, Haesebaert F3, Nitsche MA4, Poulet E5.
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PMID: 26316227 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26314996
100.
J Neurosurg. 2015 Aug 28:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Anterior cingulate implants for tinnitus: report of 2 cases.
De Ridder D1, Joos K2, Vanneste S3.
Author information
Abstract
Tinnitus can be distressful, and tinnitus distress has been linked to increased beta oscillatory activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The amount of distress is linked to alpha activity in the medial temporal lobe (amygdala and parahippocampal area), as well as the subgenual (sg)ACC and insula, and the functional connectivity between the parahippocampal area and the sgACC at 10 and 11.5 Hz. The authors describe 2 patients with very severely distressing intractable tinnitus who underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a double-cone coil targeting the dACC and subsequent implantation of electrodes on the dACC. One of the patients responded to the implant and one did not, even though phenomenologically they both expressed the same tinnitus loudness and distress. The responder has remained dramatically improved for more than 2 years with 6-Hz burst stimulation of the dACC. The 2 patients differed in functional connectivity between the area of the implant and a tinnitus network consisting of the parahippocampal area as well as the sgACC and insula; that is, the responder had increased functional connectivity between these areas, whereas the nonresponder had decreased functional connectivity between these areas. Only the patient with increased functional connectivity linked to the target area of repetitive TMS or implantation might transmit the stimulation current to the entire tinnitus network and thus clinically improve.
KEYWORDS:
ACC = anterior cingulate cortex; BA = Brodmann area; BOLD = blood oxygen level-dependent; DLPFC = dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; EEG = electroencephalography; HADS = Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; MEG = magnetoencephalography; NRS = numeric rating scale; TENS = transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; TMS = transcranial magnetic stimulation; TQ = tinnitus questionnaire; anterior cingulate cortex; d = dorsal; fMRI = functional MRI; functional neurosurgery; homeostatic emotion; r = repetitive; sLORETA = standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography; sg = subgenual; tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; tinnitus
PMID: 26314996 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26308973
101.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 Nov;36(11):4317-33. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22919. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
A critical role of temporoparietal junction in the integration of top-down and bottom-up attentional control.
Wu Q1, Chang CF2, Xi S1, Huang IW2, Liu Z3, Juan CH2, Wu Y1,4,5, Fan J6,7,8,9.
Author information
Abstract
Information processing can be biased toward behaviorally relevant and salient stimuli by top-down (goal-directed) and bottom-up (stimulus-driven) attentional control processes respectively. However, the neural basis underlying the integration of these processes is not well understood. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in humans to examine the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between these two processes. We manipulated the cognitive load involved in top-down processing and stimulus surprise involved in bottom-up processing in a factorial design by combining a majority function task and an oddball paradigm. We found that high cognitive load and high surprise level were associated with prolonged reaction time compared to low cognitive load and low surprise level, with a synergistic interaction effect, which was accompanied by a greater deactivation of bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ). In addition, the TPJ displayed negative functional connectivity with right middle occipital gyrus, which is involved in bottom-up processing (modulated by the interaction effect), and the right frontal eye field (FEF), which is involved in top-down control. The enhanced negative functional connectivity between the TPJ and right FEF was accompanied by a larger behavioral interaction effect across subjects. Application of cathodal tDCS over the right TPJ eliminated the interaction effect. These results suggest that the TPJ plays a critical role in processing bottom-up information for top-down control of attention. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4317-4333, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
KEYWORDS:
attentional control; fMRI; interaction; tDCS; temporoparietal junction
PMID: 26308973 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4619130 [Available on 2016-11-01]
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Select item 26308871
102.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci. 2014 Nov;5(6):649-59. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1319. Epub 2014 Sep 17.
The impact of electrical stimulation techniques on behavior.
Antal A1, Ambrus GG2, Chaieb L3.
Author information
Abstract
Low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) methods are a group of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, whereby currents are applied with intensities typically ranging between 1 and 2 mA, through the human scalp. These techniques have been shown to induce changes in cortical excitability and activity during and after the stimulation in a reversible manner. They include transcranial direct current simulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current simulation (tACS), and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Currently, an increasing number of studies have been published regarding the effects of tES on cognitive performance and behavior. Processes of learning and increases in cognitive performance are accompanied by changes in cortical plasticity. tES can impact upon these processes and is able to affect task execution. Many studies have been based on the accepted idea that by increasing cortical excitability (e.g., by applying anodal tDCS) or coherence of oscillatory activity (e.g., by applying tACS) an increase in performance should be detected; however, a number of studies now suggest that the basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action is insufficient to predict the outcome of applied stimulation on the execution of a cognitive or behavioral task, and so far no standard paradigms for increasing cortical plasticity changes during learning or cognitive tasks have been established. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings with regard to the effects of tES on behavior concentrating on the motor and visual areas. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:649-659. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1319 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST:
The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 26308871 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26303954
103.
Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2015 Sep;58(4):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2015.07.388. Epub 2015 Aug 21.
Hemi-spatial neglect rehabilitation using non-invasive brain stimulation: Or how to modulate the disconnection syndrome?
Jacquin-Courtois S1.
Author information
Abstract
Hemi-spatial neglect syndrome is common and sometimes long-lasting. It is characterized by a deficit in the use and awareness of one side of space, most often consecutive to a right hemisphere injury, mainly in the parietal region. Acknowledging the different types and all clinical characteristics is essential for an appropriate evaluation and adapted rehabilitation care management, especially as it constitutes a predictive factor of a poor functional prognosis. Some new approaches have been developed in the last fifteen years in the field of hemi-spatial neglect rehabilitation, where non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS and tDCS) holds an important place. Today’s approaches of unilateral spatial neglect modulation via non-invasive brain stimulation are essentially based on the concept of inter-hemispheric inhibition, suggesting an over-activation of the contralesional hemisphere due to a decrease of the inhibiting influences of the injured hemisphere. Several approaches may then be used: stimulation of the injured right hemisphere, inhibition of the hyperactive left hemisphere, or a combination of both. Results are promising, but the following complementary aspects must be refined before a more systematic application: optimal stimulation protocol, individual management according to the injured region, intensity, duration and frequency of care management, delay post-stroke before the beginning of treatment, combination of different approaches, as well as prognostic and efficacy criteria. An encouraging perspective for the future is the combination of several types of approaches, which would be largely facilitated by the improvement of fundamental knowledge on neglect mechanisms, which could in the future refine the choice for the most appropriate treatment(s) for a given patient.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Neuromodulation; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Rehabilitation; Spatial neglect
PMID: 26303954 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26303936
104.
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Aug 24. pii: sbv114. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Fronto-Temporal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Left Temporo-Parietal Junction in Patients With Schizophrenia.
Mondino M1, Jardri R2, Suaud-Chagny MF1, Saoud M1, Poulet E1, Brunelin J3.
Author information
Abstract
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia are associated with abnormal hyperactivity in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and abnormal connectivity between frontal and temporal areas. Recent findings suggest that fronto-temporal transcranial Direct Current stimulation (tDCS) with the cathode placed over the left TPJ and the anode over the left prefrontal cortex can alleviate treatment-resistant AVH in patients with schizophrenia. However, brain correlates of the AVH reduction are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of tDCS on the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the left TPJ. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and treatment-resistant AVH were randomly allocated to receive 10 sessions of active (2 mA, 20min) or sham tDCS (2 sessions/d for 5 d). We compared the rs-FC of the left TPJ between patients before and after they received active or sham tDCS. Relative to sham tDCS, active tDCS significantly reduced AVH as well as the negative symptoms. Active tDCS also reduced rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left anterior insula and the right inferior frontal gyrus and increased rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left angular gyrus, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. The reduction of AVH severity was correlated with the reduction of the rs-FC between the left TPJ and the left anterior insula. These findings suggest that the reduction of AVH induced by tDCS is associated with a modulation of the rs-FC within an AVH-related brain network, including brain areas involved in inner speech production and monitoring.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
KEYWORDS:
brain stimulation; fMRI; resting state; temporal cortex
PMID: 26303936 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Free full text
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Select item 26301175
105.
Curr Treat Options Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;1(2):107-120.
Current and emergent treatments for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Javitt DC1.
Author information
KEYWORDS:
D-serine; NMDA receptor; Schizophrenia; antipsychotics; atypical antipsychotic; cognitive dysfunction; cognitive therapy; dopamine; dopamine receptor; glutamate; glycine; glycine transport inhibitor; negative symptoms; neuromodulation; positive symptoms; psychosis; serotonin receptor; transcranial direct current stimulation; typical antipsychotic
PMID: 26301175 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4540407 [Available on 2016-06-01]
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Select item 26300790
106.
Front Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 4;6:111. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00111. eCollection 2015.
Spreading Effect of tDCS in Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Shown by Functional Cortical Networks: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial.
Cosmo C1, Ferreira C2, Miranda JG2, do Rosário RS2, Baptista AF3, Montoya P4, de Sena EP5.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to modulate spontaneous neural network excitability. The cognitive improvement observed in previous trials raises the potential of this technique as a possible therapeutic tool for use in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. However, to explore the potential of this technique as a treatment approach, the functional parameters of brain connectivity and the extent of its effects need to be more fully investigated.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to investigate a functional cortical network (FCN) model based on electroencephalographic activity for studying the dynamic patterns of brain connectivity modulated by tDCS and the distribution of its effects in individuals with ADHD.
METHODS:
Sixty ADHD patients participated in a parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Individuals underwent a single session of sham or anodal tDCS at 1 mA of current intensity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 20 min. The acute effects of stimulation on brain connectivity were assessed using the FCN model based on electroencephalography activity.
RESULTS:
Comparing the weighted node degree within groups prior to and following the intervention, a statistically significant difference was found in the electrodes located on the target and correlated areas in the active group (p < 0.05), while no statistically significant results were found in the sham group (p ≥ 0.05; paired-sample Wilcoxon signed-rank test).
CONCLUSION:
Anodal tDCS increased functional brain connectivity in individuals with ADHD compared to data recorded in the baseline resting state. In addition, although some studies have suggested that the effects of tDCS are selective, the present findings show that its modulatory activity spreads. Further studies need to be performed to investigate the dynamic patterns and physiological mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of tDCS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01968512.
KEYWORDS:
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; functional cortical networks; spreading effect; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26300790 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4524049 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26297812
107.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Oct;57:105-17. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.08.010. Epub 2015 Aug 20.
Transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: Neurophysiological mechanisms and behavioral effects.
Broeder S1, Nackaerts E2, Heremans E3, Vervoort G4, Meesen R5, Verheyden G6, Nieuwboer A7.
Author information
Abstract
Recent research has highlighted the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to complement rehabilitation effects in the elderly and in patients with neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). TDCS can modulate cortical excitability and enhance neurophysiological mechanisms that compensate for impaired learning in PD. The objective of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the effects of tDCS on neurophysiological and behavioral outcome measures in PD patients, both as a stand-alone and as an adjunctive therapy. We systematically reviewed the literature published throughout the last 10 years. Ten studies were included, most of which were sham controlled. Results confirmed that tDCS applied to the motor cortex had significant results on motor function and to a lesser extent on cognitive tests. However, the physiological mechanism underlying the long-term effects of tDCS on cortical excitability in the PD brain are still unclear and need to be clarified in order to apply this technique optimally to a wider population in the different disease stages and with different medication profiles.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Neuroplasticity; Parkinson’s disease; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26297812 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26297371
108.
BMJ Open. 2015 Aug 21;5(8):e008482. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008482.
Combined exercise and transcranial direct current stimulation intervention for knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.
Chang WJ1, Bennell KL2, Hodges PW3, Hinman RS2, Liston MB1, Schabrun SM1.
Author information
Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. The knee joint is commonly affected, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Exercise is considered the cornerstone of conservative management, yet meta-analyses indicate, at best, moderate effect sizes. Treatments that bolster the effects of exercise, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may improve outcomes in knee OA. The aims of this pilot study are to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined tDCS and exercise intervention in knee OA, and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully-powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS:
A pilot randomised, assessor-blind and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial. 20 individuals with knee OA who report a pain score of 40 or more on a 100 mm visual analogue scale on walking, and meet a priori selection criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either: (1) active tDCS plus exercise, or (2) sham tDCS plus exercise. All participants will receive 20 min of either active or sham tDCS immediately prior to 30 min of supervised muscle strengthening exercise twice a week for 8 weeks. Participants in both groups will also complete unsupervised home exercises twice per week. Outcome measures of feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. Analyses of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be used to determine trends of effectiveness and will be based on intention-to-treat as well as per protocol.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:
This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be submitted for peer-reviewed publication.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:
ANZCTR365331.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
PMID: 26297371 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4550738 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26294062
109.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jul 17. pii: S1935-861X(15)01052-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.07.027. [Epub ahead of print]
‘I-wave’ Recruitment Determines Response to tDCS in the Upper Limb, but Only So Far.
McCambridge AB1, Stinear JW1, Byblow WD2.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) can facilitate primary motor cortex (M1), but the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by a-tDCS varies between participants, and may depend on the balance between early versus late I-wave recruitment, as assessed by the difference in MEP latency between latero-medial and anterior-posterior cortical currents induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).
OBJECTIVE:
To date, the dependence of tDCS after-effects on I-wave recruitment has only been investigated in intrinsic hand muscles. In order to better understand the effects of tDCS across the upper limb, the present study examined I-wave recruitment and MEP modulation by a-tDCS or dual-hemisphere tDCS in muscles of the forearm (Extensor Carpi Radialis; ECR) and proximal upper limb (Biceps Brachii; BB).
METHODS:
We conducted a randomized double-blind study with 18 healthy adults. Each received anodal, dual-hemisphere, or sham tDCS over M1 in separate sessions (tDCS, 1 mA for 15 min).
RESULTS:
Linear regression analyzes showed a-tDCS modulated MEP size dependent on the latency difference in the ECR (P = 0.01) but not BB (P = 0.28). Individuals with small MEP latency differences showed the expected facilitation of ECR MEPs after a-tDCS, whereas those with large MEP latency differences had suppressed ECR MEPs after a-tDCS. This relationship was not present after dual-hemisphere or sham tDCS in either muscle (all P > 0.32).
CONCLUSIONS:
I-wave recruitment can predict the after-effects of a-tDCS in the distal but not proximal upper limb. These findings provide further insight into the variability of tDCS after-effects, and the relationship between I-wave recruitment and putative mechanisms of tDCS.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Electrode montage; I-waves; MEP; Proximal; TMS; tDCS
PMID: 26294062 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26294061
110.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jul 23. pii: S1935-861X(15)01056-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.07.031. [Epub ahead of print]
Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in Response to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at Varying Current Intensities.
Chew T1, Ho KA1, Loo CK2.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Translation of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from research to clinical practice is hindered by a lack of consensus on optimal stimulation parameters, significant inter-individual variability in response, and in sufficient intra-individual reliability data.
OBJECTIVES:
Inter-individual differences in response to anodal tDCS at a range of current intensities were explored. Intra-individual reliability in response to anodal tDCS across two identical sessions was also investigated.
METHODS:
Twenty-nine subjects participated in a crossover study. Anodal-tDCS using four different current intensities (0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 mA), with an anode size of 16 cm2, was tested. The 0.5 mA condition was repeated to assess intra-individual variability. TMS was used to elicit 40 motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before 10 min of tDCS, and 20 MEPs at four time-points over 30 min following tDCS.
RESULTS:
ANOVA revealed no main effect of TIME for all conditions except the first 0.5 mA condition, and no differences in response between the four current intensities. Cluster analysis identified two clusters for the 0.2 and 2 mA conditions only. Frequency distributions based on individual subject responses (excitatory, inhibitory or no response) to each condition indicate possible differential responses between individuals to different current intensities. Test-retest reliability was negligible (ICC(2,1) = -0.50).
CONCLUSIONS:
Significant inter-individual variability in response to tDCS across a range of current intensities was found. 2 mA and 0.2 mA tDCS were most effective at inducing a distinct response. Significant intra-individual variability in response to tDCS was also found. This has implications for interpreting results of single-session tDCS experiments.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Current intensity; Inter-individual variability; Intra-individual variability; Motor cortex; Reliability; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26294061 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26285208
111.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2015 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Development and Validation of a Miniature Programmable tDCS Device.
Kouzani A, Jaberzadeh S, Zoghi M, Usma C, Parastarfeizabadi M.
Abstract
Research is being conducted on the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for therapeutic effects, and also on the mechanisms through which such therapeutic effects are mediated. A bottleneck in the progress of the research has been the large size of the existing tDCS systems which prevents subjects from performing their daily activities. To help research into the principles, mechanisms, and benefits of tDCS, reduction of size and weight, improvement in simplicity and user friendliness, portability, and programmability of tDCS systems are vital. This paper presents a design for a low-cost, light-weight, programmable, and portable tDCS device. The device is head-mountable, and can be concealed in a hat and worn on the head by the subject while receiving the stimulation. The strength of the direct current stimulation can be selected through a simple user interface. The device is constructed and its performance evaluated through bench and in-vivo tests. The tests validated the operation of the device in inducing neuromodulatory changes in primary motor cortex, M1, through measuring excitability of dominant M1 of resting right first dorsal interosseus muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation induced motor evoked potentials. It was observed that the tDCS device induced comparable neuromodulatory effects in M1 as the existing bulky tDCS systems.
PMID: 26285208 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26285055
112.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Numeric Investigation of Brain Tumor Influence on the Current Distributions during Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.
Song B, Wen P, Ahfock T, Li Y.
Abstract
This study constructed a series of high resolution realistic human head models with brain tumors and numerically investigated the influence of brain tumor’s location and grade on the current distributions under different electrode montages during tDCS. The threshold area and the peak current density were also derived and analyzed in the region of interest. The simulation result showed that it is safe to apply tDCS on the patients with brain tumors to treat their neuropsychiatric conditions and cancer pain caused by the tumor, though considerable changes of the current distributions are induced by the present of a brain tumor. In addition, several observations on the global and local influences of tumor grade and possible edema have been made as well. These findings should be helpful for researchers and clinical doctors to treat patients with brain tumors. This study is also the first numerical study to fill in the gap of tDCS applications on the patients with brain tumors.
PMID: 26285055 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26284996
113.
J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Aug 18:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Left Dorsolateral pFC on the Attentional Blink Depend on Individual Baseline Performance.
London RE1, Slagter HA2.
Author information
Abstract
Selection mechanisms that dynamically gate only relevant perceptual information for further processing and sustained representation in working memory are critical for goal-directed behavior. We examined whether this gating process can be modulated by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over left dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC)-a region known to play a key role in working memory and conscious access. Specifically, we examined the effects of tDCS on the magnitude of the so-called “attentional blink” (AB), a deficit in identifying the second of two targets presented in rapid succession. Thirty-four participants performed a standard AB task before (baseline), during, and after 20 min of 1-mA anodal and cathodal tDCS in two separate sessions. On the basis of previous reports linking individual differences in AB magnitude to individual differences in DLPFC activity and on suggestions that effects of tDCS depend on baseline brain activity levels, we hypothesized that anodal tDCS over left DLPFC would modulate the magnitude of the AB as a function of individual baseline AB magnitude. Indeed, individual differences analyses revealed that anodal tDCS decreased the AB in participants with a large baseline AB but increased the AB in participants with a small baseline AB. This effect was only observed during (but not after) stimulation, was not found for cathodal tDCS, and could not be explained by regression to the mean. Notably, the effects of tDCS were not apparent at the group level, highlighting the importance of taking individual variability in performance into account when evaluating the effectiveness of tDCS. These findings support the idea that left DLPFC plays a critical role in the AB and in conscious access more generally. They are also in line with the notion that there is an optimal level of prefrontal activity for cognitive function, with both too little and too much activity hurting performance.
PMID: 26284996 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26283952
114.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Aug 3;9:438. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00438. eCollection 2015.
Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the Recognition of Bodily Emotions from Point-Light Displays.
Vonck S1, Swinnen SP2, Wenderoth N3, Alaerts K2.
Author information
Abstract
Perceiving human motion, recognizing actions, and interpreting emotional body language are tasks we perform daily and which are supported by a network of brain areas including the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Here, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with anodal (excitatory) or cathodal (inhibitory) electrodes mounted over right pSTS (target) and orbito-frontal cortex (reference) while healthy participants performed a bodily emotion recognition task using biological motion point-light displays (PLDs). Performance (accuracy and reaction times) was also assessed on a control task which was matched to the emotion recognition task in terms of cognitive and motor demands. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, receiving either anodal or cathodal stimulation, which were separated by one week to avoid residual effects of previous stimulations. Overall, tDCS brain stimulation did not affect the recognition of emotional states from PLDs. However, when emotions with a negative or positive-neutral emotional valence were analyzed separately, effects of stimulation were shown for recognizing emotions with a negative emotional valence (sadness and anger), indicating increased recognition performance when receiving anodal (excitatory) stimulation compared to cathodal (inhibitory) stimulation over pSTS. No stimulation effects were shown for the recognition of emotions with positive-neutral emotional valences. These findings extend previous studies showing structure-function relationships between STS and biological motion processing from PLDs and provide indications that stimulation effects may be modulated by the emotional valence of the stimuli.
KEYWORDS:
autism; emotion recognition; neuromodulation; point-light displays; superior temporal sulcus; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26283952 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4522557 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26283524
115.
Cerebellum. 2015 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.
Doeltgen SH1, Young J, Bradnam LV.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem.
OBJECTIVE:
The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults.
METHODS:
Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face.
RESULTS:
Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex.
CONCLUSIONS:
Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.
PMID: 26283524 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26280313
116.
Exp Brain Res. 2015 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print]
“Unfocus” on foc.us: commercial tDCS headset impairs working memory.
Steenbergen L1, Sellaro R, Hommel B, Lindenberger U, Kühn S, Colzato LS.
Author information
Abstract
In this study, we tested whether the commercial transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) headset foc.us improves cognitive performance, as advertised in the media. A single-blind, sham-controlled, within-subject design was used to assess the effect of online and off-line foc.us tDCS-applied over the prefrontal cortex in healthy young volunteers (n = 24) on working memory (WM) updating and monitoring. WM updating and monitoring, as assessed by means of the N-back task, is a cognitive-control process that has been shown to benefit from interventions with CE-certified tDCS devices. For both online and off-line stimulation protocols, results showed that active stimulation with foc.us, compared to sham stimulation, significantly decreased accuracy performance in a well-established task tapping WM updating and monitoring. These results provide evidence for the important role of the scientific community in validating and testing far-reaching claims made by the brain training industry.
PMID: 26280313 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26279408
117.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep-Oct;8(5):898-905. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.04.010. Epub 2015 May 1.
The Homeostatic Interaction Between Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning in Humans is Related to GABAA Activity.
Amadi U1, Allman C1, Johansen-Berg H1, Stagg CJ2.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown.
OBJECTIVE:
We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning.
METHODS:
We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate.
RESULTS:
As predicted, we found that anodal tDCS prior to the motor task decreased learning rates. This worsening of learning after tDCS was accompanied by a correlated increase in GABAA activity, as measured by TMS-assessed short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI).
CONCLUSION:
This provides the first direct demonstration in humans that inhibitory synapses are the likely site for the interaction between anodal tDCS and motor learning, and further, that homeostatic plasticity at GABAA synapses has behavioral relevance in humans.
Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
GABA; Homeostatic plasticity; Motor learning; Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS)
PMID: 26279408 [PubMed – in process] Free full text
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Select item 26279407
118.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep-Oct;8(5):989-91. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.07.033. Epub 2015 Aug 3.
Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Anodal tDCS Effects on Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia.
Gomes JS1, Shiozawa P2, Dias ÁM3, Valverde Ducos D3, Akiba H4, Trevizol AP2, Bikson M5, Aboseria M5, Gadelha A3, de Lacerda AL3, Cordeiro Q2.
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PMID: 26279407 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26275346
119.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jul 17. pii: S1935-861X(15)01054-2. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.07.029. [Epub ahead of print]
Measuring Brain Stimulation Induced Changes in Cortical Properties Using TMS-EEG.
Chung SW1, Rogasch NC2, Hoy KE1, Fitzgerald PB3.
Author information
Abstract
Neuromodulatory brain stimulation can induce plastic reorganization of cortical circuits that persist beyond the period of stimulation. Most of our current knowledge about the physiological properties has been derived from the motor cortex. The integration of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable method for directly probing excitability, connectivity and oscillatory dynamics of regions throughout the brain. Offering in depth measurement of cortical reactivity, TMS-EEG allows the evaluation of TMS-evoked components that may act as a marker for cortical excitation and inhibition. A growing body of research is using concurrent TMS and EEG (TMS-EEG) to explore the effects of different neuromodulatory techniques such as repetitive TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation on cortical function, particularly in non-motor regions. In this review, we outline studies examining TMS-evoked potentials and oscillations before and after, or during a single session of brain stimulation. Investigating these studies will aid in our understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of excitability and inhibition by neuroplasticity following different stimulation paradigms.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cortical excitability; Electroencephalography (EEG); Neuromodulation; TMS-Evoked potential (TEP); Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
PMID: 26275346 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26275236
120.
Eur J Neurosci. 2015 Oct;42(7):2426-37. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13043. Epub 2015 Sep 12.
Differential effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal, motor and somatosensory cortices on cortical excitability and pain perception – a double-blind randomised sham-controlled study.
Vaseghi B1, Zoghi M2, Jaberzadeh S1.
Author information
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) over cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix, including the primary motor (M1), sensory (S1) and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices on M1/S1 excitability, sensory (STh), and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to evaluate the placebo effects of c-tDCS on induced cortical and behavioural changes. Before, immediately after and 30 min after c-tDCS the amplitude of N20-P25 components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and peak-to-peak amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured under four different experimental conditions. STh and PTh for peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were also evaluated. c-tDCS of 0.3 mA was applied for 20 min. A blinded assessor evaluated all outcome measures. c-tDCS of M1, S1 and DLPFC significantly decreased the corticospinal excitability of M1 (P < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following the application of c-tDCS over S1, M1 and DLPFC, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs decreased for at least 30 min (P < 0.05). Compared with baseline values, significant STh and PTh increases were observed after c-tDCS of these three sites. Decreasing the level of S1 and M1 excitability, following S1, M1 and DLPFC stimulation, confirmed the functional connectivities between these cortical sites involved in pain processing. Furthermore, increasing the level of STh/PTh after c-tDCS of these sites indicated that stimulation of not only M1 but also S1 and DLPFC could be considered a technique to decrease the level of pain in patients.
© 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
KEYWORDS:
cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation; motor evoked potential; pain threshold; sensory evoked potential; sensory threshold
PMID: 26275236 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26274840
121.
Mov Disord. 2015 Oct;30(12):1701-5. doi: 10.1002/mds.26356. Epub 2015 Aug 14.
Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with ataxia: A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study.
Benussi A1, Koch G2,3, Cotelli M4, Padovani A1, Borroni B1.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Numerous studies have highlighted the possibility of modulating the excitability of cerebellar circuits using transcranial direct current stimulation. The present study investigated whether a single session of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation could improve symptoms in patients with ataxia.
METHODS:
Nineteen patients with ataxia underwent a clinical and functional evaluation pre- and post-double-blind, randomized, sham, or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation.
RESULTS:
There was a significant interaction between treatment and time on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, on the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale, on the 9-Hole Peg Test, and on the 8-Meter Walking Time (P < 0.001). At the end of the sessions, all performance scores were significantly different in the sham trial, compared to the intervention trial.
CONCLUSIONS:
A single session of anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation can transiently improve symptoms in patients with ataxia and might represent a promising tool for future rehabilitative approaches.
© 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
KEYWORDS:
cerebellar ataxia; cerebellar stimulation; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26274840 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26272418
122.
Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2015 Sep;58(4):220-4. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2015.05.006. Epub 2015 Aug 10.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in motor rehabilitation after stroke: An update.
Klomjai W1, Lackmy-Vallée A2, Roche N3, Pradat-Diehl P4, Marchand-Pauvert V2, Katz R5.
Author information
Abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of adult motor disability. The number of stroke survivors is increasing in industrialized countries, and despite available treatments used in rehabilitation, the recovery of motor functions after stroke is often incomplete. Studies in the 1980s showed that non-invasive brain stimulation (mainly repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation [rTMS] and transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS]) could modulate cortical excitability and induce plasticity in healthy humans. These findings have opened the way to the therapeutic use of the 2 techniques for stroke. The mechanisms underlying the cortical effect of rTMS and tDCS differ. This paper summarizes data obtained in healthy subjects and gives a general review of the use of rTMS and tDCS in stroke patients with altered motor functions. From 1988 to 2012, approximately 1400 publications were devoted to the study of non-invasive brain stimulation in humans. However, for stroke patients with limb motor deficit, only 141 publications have been devoted to the effects of rTMS and 132 to those of tDCS. The Cochrane review devoted to the effects of rTMS found 19 randomized controlled trials involving 588 patients, and that devoted to tDCS found 18 randomized controlled trials involving 450 patients. Without doubt, rTMS and tDCS contribute to physiological and pathophysiological studies in motor control. However, despite the increasing number of studies devoted to the possible therapeutic use of non-invasive brain stimulation to improve motor recovery after stroke, further studies will be necessary to specify their use in rehabilitation.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Motor control; Plasticity; Stroke; rTMS; tDCS
PMID: 26272418 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26268673
123.
Neuromodulation. 2015 Oct;18(7):623-9. doi: 10.1111/ner.12340. Epub 2015 Aug 13.
Is Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation an Effective Predictor for Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation Treatment Success in Fibromyalgia Patients?
Plazier M1, Tchen S2, Ost J3, Joos K1, De Ridder D4, Vanneste S2.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Fibromyalgia is a disorder distinguished by pervasive musculoskeletal pain that has pervasive effects on affected individuals magnifying the importance of finding a safe and viable treatment option.
OBJECTIVE:
The goal of this study is to investigate if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment can predict the outcome of occipital nerve field stimulation (ONFS) via a subcutaneous electrode.
METHODS:
Nine patients with fibromyalgia were selected fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology-90 criteria. The patients were implanted with a subcutaneous trial-lead in the C2 dermatome innervated by the occipital nerve. After the treatment phase of ONFS using a C2 implant, each patient participated in three sessions of tDCS. Stimulation outcomes for pain suppression were examined between the two methods to determine possible correlations.
RESULTS:
Positive correlation of stimulation effect was noted between the numeric rating scale changes for pain obtained by tDCS treatments and short-term measures of ONFS, but no correlation was noted between tDCS and long-term ONFS outcomes. A correlation also was noted between short-term ONS C2 implant pain suppression and long-term ONS C2 implant treatment success.
CONCLUSIONS:
This pilot study suggests that tDCS is a predictive measure for success of OFNS in short-term but cannot be used as a predictive measure for success of long-term OFNS. Our data confirm previous findings that ONFS via an implanted electrode can improve fibromyalgia pain in a placebo-controlled way and exert a long-term pain suppression effect for ONFS via an implanted electrode.
© 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.
KEYWORDS:
Fibromyalgia; greater occipital nerve stimulation; tDCS
PMID: 26268673 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26267861
124.
PLoS One. 2015 Aug 12;10(8):e0135371. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135371. eCollection 2015.
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Cosmo C1, Baptista AF2, de Araújo AN3, do Rosário RS4, Miranda JG4, Montoya P5, de Sena EP3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Current standardized treatments for cognitive impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain limited and their efficacy restricted. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for enhancing cognitive performance in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the effects of tDCS in reducing cognitive impairment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not yet been investigated.
METHODS:
A parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of tDCS on the modulation of inhibitory control in adults with ADHD. Thirty patients were randomly allocated to each group and performed a go/no-go task before and after a single session of either anodal stimulation (1 mA) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation.
RESULTS:
A nonparametric two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test revealed no significant differences between the two groups of individuals with ADHD (tDCS vs. sham) in regard to behavioral performance in the go/no go tasks. Furthermore, the effect sizes of group differences after treatment for the primary outcome measures-correct responses, impulsivity and omission errors–were small. No adverse events resulting from stimulation were reported.
CONCLUSION:
According to these findings, there is no evidence in support of the use of anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an approach for improving inhibitory control in ADHD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical study to assess the cognitive effects of tDCS in individuals with ADHD. Further research is needed to assess the clinical efficacy of tDCS in this population.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01968512.
PMID: 26267861 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4534404 Free PMC Article
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Publication Types, Secondary Source ID
Select item 26265912
125.
Comput Intell Neurosci. 2015;2015:963293. doi: 10.1155/2015/963293. Epub 2015 Jul 21.
Effect of the Interindividual Variability on Computational Modeling of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.
Parazzini M1, Fiocchi S1, Liorni I2, Ravazzani P1.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. This paper investigates how normal variations in anatomy may affect the current flow through the brain. This was done by applying electromagnetic computational methods to human models of different age and gender and by comparing the electric field and current density amplitude distributions within the tissues. Results of this study showed that the general trend of the spatial distributions of the field amplitude shares some gross characteristics among the different human models for the same electrode montages. However, the physical dimension of the subject and his/her morphological and anatomical characteristics somehow influence the detailed field distributions such as the field values.
PMID: 26265912 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4523656 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26250473
126.
Int Psychogeriatr. 2015 Aug 7:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation upon attention and visuoperceptual function in Lewy body dementia: a preliminary study.
Elder GJ1, Firbank MJ1, Kumar H2, Chatterjee P2, Chakraborty T2, Dutt A2, Taylor JP1.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Individuals with Lewy body dementia (LBD) typically exhibit impairments in attentional and executive function. Current pharmacological treatments have limited efficacy, with associated side effects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may represent an alternative treatment, as cognitive improvements have been demonstrated in healthy individuals. However, no studies to date have assessed the feasibility of tDCS in an LBD population. The aim of this preliminary study, therefore, was to assess the tolerability of tDCS, as well as its effects upon attentional and visuoperceptual performance, in LBD patients.
METHODS:
Thirteen participants completed attentional (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and digit vigilance) and forced-choice visuoperceptual (angle and motion perception) tasks before and after one 20-min session of active tDCS (0.08 mA/cm2). The anodal electrode was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the cathodal electrode was applied to the right deltoid. Attentional (task accuracy and reaction time to correct answers) and visuoperceptual (task accuracy and difficulty) outcome measures were compared using paired t-tests.
RESULTS:
All participants tolerated stimulation and did not report any side effects during or immediately after stimulation. Post-stimulation improvements were observed in the choice reaction time (increased percentage of correct answers; p = 0.01) and digit vigilance (reduced mean reaction time to correct answers; p = 0.02) attention tasks. Visuoperceptual task performance did not improve (all p-values > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Attentional, but not visuoperceptual, improvements were observed following stimulation in LBD patients. Larger-scale, placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm whether tDCS is a useful treatment option for attentional deficits in LBD.
KEYWORDS:
Lewy body dementia; Parkinson’s disease with dementia; attention; dementia with Lewy bodies; tDCS; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26250473 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26248582
127.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 Oct;36(10):4004-15. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22893. Epub 2015 Aug 7.
Brain stimulation improves cognitive control by modulating medial-frontal activity and preSMA-vmPFC functional connectivity.
Yu J1,2, Tseng P3,4, Hung DL2, Wu SW1, Juan CH2.
Author information
Abstract
Previous research has demonstrated that brain stimulation can improve inhibitory control. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such artificially induced improvement remain unclear. In this study, by coupling anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) with functional MRI, we found that atDCS over preSMA effectively improved stopping speed, which was associated with increased BOLD response in the preSMA and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Furthermore, such atDCS-induced BOLD increase in vmPFC was positively correlated with participants’ improvement in stopping efficiency, and the functional connectivity between preSMA and vmPFC increased during successful stop. These results suggest that the rapid behavioral improvement from preSMA brain stimulation involves modulated medial-frontal activity and preSMA-vmPFC functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4004-4015, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
KEYWORDS:
fMRI; preSMA; response inhibition; tDCS; vmPFC
PMID: 26248582 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26245458
128.
Neuromodulation. 2015 Oct;18(7):580-91. doi: 10.1111/ner.12332. Epub 2015 Aug 5.
Noninvasive Spinal Cord Stimulation: Technical Aspects and Therapeutic Applications.
Nardone R1,2,3, Höller Y1,3, Taylor A1,3, Thomschewski A1,3, Orioli A2, Frey V1,3, Trinka E1,3, Brigo F2,4.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Electrical and magnetic trans-spinal stimulation can be used to increase the motor output of multiple spinal segments and modulate cortico-spinal excitability. The application of direct current through the scalp as well as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation are known to influence brain excitability, and hence can also modulate other central nervous system structures, including spinal cord.
OBJECTIVE:
This study aimed to evaluate the effects and the therapeutic usefulness of these noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques in healthy subjects and in the neurorehabilitation of patients with spinal cord disorders, as well as to discuss the possible mechanisms of action. A comprehensive review that summarizes previous studies using noninvasive spinal cord stimulation is lacking.
METHODS:
PubMed (MEDLINE) and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify the most relevant published studies. We performed here an extensive review in this field.
RESULTS:
By decreasing the spinal reflex excitability, electrical and magnetic trans-spinal stimulation could be helpful in normalizing reflex hyperexcitability and treating hypertonia in subjects with lesions to upper motor neurons. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation, based on applying direct current through the skin, influences the ascending and descending spinal pathways as well as spinal reflex excitability, and there is increasing evidence that it also can induce prolonged functional neuroplastic changes. When delivered repetitively, magnetic stimulation could also modulate spinal cord functions; however, at present only a few studies have documented spastic-reducing effects induced by repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation. Moreover, paired peripheral and transcranial stimulation can be used to target the spinal cord and may have potential for neuromodulation in spinal cord-injured subjects.
CONCLUSIONS:
Noninvasive electrical and magnetic spinal stimulation may provide reliable means to characterize important neurophysiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of spinal cord function. Moreover, transcutaneous direct current stimulation and repetitive magnetic stimulation may hold therapeutic promise in patients with spinal cord disorders, although future well-controlled studies are needed to corroborate and extend the preliminary findings.
© 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.
KEYWORDS:
Electrical trans-spinal stimulation; magnetic trans-spinal stimulation; repetitive magnetic stimulation; spinal cord disorder; transcutaneous direct current stimulation
PMID: 26245458 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26241865
129.
J Affect Disord. 2015 Oct 1;185:209-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.07.006. Epub 2015 Jul 29.
Plasma levels of soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 after tDCS and sertraline treatment in major depression: Results from the SELECT-TDCS trial.
Brunoni AR1, Machado-Vieira R2, Sampaio-Junior B3, Vieira EL4, Valiengo L3, Benseñor IM5, Lotufo PA5, Carvalho AF6, Cho HJ7, Gattaz WF8, Teixeira AL4.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The cytokine hypothesis of depression postulates that the pathophysiology of this illness incorporates an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which leads to an over-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as monoaminergic disturbances. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the amelioration of depressive symptoms could decrease cytokine levels. Notwithstanding antidepressant drug therapy might exert anti-inflammatory effects, the effects of non-invasive neuromodulatory approaches like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on pro-inflammatory cytokine networks are largely unknown.
METHODS:
We evaluated, in the Sertraline vs. Electric Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (SELECT-TDCS) trial, whether the plasma levels of the soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFRs) changed after antidepressant treatment in a sample of 73 antidepressant-free patients with unipolar depressive disorder in an episode of at least moderate intensity.
RESULTS:
Although both tDCS and sertraline exerted antidepressant effects, the plasma levels of sTNFRs did not change over time regardless of the intervention and clinical response. Also, baseline sTNFRs levels did not predict antidepressant response.
LIMITATIONS:
Our negative findings could be a type II error, as this trial did not use an equivalence design.
CONCLUSIONS:
To conclude, in this novel placebo-controlled trial prospectively evaluating the changes of sTNFRs in depressed patients, we found that these molecules are not surrogate biomarkers of treatment response of tDCS, whose antidepressant effects occurred regardless of normalization of immunological activity.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Major depressive disorder; STNFR1; STNFR2; Sertraline; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26241865 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26240994
130.
Neurosci Lett. 2015 Sep 14;604:80-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.07.042. Epub 2015 Aug 1.
Resting-state fMRI reveals enhanced functional connectivity in spatial navigation networks after transcranial direct current stimulation.
Krishnamurthy V1, Gopinath K2, Brown GS3, Hampstead BM4.
Author information
Abstract
A number of studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical excitability. We previously demonstrated polarity dependent changes in parietal lobe blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI in a group of young adults during a spatial navigation task [15]. Here we used resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) to examine whether analogous changes were also evident during the resting state. Participants were randomized to either a parietal-anodal, frontal-cathodal (P+F-) or the opposite montage (P-F+) and received 20min of tDCS (2mA) before undergoing resting-state fMRI. rsFC was evaluated between the groups by placing a seed in the medial superior parietal lobule (mSPL), which was under the target electrode. rsFC between the mSPL and a number of other areas involved in spatial navigation, scene processing, and sensorimotor processing was significantly higher in the P+F- than the P-F+ group. Thus, the modulatory effects of tDCS were evident during rest and suggest that stimulation primes not just the underlying neocortex but an extended network that can be recruited as necessary during active task performance.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cortical excitability; Functional connectivity; Resting state networks; Spatial navigation; fMRI; tDCS
PMID: 26240994 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26236219
131.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Jul 17;9:403. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00403. eCollection 2015.
The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Colombo B1, Bartesaghi N2, Simonelli L2, Antonietti A2.
Author information
Abstract
The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants’ creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants’ physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity has been supported, presumably in association to shift of attention modulated by priming.
KEYWORDS:
attention; biofeedback; creativity; divergent thinking; neurostimulation; prefrontal cortex; skin temperature; tDCS
PMID: 26236219 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4505103 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26236199
132.
Front Neuroanat. 2015 Jul 15;9:89. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00089. eCollection 2015.
State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control.
DaSilva AF1, Truong DQ2, DosSantos MF3, Toback RL1, Datta A4, Bikson M2.
Author information
Abstract
Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies promise to modulate cortical regions associated with pain, the electric current produced usually spreads beyond the area of the electrodes’ placement. Using a forward-model analysis, this study compared the neuroanatomic location and strength of the predicted electric current peaks, at cortical and subcortical levels, induced by conventional and High-Definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) montages developed for migraine and other chronic pain disorders. The electrodes were positioned in accordance with the 10-20 or 10-10 electroencephalogram (EEG) landmarks: motor cortex-supraorbital (M1-SO, anode and cathode over C3 and Fp2, respectively), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) bilateral (DLPFC, anode over F3, cathode over F4), vertex-occipital cortex (anode over Cz and cathode over Oz), HD-tDCS 4 × 1 (one anode on C3, and four cathodes over Cz, F3, T7, and P3) and HD-tDCS 2 × 2 (two anodes over C3/C5 and two cathodes over FC3/FC5). M1-SO produced a large current flow in the PFC. Peaks of current flow also occurred in deeper brain structures, such as the cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus and brainstem. The same structures received significant amount of current with Cz-Oz and DLPFC tDCS. However, there were differences in the current flow to outer cortical regions. The visual cortex, cingulate and thalamus received the majority of the current flow with the Cz-Oz, while the anterior parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri displayed an intense amount of current with DLPFC montage. HD-tDCS montages enhanced the focality, producing peaks of current in subcortical areas at negligible levels. This study provides novel information regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and strength of the electric current using several tDCS montages applied for migraine and pain control. Such information may help clinicians and researchers in deciding the most appropriate tDCS montage to treat each pain disorder.
KEYWORDS:
HD-tDCS; finite-element modeling; neuromodulation; pain; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26236199 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4502355 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26236022
133.
Brain Res. 2015 Jul 30. pii: S0006-8993(15)00579-X. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2015.07.036. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on associative memory.
Matzen LE1, Trumbo MC2, Leach RC3, Leshikar ED3.
Author information
Abstract
Associative memory refers to remembering the association between two items, such as a face and a name. It is a crucial part of daily life, but it is also one of the first aspects of memory performance that is impacted by aging and by Alzheimer׳s disease. Evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve memory performance, but few tDCS studies have investigated its impact on associative memory. In addition, no prior study of the effects of tDCS on memory performance has systematically evaluated the impact of tDCS on different types of memory assessments, such as recognition and recall tests. In this study, we measured the effects of tDCS on associative memory performance in healthy adults, using both recognition and recall tests. Participants studied face-name pairs while receiving either active (30min, 2mA) or sham (30min, 0.1mA) stimulation with the anode placed at F9 and the cathode placed on the contralateral upper arm. Participants in the active stimulation group performed significantly better on the recall test than participants in the sham group, recalling 50% more names, on average, and making fewer recall errors. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their performance on the recognition memory test. This investigation provides evidence that stimulation at the time of study improves associative memory encoding, but that this memory benefit is evident only under certain retrieval conditions.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
KEYWORDS:
Associative memory; Recall; Recognition; tDCS
PMID: 26236022 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26234387
134.
Eur J Neurosci. 2015 Oct;42(8):2527-33. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13036. Epub 2015 Aug 28.
Functional lateralization of temporoparietal junction – imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind.
Santiesteban I1, Banissy MJ2,3, Catmur C4, Bird G3,5.
Author information
Abstract
Although neuroimaging studies have consistently identified the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) as a key brain region involved in social cognition, the literature is far from consistent with respect to lateralization of function. For example, during theory-of-mind tasks bilateral TPJ activation is found in some studies but only right hemisphere activation in others. Visual perspective-taking and imitation inhibition, which have been argued to recruit the same socio-cognitive processes as theory of mind, are associated with unilateral activation of either left TPJ (perspective taking) or right TPJ (imitation inhibition). The present study investigated the functional lateralization of TPJ involvement in the above three socio-cognitive abilities using transcranial direct current stimulation. Three groups of healthy adults received anodal stimulation over right TPJ, left TPJ or the occipital cortex prior to performing three tasks (imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind). In contrast to the extant neuroimaging literature, our results suggest bilateral TPJ involvement in imitation inhibition and visual perspective-taking, while no effect of anodal stimulation was observed on theory of mind. The discrepancy between these findings and those obtained using neuroimaging highlight the efficacy of neurostimulation as a complementary methodological tool in cognitive neuroscience.
© 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
KEYWORDS:
bilateral temporoparietal junction; self-other representations; social cognition; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26234387 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26232699
135.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Oct;57:46-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.07.012. Epub 2015 Jul 29.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability.
Meron D1, Hedger N2, Garner M3, Baldwin DS4.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a potential alternative treatment option for major depressive episodes (MDE).
OBJECTIVES:
We address the efficacy and safety of tDCS in MDE.
METHODS:
The outcome measures were Hedges’ g for continuous depression ratings, and categorical response and remission rates.
RESULTS:
A random effects model indicated that tDCS was superior to sham tDCS (k=11, N=393, g=0.30, 95% CI=[0.04, 0.57], p=0.027). Adjunctive antidepressant medication and cognitive control training negatively impacted on the treatment effect. The pooled log odds ratios (LOR) for response and remission were positive, but statistically non-significant (response: k=9, LOR=0.36, 95% CI[-0.16, 0.88], p=0.176, remission: k=9, LOR=0.25, 95% CI [-0.42, 0.91], p=0.468). We estimated that for a study to detect the pooled continuous effect (g=0.30) at 80% power (alpha=0.05), a total N of at least 346 would be required (with the total N required to detect the upper and lower bound being 49 and 12,693, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS:
tDCS may be efficacious for treatment of MDE. The data do not support the use of tDCS in treatment-resistant depression, or as an add-on augmentation treatment. Larger studies over longer treatment periods are needed.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cognitive control training; Depression; Meta-analysis; Non-pharmacological therapies; Remission; Response; Systematic review; Transcranial direct current stimulation; tDCS
PMID: 26232699 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26226938
136.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jun 23. pii: S1935-861X(15)01010-4. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.008. [Epub ahead of print]
High-Definition and Non-invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD.
Donnell A1, D Nascimento T2, Lawrence M2, Gupta V2, Zieba T2, Truong DQ3, Bikson M3, Datta A4, Bellile E5, DaSilva AF6.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a high prevalence and in many patients pain and masticatory dysfunction persist despite a range of treatments. Non-invasive brain neuromodulatory methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can provide relatively long-lasting pain relief in chronic pain patients.
OBJECTIVE:
To define the neuromodulatory effect of five daily 2×2 motor cortex high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) sessions on clinical pain and motor measures in chronic TMD patients. It is predicted that M1 HD-tDCS will selectively modulate clinical measures, by showing greater analgesic after-effects compared to placebo, and active treatment will increase pain free jaw movement more than placebo.
METHODS:
Twenty-four females with chronic myofascial TMD pain underwent five daily, 20-min sessions of active or sham 2 milliamps (mA) HD-tDCS. Measurable outcomes included pain-free mouth opening, visual analog scale (VAS), sectional sensory-discriminative pain measures tracked by a mobile application, short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Follow-up occurred at one-week and four-weeks post-treatment.
RESULTS:
There were significant improvements for clinical pain and motor measurements in the active HD-tDCS group compared to the placebo group for: responders with pain relief above 50% in the VAS at four-week follow-up (P = 0.04); pain-free mouth opening at one-week follow-up (P < 0.01); and sectional pain area, intensity and their sum measures contralateral to putative M1 stimulation during the treatment week (P < 0.01). No changes in emotional values were shown between groups.
CONCLUSION:
Putative M1 stimulation by HD-tDCS selectively improved meaningful clinical sensory-discriminative pain and motor measures during stimulation, and up to four-weeks post-treatment in chronic myofascial TMD pain patients.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
KEYWORDS:
Clinical trial; Pain; PainTrek; Temporomandibular disorder; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26226938 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26224853
137.
J Neurosci. 2015 Jul 29;35(30):10675-84. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1436-15.2015.
Nonspecific Inhibition of the Motor System during Response Preparation.
Greenhouse I1, Sias A2, Labruna L2, Ivry RB2.
Author information
Abstract
Motor system excitability is transiently inhibited during the preparation of responses. Previous studies have attributed this inhibition to the operation of two mechanisms, one hypothesized to help resolve competition between alternative response options, and the other to prevent premature response initiation. By this view, inhibition should be restricted to task-relevant muscles. Although this prediction is supported in one previous study (Duque et al., 2010), studies of stopping ongoing actions suggest that some forms of motor inhibition may be widespread (Badry et al., 2009). This motivated us to conduct a series of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments to examine in detail the specificity of preparatory inhibition in humans. Motor-evoked potentials were inhibited in task-irrelevant muscles during response preparation, even when the muscles were contralateral and not homologous to the responding effector. Inhibition was also observed in both choice and simple response task conditions, with and without a preparatory interval. Control experiments ruled out that this inhibition is due to expectancy of TMS or a possible need to cancel the prepared response. These findings suggest that motor inhibition during response preparation broadly influences the motor system and likely reflects a process that occurs whenever a response is selected. We propose a reinterpretation of the functional significance of preparatory inhibition, one by which inhibition reduces noise to enhance signal processing and modulates the gain of a selected response.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:
Motor preparation entails the recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neural mechanisms. The current experiments address the specificity of inhibitory mechanisms, asking whether preparatory inhibition affects task-irrelevant muscles. Participants prepared a finger movement to be executed at the end of a short delay period. Transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex provided an assay of corticospinal excitability. Consistent with earlier work, the agonist muscle for the forthcoming response was inhibited during the preparatory period. Moreover, this inhibition was evident in task-irrelevant muscles, although the magnitude of inhibition depended on whether the response was fixed or involved a choice. These results implicate a broadly tuned inhibitory mechanism that facilitates response preparation, perhaps by lowering background activity before response initiation.
Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510675-10$15.00/0.
KEYWORDS:
action selection; decision-making; gain modulation; inhibition; response preparation; transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26224853 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC4518047 [Available on 2016-01-29]
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Select item 26221710
138.
Inf Process Med Imaging. 2015;24:650-61.
Towards a Quantified Network Portrait of a Population.
Tunç B, Shankar V, Parker D, Schultz RT, Verma R.
Abstract
Computational network analysis has enabled researchers to investigate patterns of interactions between anatomical regions of the brain. Identification of subnetworks of the human connectome can reveal how the network manages an interplay of the seemingly competing principles of functional segregation and integration. Despite the study of subnetworks of the human structural connectome by various groups, the level of expression of these subnetworks in each subject remains for the most part largely unexplored. Thus, there is a need for methods that can extract common subnetworks that together render a network portrait of a sample and facilitate analysis of the same, such as group comparisons based on the expression of the subnetworks in each subject. In this paper, we propose a framework for quantifying the subject-specific expression of subnetworks. Our framework consists of two parts, namely subnetwork detection and reconstructive projection onto subnetworks. The first part identifies subnetworks of the connectome using multi-view spectral clustering. The second part quantifies subject specific manifestations of these subnetworks by nonnegative matrix decomposition. Positivity constraint is imposed to treat each subnetwork as a structure depicting the connectivity between specific anatomical regions. We have assessed the applicability of the framework by delineating a network portrait of a clinical sample consisting of children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and a matched group of typically developing controls (TDCs). Subsequent statistical analysis on the intra- and inter-subnetwork connections, revealed decreased connectivity in ASD group between regions of social cognition, executive functions, and emotion processing.
PMID: 26221710 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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MeSH Terms
Select item 26220760
139.
Sci Rep. 2015 Jul 29;5:12178. doi: 10.1038/srep12178.
The temporary and accumulated effects of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease monkeys.
Li H1, Lei X2, Yan T3, Li H3, Huang B1, Li L4, Xu L4, Liu L4, Chen N3, Lü L5, Ma Y6, Xu L7, Li J3, Wang Z3, Zhang B2, Hu X8.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological disorders. Clinical research has demonstrated tDCS with anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients significantly improved their motor function. However, few studies have been focused on the optimization of parameters which contributed significantly to the treatment effects of tDCS and exploration of the underline neuronal mechanisms. Here, we used different stimulation parameters of anodal tDCS on M1 for the treatment of aged advanced PD monkeys induced with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and then analyzed the temporary and accumulated effects of tDCS treatment. The results indicated anodal tDCS on M1 very significantly improved motor ability temporarily; importantly, the treatment effects of anodal tDCS on M1 were quantitatively correlated to the accumulated stimulation instead of the stimuli intensity or duration respectively. In addition, c-fos staining showed tDCS treatment effects activated the neurons both in M1 and substantia nigra (SN). Therefore, we propose that long time and continue anodal tDCS on M1 is a better strategy to improve the motor symptoms of PD than individual manipulation of stimuli intensity or duration.
PMID: 26220760 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4518219 Free PMC Article
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140.
Encephale. 2015 Jul 24. pii: S0013-7006(15)00117-7. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2015.06.003. [Epub ahead of print]
[Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for depression: Results of nearly a decade of clinical research].
[Article in French]
Palm U1, Ayache SS2, Padberg F3, Lefaucheur JP2.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Since 2006 transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated in the treatment of depression. In this review, we discuss the implications and clinical perspectives that tDCS may have as a therapeutic tool in depression from the results reported in this domain.
METHODS:
A comprehensive literature review has found nearly thirty articles – all in English – on this topic, corresponding to clinical studies, placebo-controlled or not, case reports and reviews.
RESULTS:
Several meta-analyses showed that the antidepressant effects of active tDCS are significant against placebo, but variable, mainly due to the heterogeneity of the patients included in the studies, for example regarding the resistance to antidepressant treatment.
CONCLUSIONS:
Specific recommendations for the use of tDCS in treating depression may not yet be available, but some elements of good practice can be highlighted. Of particular note is that anodal tDCS of the left prefrontal cortex at 2mA for 20minutes per day has a potential therapeutic value without risk of significant side effects: tDCS offers safe conditions for clinical use in the treatment of depression.
Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Depression; Dépression; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Resistance; Résistance; Stimulation cérébrale non invasive; Traitement; Treatment; tDCS
PMID: 26216792 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26210573
141.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jun 27. pii: S1935-861X(15)01015-3. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.013. [Epub ahead of print]
A Meta-analysis of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Studies Examining the Reliability of Effects on Language Measures.
Price AR1, McAdams H2, Grossman M1, Hamilton RH3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation technique used to examine causal relationships between brain regions and cognitive functions. The effects from tDCS are complex, and the extent to which stimulation reliably affects different cognitive domains is not fully understood and continues to be debated.
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS:
To conduct a meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of single-session anodal tDCS on language.
METHODS:
The meta-analysis examined the behavioral results from eleven experiments of single-session anodal tDCS and language processing in healthy adults. The means and standard deviations of the outcome measures were extracted from each experiment and entered into the meta-analyses. In the first analysis, we examined the effects of single-session tDCS across all language studies. Next, a series of sub-analyses examined the effects of tDCS on specific tasks and stimulation protocols.
RESULTS:
There was a significant effect from anodal single-session tDCS in healthy adults compared to sham (P = 0.001) across all language measures. Next, we found significant effects on specific stimulation protocols (e.g., offline measures, P = 0.002), as well as specific tasks and electrode montages (e.g., verbal fluency measures and left prefrontal cortex, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS:
The results indicate that single-session tDCS produces significant and reliable effects on language measures in healthy adults.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Language; Meta-analysis; Reliability; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Verbal fluency; tDCS
PMID: 26210573 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26210058
142.
Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Jun 17. pii: S0006-3223(15)00492-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.06.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Frontal Cortex Stimulation Reduces Vigilance to Threat: Implications for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety.
Ironside M1, O’Shea J2, Cowen PJ3, Harmer CJ3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The difficulty in treating mood disorders has brought about clinical interest in alternative treatments, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, the optimal parameters for stimulation and underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. Psychiatric treatments have acute effects on emotional processing that predict later therapeutic action. Such effects have been proposed as cognitive biomarkers for screening novel treatments for depression and anxiety.
METHODS:
This study assessed the effect of tDCS on a battery of emotional processing measures sensitive to antidepressant action. To refine optimal stimulation parameters, DLPFC stimulation using two common electrode montages was compared with sham. Sixty healthy volunteers received 20 minutes of active or sham DLPFC stimulation before completing computerized emotional processing tasks, including a dot-probe measure of vigilance to threat.
RESULTS:
Relative to sham stimulation, participants receiving simultaneous anodal stimulation of left DLPFC and cathodal stimulation of right DLPFC (bipolar-balanced montage) showed reduced vigilance to threatening stimuli. There was no such significant effect when the cathode was placed on the supraorbital ridge (bipolar-unbalanced montage). There were no effects of tDCS on other measures of emotional processing.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our findings provide the first experimental evidence that modulating activity in the DLPFC reduces vigilance to threatening stimuli. This significant reduction in fear vigilance is similar to that seen with anxiolytic treatments in the same cognitive paradigm. The finding that DLPFC tDCS acutely alters the processing of threatening information suggests a potential cognitive mechanism that could underwrite treatment effects in clinical populations.
Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Anxiety; Cognitive biases; Depression; Emotional processing; Noninvasive brain stimulation; tDCS
PMID: 26210058 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26204566
143.
Conscious Cogn. 2015 Nov;36:298-305. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.07.005. Epub 2015 Jul 20.
Transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex in waking resting state induces motor imagery.
Speth J1, Speth C2, Harley TA2.
Author information
Abstract
This study investigates if anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences spontaneous motor imagery experienced in the waking resting state. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with tools of quantitative mentation report analysis from cognitive linguistics. The results indicate that while spontaneous motor imagery rarely occurs under sham stimulation, general and athletic motor imagery (classified as athletic disciplines), is induced by anodal tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery and corresponding motor cortical activation have been shown to benefit later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks – such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Brain stimulation; Consciousness; Dream; EEG; Mentation reports; Motor imagery; Motor system; Phenomenology; Quantitative linguistic analysis; tDCS
PMID: 26204566 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26200716
144.
Behav Brain Res. 2015 Oct 15;293:125-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.07.037. Epub 2015 Jul 19.
Better together: Left and right hemisphere engagement to reduce age-related memory loss.
Brambilla M1, Manenti R1, Ferrari C1, Cotelli M2.
Author information
Abstract
Episodic memory is a cognitive function that appears more susceptible than others to the effects of aging. The main aim of this study is to investigate if the magnitude of functional hemispheric lateralization during episodic memory test was positively correlated with memory performance, proving the presence of a beneficial pattern of neural processing in high-performing older adults but not in low-performing participants. We have applied anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation over left and right hemisphere in a group of young subjects and in high-performing and low-performing older participants during an experimental verbal episodic memory task. Remarkably, young individuals and high-performing older adults exhibited similar performances on episodic memory tasks and both groups showed symmetrical recruitment of left and right areas during memory retrieval. In contrast, low-performing older adults, who obtained lower scores on the memory tasks, demonstrated a greater engagement of the left hemisphere during verbal memory task. Furthermore, structural equation model was performed for analyzing the interrelations between the index of interhemispheric asymmetry and several neuropsychological domains. We found that the bilateral engagement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex regions had a direct correlation with memory and executive functions evaluated as latent constructs. These findings drew attention to brain maintenance hypothesis. The potential of neurostimulation in cognitive enhancement is particularly promising to prevent memory loss during aging.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Aging; Cognition; Memory; Non invasive brain stimulation; Plasticity; tDCS
PMID: 26200716 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26198366
145.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep-Oct;8(5):978-80. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.019. Epub 2015 Jul 6.
A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of the Effects of Daily tDCS Sessions Targeting the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Visual Analog Scale Scores.
Cavalcanti K1, Brasil-Neto JP2, Allam N3, Boechat-Barros R4.
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PMID: 26198366 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26198364
146.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jul 2. pii: S1935-861X(15)01020-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Use of Computational Modeling to Inform tDCS Electrode Montages for the Promotion of Language Recovery in Post-stroke Aphasia.
Galletta EE1, Cancelli A2, Cottone C3, Simonelli I4, Tecchio F5, Bikson M6, Marangolo P7.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Although pilot trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in aphasia are encouraging, protocol optimization is needed. Notably, it has not yet been clarified which of the varied electrode montages investigated is the most effective in enhancing language recovery.
OBJECTIVE:
To consider and contrast the predicted brain current flow patterns (electric field distribution) produced by varied 1×1 tDCS (1 anode, 1 cathode, 5 × 7 cm pad electrodes) montages used in aphasia clinical trials.
METHODS:
A finite element model of the head of a single left frontal stroke patient was developed in order to study the pattern of the cortical EF magnitude and inward/outward radial EF under five different electrode montages: Anodal-tDCS (A-tDCS) over the left Wernicke’s area (Montage A) and over the left Broca’s area (Montage B); Cathodal tDCS (C-tDCS) over the right homologue of Wernicke’s area (Montage C), and of Broca’s area (Montage D), where for all montages A-D the “return” electrode was placed over the supraorbital contralateral forehead; bilateral stimulation with A-tDCS over the left Broca’s and CtDCS over the right Broca’s homologue (Montage E).
RESULTS:
In all cases, the “return” electrode over the contralesional supraorbital forehead was not inert and influenced the current path through the entire brain. Montage B, although similar to montage D in focusing the current in the perilesional area, exerted the greatest effect over the left perilesional cortex, which was even stronger in montage E.
CONCLUSIONS:
The position and influence of both electrodes must be considered in the design and interpretation of tDCS clinical trials for aphasia.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Aphasia; Language rehabilitation; Modeling; Neuromodulation; tDCS
PMID: 26198364 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26198363
147.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jun 27. pii: S1935-861X(15)01016-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Pal N1, Maire R2, Stephan MA1, Herrmann FR3, Benninger DH4.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Tinnitus is an often disabling condition for which there is no effective therapy. Current research suggests that tinnitus may develop due to maladaptive plastic changes and altered activity in the auditory and prefrontal cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates brain activity and has been shown to transiently suppress tinnitus in trials.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the efficacy and safety of tDCS in the treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus.
METHODS:
In a randomized, parallel, double-blind, sham-controlled study, the efficacy and safety of cathodal tDCS to the auditory cortex with anode over the prefrontal cortex was investigated in five sessions over five consecutive days. Tinnitus was assessed after the last session on day 5, and at follow-up visits 1 and 3 months post stimulation using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, primary outcome measure), Subjective Tinnitus Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Visual Analogue Scale, and Clinical Global Impression scale.
RESULTS:
42 patients were investigated, 21 received tDCS and 21 sham stimulation. There were no beneficial effects of tDCS on tinnitus as assessed by primary and secondary outcome measures. Effect size assessed with Cohen’s d amounted to 0.08 (95% CI: -0.52 to 0.69) at 1 month and 0.18 (95% CI: -0.43 to 0.78) at 3 months for the THI.
CONCLUSION:
tDCS of the auditory and prefrontal cortices is safe, but does not improve tinnitus. Different tDCS protocols might be beneficial.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Chronic tinnitus; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Plasticity; Therapeutic study; Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
PMID: 26198363 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26196088
148.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2015 Jul 18. pii: S0079-6107(15)00102-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.07.006. [Epub ahead of print]
Pragmatic phenomenological types.
Goranson T1, Cardier B2, Devlin K3.
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Abstract
We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one’s own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. ‘Narrative’ in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological ‘tip’ that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Abstraction; Quantum interaction; Situation theory; Two-sorted reasoning; Type systems
PMID: 26196088 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26193817
149.
Spinal Cord. 2015 Jul 21. doi: 10.1038/sc.2015.118. [Epub ahead of print]
Effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation for the management of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis.
Mehta S1, McIntyre A1, Guy S1, Teasell RW1, Loh E1.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reducing neuropathic pain intensity in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).
METHODS:
Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched for all relevant articles published from 1980 to November 2014. Trials were included if (i) tDCS intervention group and a placebo control group were present; (ii) at least 50% of participants in the study had an SCI and there were at least three participants; (iii) participants were aged 18 years or older; and (iv) persistent pain for at least 3 months. Studies were excluded if: (i) the tDCS intervention group was compared with an active treatment group; (ii) there was insufficient reporting detail to enable pooling of data; and (iii) it was a nonclinical trial (that is, reviews, epidemiology, basic sciences). A standardized mean difference (SMD)±s.e. and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each outcome of interest and the results were pooled using a fixed or random effects model, as appropriate. Effect sizes were interpreted as: small >0.2, moderate >0.5, large >0.8.
RESULTS:
Five studies met inclusion criteria of which four were randomized controlled trials and one was a prospective controlled trial. The pooled analysis found a significant effect of tDCS on reducing neuropathic pain after SCI post treatment (SMD=0.510±0.202; 95% CI, 0.114-0.906; P<0.012); however, this effect was not maintained at follow-up (SMD=0.353±0.272; 95% CI, -0.179 to 0.886; P<0.194). A reduction of 1.33 units on a 10-item scale was observed post treatment. No significant adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSION:
Meta-analytic results indicate a moderate effect of tDCS in reducing neuropathic pain among individuals with SCI; however, the effect was not maintained at follow-up. A mean pooled decrease of 1.33 units on a 10-item scale was found post treatment. Several factors were implicated in the effectiveness of tDCS in reducing pain. Due to the limited number of studies and lack of follow-up, more evidence is required before treatment recommendations can be made.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 21 July 2015; doi:10.1038/sc.2015.118.
PMID: 26193817 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26191036
150.
Front Neurol. 2015 Jul 3;6:141. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00141. eCollection 2015.
Brain Plasticity Effects of Neuromodulation Against Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue.
Tecchio F1, Cancelli A2, Cottone C3, Ferrucci R4, Vergari M4, Zito G5, Pasqualetti P6, Filippi MM7, Ghazaryan A5, Lupoi D7, Smits FM8, Giordani A9, Migliore S10, Porcaro C11, Salustri C3, Rossini PM12, Priori A4.
Author information
Abstract
RATIONALE:
We recently reported on the efficacy of a personalized transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment in reducing multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue. The result supports the notion that interventions targeted at modifying abnormal excitability within the sensorimotor network could represent valid non-pharmacological treatments.
OBJECTIVE:
The present work aimed at assessing whether the mentioned intervention also induces changes in the excitability of sensorimotor cortical areas.
METHOD:
Two separate groups of fatigued MS patients were given a 5-day tDCS treatments targeting, respectively, the whole body somatosensory areas (S1wb) and the hand sensorimotor areas (SM1hand). The study had a double blind, sham-controlled, randomized, cross-over (Real vs. Sham) design. Before and after each treatment, we measured fatigue levels (by the modified fatigue impact scale, mFIS), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to median nerve stimulation. We took MEPs and SEPs as measures of the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) and the primary somatosensory area (S1), respectively.
RESULTS:
The Real S1wb treatment produced a 27% reduction of the mFIS baseline level, while the SM1hand treatment showed no difference between Real and Sham stimulations. M1 excitability increased on average 6% of the baseline in the S1wb group and 40% in the SM1hand group. Observed SEP changes were not significant and we found no association between M1 excitability changes and mFIS decrease.
CONCLUSION:
The tDCS treatment was more effective against MS fatigue when the electrode was focused on the bilateral whole body somatosensory area. Changes in S1 and M1 excitability did not correlate with symptoms amelioration.
SIGNIFICANCE:
The neuromodulation treatment that proved effective against MS fatigue induced only minor variations of the motor cortex excitability, not enough to explain the beneficial effects of the intervention.
KEYWORDS:
electrode personalization; electroencephalography; fatigue in multiple sclerosis; magnetic resonance imaging; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation
PMID: 26191036 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4490242 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26190299
151.
Schizophr Res. 2015 Oct;168(1-2):260-6. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.06.011. Epub 2015 Jul 17.
Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognition, symptoms, and smoking in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled study.
Smith RC1, Boules S2, Mattiuz S3, Youssef M4, Tobe RH5, Sershen H6, Lajtha A7, Nolan K8, Amiaz R9, Davis JM10.
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Abstract
Schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive deficits which persist after acute symptoms have been treated or resolved. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to improve cognition and reduce smoking craving in healthy subjects but has not been as carefully evaluated in a randomized controlled study for these effects in schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled study of the effects of 5 sessions of tDCS (2 milliamps for 20minutes) on cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and smoking and cigarette craving in 37 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were current smokers. Thirty subjects provided evaluable data on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), with the primary outcome measure, the MCCB Composite score. Active compared to sham tDCS subjects showed significant improvements after the fifth tDCS session in MCCB Composite score (p=0.008) and on the MCCB Working Memory (p=0.002) and Attention-Vigilance (p=0.027) domain scores, with large effect sizes. MCCB Composite and Working Memory domain scores remained significant at Benjamini-Hochberg corrected significance levels (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcome measures of psychiatric symptoms (PANSS scores), hallucinations, cigarette craving, or cigarettes smoked. The positive effects of tDCS on cognitive performance suggest a potential efficacious treatment for cognitive deficits in partially recovered chronic schizophrenia outpatients that should be further investigated.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cognition; Psychiatric symptoms; Schizophrenia; Smoking; Working memory; tDCS
PMID: 26190299 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26190177
152.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 Jul 9. pii: S1388-2457(15)00705-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.07.003. [Epub ahead of print]
A transcranial direct current stimulation over the sensorimotor cortex modulates the itch sensation induced by histamine.
Nakagawa K1, Mochizuki H2, Koyama S3, Tanaka S4, Sadato N3, Kakigi R5.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Itching can be suppressed by scratching. However, scratching may aggravate itch symptoms by damaging the skin. Therefore, identifying an alternative approach to suppress itching is of clinical importance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was useful for itch relief.
METHODS:
The present study was performed on a double-blind, Sham-controlled, and cross-over experimental design. A histamine-induced itch was evoked on the left dorsal forearms of healthy participants, who were asked to report the subjective sensation of itching every 30s for 23min. tDCS was applied over the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) according to a bi-hemispheric stimulation protocol during the itch stimuli; one electrode was placed over the right SMC, while the other was placed over the left SMC. The peak and lasting sensations of itching were compared between R-A/L-C (anodal electrode placed over the right and cathodal electrode over the left), L-A/R-C (anodal electrode placed over the left and cathodal electrode over the right), and Sham interventions.
RESULTS:
The peak and lasting itch sensation were significantly suppressed during the R-A/L-C intervention than during the Sham intervention. On the other hand, the L-A/R-C intervention suppressed the peak itch sensation, but the effects did not last for more than a few minutes.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that a bi-hemispheric tDCS intervention, especially when the anodal electrode was placed over the SMC of the contralateral side, was a potentially useful method for relieving lasting itch sensations.
SIGNIFICANCE:
The present study demonstrated that a tDCS intervention may be an alternative approach for suppressing unpleasant itch sensations in healthy participants. Since tDCS has some advantages, namely, its easy application and safety in a clinical setting, it may become a useful method for the treatment of itching.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
KEYWORDS:
Histamine; Itch relief; Sensorimotor cortex; Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
PMID: 26190177 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26189791
153.
Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2015 Sep;58(4):214-9. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2015.04.009. Epub 2015 Jul 17.
Mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in rehabilitation.
Roche N1, Geiger M2, Bussel B3.
Author information
Abstract
For a few years, the non-invasive modulation of motor cortex has become the centre of much attention because of its possible clinical impact. Among the different mechanism allowing to modify motor-cortex excitability, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), with its efficacy and ease of use, plays a major role. The aim of this review is to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the tDCS effect in the field of rehabilitation. The mechanisms underlying tDCS effects when applied over the motor cortex differ depending on the polarity used. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying these effects differ during stimulation (per-stimulation) and after the end of it (after-effects). This review highlights the known mechanisms involved in tDCS effects on brain excitability and illustrates that most remain not well understood and debated. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of action of tDCS and determine the best paradigm of stimulation depending on the goals.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
KEYWORDS:
After-effects; Mechanisms; Motor-cortex excitability; Per-stimulation; Rehabilitation; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26189791 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26184444
154.
Neuropsychologia. 2015 Aug;75:533-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.07.013. Epub 2015 Jul 13.
Decreasing propensity to mind-wander with transcranial direct current stimulation.
Kajimura S1, Nomura M2.
Author information
Abstract
Mind wandering or task-unrelated thought (TUT) is associated with various impairments as well as with adaptive functions, indicating the importance of regulating this process. Although Axelrod et al. (2015) have shown that anodal/cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left/right lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) could increase the propensity for mind wandering, it remains unclear whether a different tDCS protocol could have the reverse effect. The present study investigated whether and how simultaneous stimulation of the left LPFC and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) could modulate TUTs. These areas may be crucial for regulating both TUTs and its neural underpinning (default mode network). We applied tDCS to the right IPL/left LPFC prior to a perceptually demanding flanker task and compared TUT propensity during the task among tDCS groups. We found that TUT propensity was reduced by anodal/cathodal tDCS of the right IPL/left LPFC compared with cathodal/anodal tDCS, and the results for the sham group were intermediate between these two groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that tDCS can decrease, as well as increase, TUT propensity.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Default mode network; Perceptual load task; Right inferior parietal lobule; Task-unrelated thoughts; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26184444 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26181225
155.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2015 Dec;135(12):1286-92. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2015.1068952. Epub 2015 Jul 16.
Auditory resting-state functional connectivity in tinnitus and modulation with transcranial direct current stimulation.
Minami SB1, Oishi N2, Watabe T2, Uno K3, Kaga K1,4, Ogawa K2.
Author information
Abstract
CONCLUSIONS:
The functional connectivity (FC) between the right and left auditory cortex is weak in tinnitus patients. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the auditory cortex has potential as a tool to modulate auditory-based FC.
OBJECTIVE:
This study investigated the effects of applying tDCS in tinnitus patients, and searched for modulation of brain networks in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) through an analysis of FC with the stimulated brain region.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
Nine male patients with chronic tinnitus and 10 male volunteers with normal hearing were enrolled. The subjects were evaluated with rs-fMRI immediately before and after tDCS. The tinnitus patients filled out the self-evaluation questionnaires designed to measure tinnitus conditions before tDCS treatment and 1 week afterwards.
RESULTS:
The FC between the right and left auditory cortex was significantly weaker in tinnitus patients than in controls. After tDCS treatment, in the tinnitus group, the primary auditory cortex showed a reduction in the amount of statistically significant connectivity with the somatosensory area and motor area, but maintained strong significant connectivity (p < 0.005) with the auditory area and insular cortex. In contrast, in the control group, there remained strong significant connectivity between the primary auditory cortex and the somatosensory area, motor area, insular cortex, and auditory area.
KEYWORDS:
Magnetic resonance imaging; auditory cortex; hearing; motor cortex; somatosensory cortex
PMID: 26181225 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26180052
156.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Jul 15. pii: 1545968315595286. [Epub ahead of print]
Intensity, Duration, and Location of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Tinnitus Relief.
Shekhawat GS1, Sundram F1, Bikson M2, Truong D2, De Ridder D3, Stinear CM1, Welch D1, Searchfield GD4.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound. The aim of this study was to compare current intensity (center anode 1 mA and 2 mA), duration (10 minutes and 20 minutes), and location (left temporoparietal area [LTA] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) using 4 × 1 high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) for tinnitus reduction.
METHODS:
Twenty-seven participants with chronic tinnitus (>2 years) and mean age of 53.5 years underwent 2 sessions of HD-tDCS of the LTA and DLPFC in a randomized order with a 1 week gap between site of stimulation. During each session, a combination of 4 different settings were used in increasing dose (1 mA, 10 minutes; 1 mA, 20 minutes; 2 mA, 10 minutes; and 2 mA, 20 minutes). The impact of different settings on tinnitus loudness and annoyance was documented.
RESULTS:
Twenty-one participants (77.78%) reported a minimum of 1 point reduction on tinnitus loudness or annoyance scales. There were significant changes in loudness and annoyance for duration of stimulation, F(1, 26) = 10.08, P < .005, and current intensity, F(1, 26) = 14.24, P = .001. There was no interaction between the location, intensity, and duration of stimulation. Higher intensity (2 mA) and longer duration (20 minutes) of stimulation were more effective.
CONCLUSIONS:
A current intensity of 2 mA for 20-minute duration was the most effective setting used for tinnitus relief. The stimulation of the LTA and DLPFC were equally effective for suppressing tinnitus loudness and annoyance.
© The Author(s) 2015.
KEYWORDS:
high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation; neuromodulation; noninvasive brain stimulation; tinnitus; treatment
PMID: 26180052 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26177541
157.
PLoS One. 2015 Jul 15;10(7):e0131779. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131779. eCollection 2015.
Anodal Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation: The Effects of Pulse Duration on Corticospinal Excitability.
Jaberzadeh S1, Bastani A2, Zoghi M3, Morgan P1, Fitzgerald PB4.
Author information
Abstract
The aim is to investigate the effects of pulse duration (PD) on the modulatory effects of transcranial pulsed current (tPCS) on corticospinal excitability (CSE). CSE of the dominant primary motor cortex (M1) of right first dorsal interosseous muscle was assessed by motor evoked potentials, before, immediately, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after application of five experimental conditions: 1) anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), 2) a-tPCS with 125 ms pulse duartion (a-tPCSPD = 125), 3) a-tPCS with 250 ms pulse duration (a-tPCSPD = 250), 4) a-tPCS with 500 ms pulse duration (a-tPCSPD = 500) and 5) sham a-tPCS. The total charges were kept constant in all experimental conditions except sham condition. Post-hoc comparisons indicated that a-tPCSPD = 500 produced larger CSE compared to a-tPCSPD = 125 (P<0.0001), a-tPCSPD = 250 (P = 0.009) and a-tDCS (P = 0.008). Also, there was no significant difference between a-tPCSPD = 250 and a-tDCS on CSE changes (P>0.05). All conditions except a-tPCSPD = 125 showed a significant difference to the sham group (P<0.006). All participants tolerated the applied currents. It could be concluded that a-tPCS with a PD of 500ms induces largest CSE changes, however further studies are required to identify optimal values.
PMID: 26177541 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4503737 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26176930
158.
Sao Paulo Med J. 2015 May-Jun;133(3):252-63. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2014.00351712. Epub 2015 Jun 1.
The Escitalopram versus Electric Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS): rationale and study design of a non-inferiority, triple-arm, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Brunoni AR1, Sampaio-Junior B1, Moffa AH2, Borrione L2, Nogueira BS2, Aparício LV2, Veronezi B2, Moreno M2, Fernandes RA2, Tavares D2, Bueno PV2, Seibt O3, Bikson M3, Fraguas R4, Benseñor IM5.
Author information
Abstract
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric condition, mostly treated with antidepressant drugs, which are limited due to refractoriness and adverse effects. We describe the study rationale and design of ELECT-TDCS (Escitalopram versus Electric Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study), which is investigating a non-pharmacological treatment known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Phase-III, randomized, non-inferiority, triple-arm, placebo-controlled study, ongoing in São Paulo, Brazil.
METHODS:
ELECT-TDCS compares the efficacy of active tDCS/placebo pill, sham tDCS/escitalopram 20 mg/day and sham tDCS/placebo pill, for ten weeks, randomizing 240 patients in a 3:3:2 ratio, respectively. Our primary aim is to show that tDCS is not inferior to escitalopram with a non-inferiority margin of at least 50% of the escitalopram effect, in relation to placebo. As secondary aims, we investigate several biomarkers such as genetic polymorphisms, neurotrophin serum markers, motor cortical excitability, heart rate variability and neuroimaging.
RESULTS:
Proving that tDCS is similarly effective to antidepressants would have a tremendous impact on clinical psychiatry, since tDCS is virtually devoid of adverse effects. Its ease of use, portability and low price are further compelling characteristics for its use in primary and secondary healthcare. Multimodal investigation of biomarkers will also contribute towards understanding the antidepressant mechanisms of action of tDCS.
CONCLUSION:
Our results have the potential to introduce a novel technique to the therapeutic arsenal of treatments for depression.
PMID: 26176930 [PubMed – in process] Free full text
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Select item 26174129
159.
Aging Clin Exp Res. 2015 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for chronic pain in the elderly: a pilot study.
Concerto C1, Al Sawah M, Chusid E, Trepal M, Taylor G, Aguglia E, Battaglia F.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique that can affect human pain perception. The present open-label, single-arm study investigated whether primary motor cortex anodal tDCS treatment reduces chronic foot pain intensity and improves depression and pain-related anxiety symptoms in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis.
METHODS:
Ten patients with symptomatic treatment-resistant plantar fasciitis were enrolled in the study. The treatment consisted of anodal tDCS over the motor area of the leg contralateral to the symptomatic foot for 20 min, at 2 mA for 5 consecutive days. Pre-tDCS (T0), post-tDCS (T1), 1 week (T2), and 4 weeks (T3) post-treatment assessments were conducted consisting of the Visual Analog Scale for pain intensity, the Foot Function Index (FFI), the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS-20), and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS-17 items).
RESULTS:
Anodal tDCS treatment induced a significant improvement in pain intensity; FFI and PASS scores that were maintained up to 4 weeks post-treatment. In addition, patients reported taking fewer pain medication tablets following the treatments.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:
Our results indicate that anodal tDCS may be a viable treatment to control pain and psychological comorbidity in elderly patients with treatment-resistant foot pain.
PMID: 26174129 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26173348
160.
Neurodiagn J. 2015 Jun;55(2):97-106.
Case Studies of Transcranial Electrical Motor Evoked Potentials (TCeMEP) on Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease during Posterior Spinal Instrumentation and Fusion.
Schmidt R, Mani P, Weber D.
Abstract
Neuromuscular disease can present many challenges to monitoring technologists in the operating room. This became evident when we received a request to monitor a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease during posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for scoliosis. It has been well documented that the nerve conduction velocity is delayed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (Pareyson et al. 2006). The latencies we normally encounter for somatosensory and motor evoked potentials for the upper extremity responses are between 15 and 20 msec, and for the lower extremity responses, are usually between 25 and 35 msec. Recording with a sweep of 100 msec, we assumed we could record a response with a significant delay. We never imagined we would need to increase the sweep time to 500 msec or more in order to record the responses from the lower extremities.
PMID: 26173348 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 26170670
161.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015 Jun 30;11:1573-86. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S65816. eCollection 2015.
Clinical utility of brain stimulation modalities following traumatic brain injury: current evidence.
Li S1, Zaninotto AL2, Neville IS3, Paiva WS3, Nunn D4, Fregni F4.
Author information
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the main cause of disability and a major public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on the neurophysiology of TBI, and the rationale and current state of evidence of clinical application of brain stimulation to promote TBI recovery, particularly on consciousness, cognitive function, motor impairments, and psychiatric conditions. We discuss the mechanisms of different brain stimulation techniques including major noninvasive and invasive stimulations. Thus far, most noninvasive brain stimulation interventions have been nontargeted and focused on the chronic phase of recovery after TBI. In the acute stages, there is limited available evidence of the efficacy and safety of brain stimulation to improve functional outcomes. Comparing the studies across different techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation is the intervention that currently has the higher number of properly designed clinical trials, though total number is still small. We recognize the need for larger studies with target neuroplasticity modulation to fully explore the benefits of brain stimulation to effect TBI recovery during different stages of recovery.
KEYWORDS:
brain stimulation; neuroplasticity; traumatic brain injury
PMID: 26170670 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4494620 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26170066
162.
J Neural Eng. 2015 Aug;12(4):046028. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/12/4/046028. Epub 2015 Jul 14.
Impact of uncertain head tissue conductivity in the optimization of transcranial direct current stimulation for an auditory target.
Schmidt C1, Wagner S, Burger M, Rienen Uv, Wolters CH.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique to modify neural excitability. Using multi-array tDCS, we investigate the influence of inter-individually varying head tissue conductivity profiles on optimal electrode configurations for an auditory cortex stimulation.
APPROACH:
In order to quantify the uncertainty of the optimal electrode configurations, multi-variate generalized polynomial chaos expansions of the model solutions are used based on uncertain conductivity profiles of the compartments skin, skull, gray matter, and white matter. Stochastic measures, probability density functions, and sensitivity of the quantities of interest are investigated for each electrode and the current density at the target with the resulting stimulation protocols visualized on the head surface.
MAIN RESULTS:
We demonstrate that the optimized stimulation protocols are only comprised of a few active electrodes, with tolerable deviations in the stimulation amplitude of the anode. However, large deviations in the order of the uncertainty in the conductivity profiles could be noted in the stimulation protocol of the compensating cathodes. Regarding these main stimulation electrodes, the stimulation protocol was most sensitive to uncertainty in skull conductivity. Finally, the probability that the current density amplitude in the auditory cortex target region is supra-threshold was below 50%.
SIGNIFICANCE:
The results suggest that an uncertain conductivity profile in computational models of tDCS can have a substantial influence on the prediction of optimal stimulation protocols for stimulation of the auditory cortex. The investigations carried out in this study present a possibility to predict the probability of providing a therapeutic effect with an optimized electrode system for future auditory clinical and experimental procedures of tDCS applications.
PMID: 26170066 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4539365 [Available on 2016-08-01]
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Select item 26170029
163.
Trends Cogn Sci. 2015 Aug;19(8):475-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.06.002. Epub 2015 Jul 11.
Modulating reconsolidation: a link to causal systems-level dynamics of human memories.
Sandrini M1, Cohen LG2, Censor N3.
Author information
Abstract
A vital property of the brain is its plasticity, which manifests as changes in behavioral performance. Invasive studies at the cellular level in animal models reveal time-restricted windows during which existing memories that are reactivated become susceptible to modification through reconsolidation, and evidence suggests similar effects in humans. In this review we summarize recent work utilizing noninvasive brain stimulation in humans to uncover the systems-level mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation. This novel understanding of memory dynamics may have far-reaching clinical implications, including the potential to modulate reconsolidation in patients with memory disorders.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
TMS; episodic; memory; motor skill; noninvasive brain stimulation; tDCS
PMID: 26170029 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4523421 [Available on 2016-08-01]
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Select item 26168446
164.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst. 2015 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print]
A Low-Power Gateable Vernier Ring Oscillator Time-to-Digital Converter for Biomedical Imaging Applications.
Cheng Z, Deen MJ, Peng H.
Abstract
In this paper, a high resolution, high precision and ultra-low power consumption time-to-digital converter (TDC) is presented. The proposed TDC is based on the gateable Vernier ring oscillator architecture. Fine resolution is achieved through two ring oscillators arranged in the Vernier configuration. This TDC employs a single-transition end-of-conversion detection circuit and turns off the ring oscillators whenever the conversion is completed to reduce power consumption. The prototype chip is fabricated in a standard 130 nm digital CMOS process and its area is only 0.03 mm2. Using a 1.2 V supply, the TDC achieves a resolution of 7.3 ps, a single-shot precision of 1.0LSB, and an average power consumption of 1.2 mW. A root-mean-square integral nonlinearity (INL) of 1.2 LSB is obtained with the help of an INL look-up-table calibration. Compared to previously reported ring-oscillator based TDCs, the proposed design achieves the lowest power consumption to date.
PMID: 26168446 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26167389
165.
J Clin Imaging Sci. 2015 May 29;5:31. doi: 10.4103/2156-7514.157858. eCollection 2015.
Vascular Access for Placement of Tunneled Dialysis Catheters for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Approach and Clinical Practice Algorithm.
Pereira K1, Osiason A1, Salsamendi J1.
Author information
Abstract
The role of interventional radiology in the overall management of patients on dialysis continues to expand. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the use of tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs) for hemodialysis has become an integral component of treatment plans. Unfortunately, long-term use of TDCs often leads to infections, acute occlusions, and chronic venous stenosis, depletion of the patient’s conventional access routes, and prevention of their recanalization. In such situations, the progressive loss of venous access sites prompts a systematic approach to alternative sites to maximize patient survival and minimize complications. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each vascular access option. We illustrate the procedures with case histories and images from our own experience at a highly active dialysis and transplant center. We rank each vascular access option and classify them into tiers based on their relative degrees of effectiveness. The conventional approaches are the most preferred, followed by alternative approaches and finally the salvage approaches. It is our intent to have this review serve as a concise and informative reference for physicians managing patients who need vascular access for hemodialysis.
KEYWORDS:
End-stage renal disease; hemodialysis; tunneled dialysis catheters; vascular access
PMID: 26167389 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4485188 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26163464
166.
Neurosci Lett. 2015 Aug 18;602:139-44. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.07.003. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex alters P50 gating.
Terada H1, Kurayama T2, Nakazawa K3, Matsuzawa D4, Shimizu E5.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to modify cortical function by inducing alterations in the underlying brain function. P50auditory evoked potentials, as assessed using a paired auditory stimulus (S1 and S2) paradigm, are thought to reflect a sensory gating process in which the functional involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is suggested. P50 sensory gating has also been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and anxiety-related disorders. Here we investigated whether the tDCS over the DLPFC could modulate the cortical function leading to alteration of the P50 sensory gating. P50 gating indices (the S2/S1 ratio and S1-S2 difference) were measured during the tDCS (current 1.0 mA, duration 15 min) over the DLPFC with different conditions (anodal, cathodal and sham). Ten male healthy volunteers were studied on separate days in a single blinded paradigm. We observed that the cathodaltDCS significantly altered the mean P50 gating indices compared to the other two conditions. Our results suggest that sensory gating could be modulated by cathodaltDCS on the left DLPFC but not by anodal/sham tDCS.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 26163464 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 26161664
167.
PLoS One. 2015 Jul 10;10(7):e0132170. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132170. eCollection 2015.
No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.
Dambacher F1, Schuhmann T1, Lobbestael J2, Arntz A3, Brugman S2, Sack AT1.
Author information
Abstract
Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses) to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions) to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT) and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP). We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS effects might also indicate that the methodological approach of shifting cortical asymmetry by means of bilateral tDCS protocols has failed.
PMID: 26161664 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4498781 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26160698
168.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jan 4;64:44-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.06.016. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reverts behavioral alterations and brainstem BDNF level increase induced by neuropathic pain model: Long-lasting effect.
Filho PR1, Vercelino R2, Cioato SG1, Medeiros LF3, Oliveira Cd1, Scarabelot VL2, Souza A4, Rozisky JR5, Quevedo Ada S4, Adachi LN1, Sanches PR6, Fregni F7, Caumo W8, Torres IL9.
Author information
Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Neuropathic pain (NP) is a chronic pain modality that usually results of damage in the somatosensory system. NP often shows insufficient response to classic analgesics and remains a challenge to medical treatment. The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique, which induces neuroplastic changes in central nervous system of animals and humans. The brain derived neurotrophic factor plays an important role in synaptic plasticity process. Behavior changes such as decreased locomotor and exploratory activities and anxiety disorders are common comorbidities associated with NP.
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on locomotor and exploratory activities, and anxiety-like behavior, and peripheral and central BDNF levels in rats submitted to neuropathic pain model.
METHODS:
Rats were randomly divided: Ss, SsS, SsT, NP, NpS, and NpT. The neuropathic pain model was induced by partial sciatic nerve compression at 14days after surgery; the tDCS treatment was initiated. The animals of treated groups were subjected to a 20minute session of tDCS, for eight days. The Open Field and Elevated Pluz Maze tests were applied 24h (phase I) and 7days (phase II) after the end of tDCS treatment. The serum, spinal cord, brainstem and cerebral cortex BDNF levels were determined 48h (phase I) and 8days (phase II) after tDCS treatment by ELISA.
RESULTS:
The chronic constriction injury (CCI) induces decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities, increases in the behavior-like anxiety, and increases in the brainstem BDNF levels, the last, in phase II (one-way ANOVA/SNK, P<0.05 for all). The tDCS treatment already reverted all these effects induced by CCI (one-way ANOVA/SNK, P<0.05 for all). Furthermore, the tDCS treatment decreased serum and cerebral cortex BDNF levels and it increased these levels in the spinal cord in phase II (one-way ANOVA/SNK, P<0.05).
CONCLUSION:
tDCS reverts behavioral alterations associated to neuropathic pain, indicating possible analgesic and anxiolytic tDCS effects. tDCS treatment induces changes in the BDNF levels in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS), and this effect can be attributed to different cellular signaling activations.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Anxiety-like behavior; BDNF; Locomotor and exploratory activities; Neuropathic pain; Rats; Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
PMID: 26160698 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26157383
169.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Jun 24;9:370. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00370. eCollection 2015.
Task-concurrent anodal tDCS modulates bilateral plasticity in the human suprahyoid motor cortex.
Zhao S1, Dou Z2, Wei X2, Li J3, Dai M2, Wang Y2, Yang Q2, He H4.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive method to modulate cortical excitability in humans. Here, we examined the effects of anodal tDCS on suprahyoid motor evoked potentials (MEP) when applied over the hemisphere with stronger and weaker suprahyoid/submental projections, respectively, while study participants performed a swallowing task. Thirty healthy volunteers were invited to two experimental sessions and randomly assigned to one of two different groups. While in the first group stimulation was targeted over the hemisphere with stronger suprahyoid projections, the second group received stimulation over the weaker suprahyoid projections. tDCS was applied either as anodal or sham stimulation in a random cross-over design. Suprahyoid MEPs were assessed immediately before intervention, as well as 5, 30, 60, and 90 min after discontinuation of stimulation from both the stimulated and non-stimulated contralateral hemisphere. We found that anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) had long-lasting effects on suprahyoid MEPs on the stimulated side in both groups (tDCS targeting the stronger projections: F (1,14) = 96.2, p < 0.001; tDCS targeting the weaker projections: F (1,14) = 37.45, p < 0.001). While MEPs did not increase when elicited from the non-targeted hemisphere after stimulation of the stronger projections (F (1,14) = 0.69, p = 0.42), we found increased MEPs elicited from the non-targeted hemisphere after stimulating the weaker projections (at time points 30-90 min) (F (1,14) = 18.26, p = 0.001). We conclude that anodal tDCS has differential effects on suprahyoid MEPs elicited from the targeted and non-targeted hemisphere depending on the site of stimulation. This finding may be important for the application of a-tDCS in patients with dysphagia, for example after stroke.
KEYWORDS:
brain stimulation; dysphagia; plasticity; swallowing; task; transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26157383 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4478379 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26151605
170.
J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Nov;27(11):2174-85. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00848. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Motor Cortex Biases Action Choice in a Perceptual Decision Task.
Javadi AH1, Beyko A1,2, Walsh V1, Kanai R1,3.
Author information
Abstract
One of the multiple interacting systems involved in the selection and execution of voluntary actions is the primary motor cortex (PMC). We aimed to investigate whether the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of this area can modulate hand choice. A perceptual decision-making task was administered. Participants were asked to classify rectangles with different height-to-width ratios into horizontal and vertical rectangles using their right and left index fingers while their PMC was stimulated either bilaterally or unilaterally. Two experiments were conducted with different stimulation conditions: the first experiment (n = 12) had only one stimulation condition (bilateral stimulation), and the second experiment (n = 45) had three stimulation conditions (bilateral, anodal unilateral, and cathodal unilateral stimulations). The second experiment was designed to confirm the results of the first experiment and to further investigate the effects of anodal and cathodal stimulations alone in the observed effects. Each participant took part in two sessions. The laterality of stimulation was reversed over the two sessions. Our results showed that anodal stimulation of the PMC biases participants’ responses toward using the contralateral hand whereas cathodal stimulation biases responses toward the ipsilateral hand. Brain stimulation also modulated the RT of the left hand in all stimulation conditions: Responses were faster when the response bias was in favor of the left hand and slower when the response bias was against it. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: the perceptual bias account (bottom-up effects of stimulation on perception) and the motor-choice bias account (top-down modulation of the decision-making system by facilitation of response in one hand over the other). We conclude that motor responses and the choice of hand can be modulated using tDCS.
PMID: 26151605 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26148882
171.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Nov;115(11):2311-9. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3212-y. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex on exercise-induced pain.
Angius L1, Hopker JG1, Marcora SM1, Mauger AR2.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) provides a new exciting means to investigate the role of the brain during exercise. However, this technique is not widely used in exercise science, with little known regarding effective electrode montages. This study investigated whether tDCS of the motor cortex (M1) would elicit an analgesic response to exercise-induced pain (EIP).
METHODS:
Nine participants completed a VO2max test and three time to exhaustion (TTE) tasks on separate days following either 10 min 2 mA tDCS of the M1, a sham or a control. Additionally, seven participants completed 3 cold pressor tests (CPT) following the same experimental conditions (tDCS, SHAM, CON). Using a well-established tDCS protocol, tDCS was delivered by placing the anodal electrode above the left M1 with the cathodal electrode above dorsolateral right prefrontal cortex. Gas exchange, blood lactate, EIP and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during the TTE test. Perceived pain was recorded during the CPT.
RESULTS:
During the TTE, no significant differences in time to exhaustion, RPE or EIP were found between conditions. However, during the CPT, perceived pain was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the tDCS condition (7.4 ± 1.2) compared with both the CON (8.6 ± 1.0) and SHAM (8.4 ± 1.3) conditions.
CONCLUSION:
These findings demonstrate that stimulation of the M1 using tDCS does not induce analgesia during exercise, suggesting that the processing of pain produced via classic measures of experimental pain (i.e., a CPT) is different to that of EIP. These results provide important methodological advancement in developing the use of tDCS in exercise.
KEYWORDS:
Exercise; Fatigue; Pain perception; Performance; tDCS
PMID: 26148882 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26147660
172.
Eur J Pain. 2015 Jul 6. doi: 10.1002/ejp.745. [Epub ahead of print]
Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.
Cury RG1,2,3, Galhardoni R1, Fonoff ET1,4,5, Perez Lloret S6, Dos Santos Ghilardi MG5, Barbosa ER3, Teixeira MJ1,2,3,4,5, Ciampi de Andrade D1,2,4.
Author information
Abstract
Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted.
© 2015 European Pain Federation – EFIC®
PMID: 26147660 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26143023
173.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jul-Aug;8(4):846-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.05.010. Epub 2015 Jun 5.
Conceptual and Procedural Shortcomings of the Systematic Review “Evidence That Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Generates Little-to-no Reliable Neurophysiologic Effect Beyond MEP Amplitude Modulation in Healthy Human Subjects: A Systematic Review” by Horvath and Co-workers.
Antal A1, Keeser D2, Priori A3, Padberg F2, Nitsche MA4.
Author information
Comment on
Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review. [Neuropsychologia. 2015]
PMID: 26143023 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 26142926
174.
Environ Int. 2015 Oct;83:171-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.05.017. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
Skewed distribution of hypothyroidism in the coastal communities of Newfoundland, Canada.
Sarkar A1, Knight JC2, Babichuk NA3, Mulay S4.
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Abstract
Several studies published in the recent past have shown that rising levels of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in the environment affect thyroid function in humans. These TDCs are the anthropogenic organic compounds that enter the human body mostly by ingestion and may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The studies also show the presence of high levels of TDCs in marine animals; therefore, consumption of contaminated seafood might trigger hypothyroidism. So far, there is no readily available population-based data, showing the regional distribution of hypothyroidism cases. We collected administrative data from the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information on hospitalizations with hypothyroidism (from 1998 to 2012) in 41 coastal communities of Newfoundland and found that mean hypothyroidism rates of west and south coasts were significantly higher than in the east coast (1.8 and 1.9 times respectively). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test for regional differences in rates. A significant between-group difference in the rate of hypothyroidism was found (F2,38 = 8.309; p = 0.001). The St. Lawrence River, its estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence are heavily polluted with TDCs from industries, their effluents, and urbanization in the Great Lakes Watershed and along the river. Environment Canada has already identified this river along with the Great Lakes Watershed as one of the top TDCs polluted water sources in the country. The west and south coasts are in contact with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Local marine products are a regular diet of the coastal communities of Newfoundland. Based on these available evidence, we hypothesize the role of TDCs in the rise of hypothyroidism on the western and southern coasts. However, further study will be needed to establish any association between abnormally high rates of hypothyroidism and exposure to TDCs.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Hypothyroidism; Newfoundland; Seafood; St. Lawrence River; Thyroid disrupting chemicals
PMID: 26142926 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26142274
175.
Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 15;120:25-35. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.067. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
On the importance of electrode parameters for shaping electric field patterns generated by tDCS.
Saturnino GB1, Antunes A2, Thielscher A3.
Author information
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses electrode pads placed on the head to deliver weak direct current to the brain and modulate neuronal excitability. The effects depend on the intensity and spatial distribution of the electric field. This in turn depends on the geometry and electric properties of the head tissues and electrode pads. Previous numerical studies focused on providing a reasonable level of detail of the head anatomy, often using simplified electrode models. Here, we explore via finite element method (FEM) simulations based on a high-resolution head model how detailed electrode modeling influences the calculated electric field in the brain. We take into account electrode shape, size, connector position and conductivities of different electrode materials (including saline solutions and electrode gels). These factors are systematically characterized to demonstrate their impact on the field distribution in the brain. The goals are to assess the effect of simplified electrode models; and to develop practical rules-of-thumb to achieve a stronger stimulation of the targeted brain regions underneath the electrode pads. We show that for standard rectangular electrode pads, lower saline and gel conductivities result in more homogeneous fields in the region of interest (ROI). Placing the connector at the center of the electrode pad or farthest from the second electrode substantially increases the field strength in the ROI. Our results highlight the importance of detailed electrode modeling and of having an adequate selection of electrode pads/gels in experiments. We also advise for a more detailed reporting of the electrode montages when conducting tDCS experiments, as different configurations significantly affect the results.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Electrode modeling; Field calculations; Finite element method; Spatial targeting; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26142274 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26139152
176.
Atten Percept Psychophys. 2015 Aug;77(6):1813-40. doi: 10.3758/s13414-015-0932-3.
Transcranial direct current stimulation as a tool in the study of sensory-perceptual processing.
Costa TL1, Lapenta OM, Boggio PS, Ventura DF.
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Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique with increasing popularity in the fields of basic research and rehabilitation. It is an affordable and safe procedure that is beginning to be used in the clinic, and is a tool with potential to contribute to the understanding of neural mechanisms in the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review presents examples of investigations in the fields of perception, basic sensory processes, and sensory rehabilitation that employed tDCS. We highlight some of the most relevant efforts in this area and discuss possible limitations and gaps in contemporary tDCS research. Topics include the five senses, pain, and multimodal integration. The present work aims to present the state of the art of this field of research and to inspire future investigations of perception using tDCS.
PMID: 26139152 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26124116
177.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 28;112(30):9448-53. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1504196112. Epub 2015 Jun 29.
Synchronizing theta oscillations with direct-current stimulation strengthens adaptive control in the human brain.
Reinhart RM1, Zhu J1, Park S2, Woodman GF2.
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Abstract
Executive control and flexible adjustment of behavior following errors are essential to adaptive functioning. Loss of adaptive control may be a biomarker of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly in the schizophrenia spectrum. Here, we provide support for the view that oscillatory activity in the frontal cortex underlies adaptive adjustments in cognitive processing following errors. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with schizophrenia exhibited low frequency oscillations with abnormal temporal structure and an absence of synchrony over medial-frontal and lateral-prefrontal cortex following errors. To demonstrate that these abnormal oscillations were the origin of the impaired adaptive control in patients with schizophrenia, we applied noninvasive dc electrical stimulation over the medial-frontal cortex. This noninvasive stimulation descrambled the phase of the low-frequency neural oscillations that synchronize activity across cortical regions. Following stimulation, the behavioral index of adaptive control was improved such that patients were indistinguishable from healthy control subjects. These results provide unique causal evidence for theories of executive control and cortical dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.
KEYWORDS:
adaptive control; neural synchrony; oscillations; schizophrenia; transcranial direct current stimulation
Comment in
Rectifying disordered brain dynamics to improve cognition in schizophrenia. [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015]
PMID: 26124116 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC4522782 [Available on 2016-01-28]
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Select item 26115775
178.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep-Oct;8(5):974-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.001. Epub 2015 Jun 4.
Data Synthesis in Meta-Analysis may Conclude Differently on Cognitive Effect From Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.
Chhatbar PY1, Feng W2.
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PMID: 26115775 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26115372
179.
Pain Med. 2015 Aug;16(8):1580-8. doi: 10.1111/pme.12798. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Pain Distress Tolerance: A Preliminary Study.
Mariano TY1,2, van’t Wout M1,2, Jacobson BL1,2, Garnaat SL1, Kirschner JL1,2, Rasmussen SA1,2, Greenberg BD1,2.
Author information
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal (“inhibitory”) stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli vs anodal stimulation.
METHODS:
Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task.
RESULTS:
Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal vs anodal stimulation (P = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (P = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (P = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all P < 0.008). Pain intensity ratings increased acutely after cold pressor and pressure algometer tasks (both P < 0.01), but not after breath holding (P = 0.099). Cold pressor pain ratings tended to rise less after cathodal vs anodal tDCS (P = 0.072).
CONCLUSIONS:
Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation.
Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
KEYWORDS:
Distress Tolerance; Neuromodulation; Noninvasive; Pain; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
PMID: 26115372 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4545473 [Available on 2016-08-01]
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Select item 26111387
180.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Current Density Imaging during Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) using DT-MRI and MREIT: Algorithm Development and Numerical Simulations.
Kwon O, Sajib S, Sersa I, Oh T, Jeong W, Kim H, Woo E.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuro-modulatory technique for neuropsychiatric diseases and neurological disorders. In the tDCS treatment, DC current is injected into the head through a pair of electrodes attached on the scalp over a target region. A current density imaging method is needed to quantitatively visualize the internal current density distribution during the tDCS treatment.
METHODS:
We developed a novel current density image reconstruction algorithm using 1) a subject specific segmented three-dimensional head model, 2) diffusion tensor data, and 3) magnetic flux density data induced by the tDCS current. We acquired T1- weighted and diffusion tensor images of the head using the MRI scanner before the treatment. During the treatment, we can measure the induced magnetic flux density data using a magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) pulse sequence. In this paper, the magnetic flux density data was numerically generated.
RESULTS:
Numerical simulation results show that the proposed method successfully recovers the current density distribution including the effects of the anisotropic as well as isotropic conductivity values of different tissues in the head.
CONCLUSION:
The proposed current density imaging method using DT-MRI and MREIT can reliably recover cross-sectional images of the current density distribution during the tDCS treatment.
SIGNIFICANCE:
Success of the tDCS treatment depends on a precise determination of the induced current density distribution within different anatomical structures of the brain. Quantitative visualization of the current density distribution in the brain will play an important role in understanding the effects of the electrical stimulation.
PMID: 26111387 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26110109
181.
Neuroimage Clin. 2015 Mar 24;8:1-31. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.03.016. eCollection 2015.
Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.
Val-Laillet D1, Aarts E2, Weber B3, Ferrari M4, Quaresima V4, Stoeckel LE5, Alonso-Alonso M6, Audette M7, Malbert CH8, Stice E9.
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Abstract
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies.
KEYWORDS:
5-HT, serotonin; ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; AN, anorexia nervosa; ANT, anterior nucleus of the thalamus; B N, bulimia nervosa; BAT, brown adipose tissue; BED, binge eating disorder; BMI, body mass index; BOLD, blood oxygenation level dependent; BS, bariatric surgery; Brain; CBF, cerebral blood flow; CCK, cholecystokinin; Cg25, subgenual cingulate cortex; DA, dopamine; DAT, dopamine transporter; DBS, deep brain stimulation; DBT, deep brain therapy; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; ED, eating disorders; EEG, electroencephalography; Eating disorders; GP, globus pallidus; HD-tDCS, high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation; HFD, high-fat diet; HHb, deoxygenated-hemoglobin; Human; LHA, lateral hypothalamus; MER, microelectrode recording; MRS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Nac, nucleus accumbens; Neuroimaging; Neuromodulation; O2Hb, oxygenated-hemoglobin; OCD, obsessive–compulsive disorder; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; Obesity; PD, Parkinson’s disease; PET, positron emission tomography; PFC, prefrontal cortex; PYY, peptide tyrosine tyrosine; SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography; STN, subthalamic nucleus; TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation; TRD, treatment-resistant depression; VBM, voxel-based morphometry; VN, vagus nerve; VNS, vagus nerve stimulation; VS, ventral striatum; VTA, ventral tegmental area; aCC, anterior cingulate cortex; dTMS, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation; daCC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; fNIRS, functional near-infrared spectroscopy; lPFC, lateral prefrontal cortex; pCC, posterior cingulate cortex; rCBF, regional cerebral blood flow; rTMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rtfMRI, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging; tACS, transcranial alternate current stimulation; tDCS, transcranial direct current stimulation; tRNS, transcranial random noise stimulation; vlPFC, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; vmH, ventromedial hypothalamus; vmPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex
PMID: 26110109 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4473270 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26109229
182.
Expert Rev Neurother. 2015;15(7):833-45. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2015.1049998.
Combining TMS-EEG with transcranial direct current stimulation language treatment in aphasia.
Cipollari S1, Veniero D, Razzano C, Caltagirone C, Koch G, Marangolo P.
Author information
Abstract
Despite the fact that different studies have been performed using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in aphasia, so far, to what extent the stimulation of a cerebral region may affect the activity of anatomically connected regions remains unclear. The authors used a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to explore brain areas’ excitability modulation before and after active and sham tDCS. Six chronic aphasics underwent 3 weeks of language training coupled with tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus. To measure the changes induced by tDCS, TMS-EEG closed to the area stimulated with tDCS were calculated. A significant improvement after tDCS stimulation was found which was accompained by a modification of the EEG over the stimulated region.
KEYWORDS:
TMS-EEG; aphasia; brain stimulation; language rehabilitation; tDCS
PMID: 26109229 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26103117
183.
Neuroreport. 2015 Aug 5;26(11):634-7. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000402.
Effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to primary somatosensory cortex on short-latency afferent inhibition.
Kojima S1, Onishi H, Miyaguchi S, Kotan S, Sugawara K, Kirimoto H, Tamaki H.
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) on short-interval afferent inhibition (SAI). Thirteen healthy individuals participated in this study. Cathodal tDCS was applied for 15 min at 1 mA over the left S1. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the left motor cortex before tDCS (pre), immediately after tDCS (immediately), and 15 min after tDCS (post-15 min). SAI was evaluated by measuring MEPs in response to TMS pulses applied 40 ms after peripheral electrical stimulation of the index finger. For each measurement period (pre, immediately, and post-15 min), MEP amplitude was significantly smaller when TMS followed index finger stimulation (SAI condition) than when TMS was delivered alone (single TMS) (P<0.01), indicating expression of SAI. The MEP ratio (MEP of SAI/MEP of single TMS) at post-15 min was significantly larger than that of pre (P<0.05), indicating suppression of SAI. However, no significant difference was observed between pre and immediately, and immediately and post-15 min. These results suggest that cathodal tDCS applied over the S1 causes a decrease in S1 excitability following peripheral electrical stimulation and cathodal tDCS applied over the S1 decreased the inhibitory effects of SAI.
PMID: 26103117 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26100562
184.
Neuropsychologia. 2015 Jul;74:74-95. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.06.021. Epub 2015 Jun 19.
Reprint of: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) – Application in neuropsychology.
Shin YI1, Foerster Á2, Nitsche MA3.
Author information
Abstract
Non-invasive brain stimulation is a versatile tool to modulate psychological processes via alterations of brain activity, and excitability. It is applied to explore the physiological basis of cognition and behavior, as well as to reduce clinical symptoms in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Neuromodulatory brain stimulation via transcranial direct currents (tDCS) has gained increased attention recently. In this review we will describe physiological mechanisms of action of tDCS, and summarize its application to modulate psychological processes in healthy humans and neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, beyond giving an overview of the state of the art of tDCS, including limitations, we will outline future directions of research in this relatively young scientific field.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Cognition; Healthy humans; Neuropsychiatric diseases; Transcranial direct current stimulation
Republished from
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) – application in neuropsychology. [Neuropsychologia. 2015]
PMID: 26100562 [PubMed]
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Select item 26099815
185.
Behav Brain Res. 2015 Oct 1;292:142-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.06.021. Epub 2015 Jun 19.
Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on semantic discrimination eyeblink conditioning.
Kotilainen T1, Lehto SM2, Wikgren J3.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation method that has been used to modulate learning. We tested whether anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC could enhance learning in a semantic variant of discrimination eyeblink conditioning, i.e., whether the stimulation would have a specific effect on the discrimination ability, rate of acquisition, amplitude of the conditioned response (CR), or all of these.
METHODS:
Immediately prior to the eyeblink conditioning, the participants received either active stimulation of 1mA for 10min or sham stimulation. The anode was placed over F3 and the cathode over the right supraorbital area. The conditioned stimuli (CSs) were common Finnish male and female names that were presented as text. Male names were reinforced with an unconditioned stimulus.
RESULTS:
Stimulation had no effect on the learning rate or discrimination ratio, but the stimulated participants showed steeper CR acquisition in the initial phase of the experiment. Nevertheless, the participants in the stimulation group showed greater eyeblink CRs to the non-reinforced CS.
DISCUSSION:
Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the magnitude and rate of CRs to non-reinforced CS was higher in the active stimulation group than in the sham stimulation group, which may suggest deterioration of discrimination and contingency awareness in the used task. Our observations may suggest a lack of effect on the participants’ ability to discriminate between two different types of CS. Furthermore, cathodal modulation of the right prefrontal cortex may explain the change in magnitude and rate of CRs to non-reinforced CS.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Conditioning; Eyeblink conditioning; tDCS
PMID: 26099815 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26097454
186.
Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Jun 5;7:107. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00107. eCollection 2015.
Duration-dependent effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on anodal tDCS induced motor cortex plasticity in older adults: a group and individual perspective.
Puri R1, Hinder MR1, Fujiyama H2, Gomez R3, Carson RG4, Summers JJ5.
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Abstract
The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and stimulation duration are thought to play an important role in modulating motor cortex plasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS). In the present study we sought to determine whether these factors interact or exert independent effects in older adults. Fifty-four healthy older adults (mean age = 66.85 years) underwent two counterbalanced sessions of 1.5 mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), applied over left M1 for either 10 or 20 min. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticospinal excitability (CSE) before and every 5 min for 30 min following atDCS. On a group level, there was an interaction between stimulation duration and BDNF genotype, with Met carriers (n = 13) showing greater post-intervention potentiation of CSE compared to Val66Val homozygotes homozygotes (n = 37) following 20 min (p = 0.002) but not 10 min (p = 0.219) of stimulation. Moreover, Met carriers, but not Val/Val homozygotes, exhibited larger responses to TMS (p = 0.046) after 20 min atDCS, than following 10 min atDCS. On an individual level, two-step cluster analysis revealed a considerable degree of inter-individual variability, with under half of the total sample (42%) showing the expected potentiation of CSE in response to atDCS across both sessions. Intra-individual variability in response to different durations of atDCS was also apparent, with one-third of the total sample (34%) exhibiting LTP-like effects in one session but LTD-like effects in the other session. Both the inter-individual (p = 0.027) and intra-individual (p = 0.04) variability was associated with BDNF genotype. In older adults, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism along with stimulation duration appears to play a role in modulating tDCS-induced motor cortex plasticity. The results may have implications for the design of NBS protocols for healthy and diseased aged populations.
KEYWORDS:
BDNF; Val66Met polymorphism; corticospinal excitability; motor cortex; older adults; plasticity; transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
PMID: 26097454 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4456583 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26093845
187.
Trends Neurosci. 2015 Aug;38(8):459-61. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2015.05.009. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
The surprising temporal specificity of direct-current stimulation.
Reinhart RM1, Woodman GF2.
Author information
Abstract
As studies increasingly use transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to manipulate brain activity, surprising results are emerging. Specifically, research combining tDCS with electrophysiology is showing that the long-lasting effects of tDCS can counter-intuitively influence specific neural mechanisms active for as little as 100 ms during the flow of human information processing.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
electrophysiology; event-related potentials; neuromodulation; transcranial direct-current stimulation
PMID: 26093845 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4530037 [Available on 2016-08-01]
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Select item 26088110
188.
Curr Pharm Des. 2015;21(23):3373-83.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for the Treatment of Refractory Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Current Evidence and Future Directions.
Mondino M, Brunelin J, Palm U, Brunoni AR, Poulet E, Fecteau S1.
Author information
Abstract
Schizophrenia is a severe and frequent neuropsychiatric disorder. Despite antipsychotic medications, up to 30% of patients with schizophrenia still report disabling treatment-resistant symptoms. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed as a novel method to alleviate such symptoms. Here, we review studies investigating the effects of tDCS on symptoms, cognition, brain activity and cortical plasticity in patients with schizophrenia. We provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the use of tDCS in patients with schizophrenia. More specifically, we first present the effects of tDCS on treatment-resistant symptoms of schizophrenia. We report that tDCS applied over the frontotemporal regions reduced auditory hallucinations, with a mean 34% reduction of symptoms. Moreover, tDCS applied over both prefrontal cortices reduced negative symptoms and catatonia. We discuss the need for further sham-controlled studies to confirm these effects. Second, we present the impact of tDCS on cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. Positive effects of tDCS have been reported on learning, working memory, attention and source-monitoring. Third, we review the effects of tDCS on brain activity in patients with schizophrenia. Although only few studies investigated the effects of tDCS using neuroimaging technics, these studies are helpful at identifying the mechanisms of action of tDCS in schizophrenia. Fourth, we present tDCS studies on cortical plasticity showing reduced cortical plasticity in patients with schizophrenia that tDCS may beneficially modulate. Lastly, we discuss the safety aspects of tDCS in patients with schizophrenia and potential directions to improve efficacy for this clinical populations.
PMID: 26088110 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26080310
189.
Neuroimage. 2015 Sep;118:406-13. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.026. Epub 2015 Jun 12.
Friends, not foes: Magnetoencephalography as a tool to uncover brain dynamics during transcranial alternating current stimulation.
Neuling T1, Ruhnau P2, Fuscà M2, Demarchi G2, Herrmann CS3, Weisz N2.
Author information
Abstract
Brain oscillations are supposedly crucial for normal cognitive functioning and alterations are associated with cognitive dysfunctions. To demonstrate their causal role on behavior, entrainment approaches in particular aim at driving endogenous oscillations via rhythmic stimulation. Within this context, transcranial electrical stimulation, especially transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has received renewed attention. This is likely due to the possibility of defining oscillatory stimulation properties precisely. Also, measurements comparing pre-tACS with post-tACS electroencephalography (EEG) have shown impressive modulations. However, the period during tACS has remained a blackbox until now, due to the enormous stimulation artifact. By means of application of beamforming to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we successfully recovered modulations of the amplitude of brain oscillations during weak and strong tACS. Additionally, we demonstrate that also evoked responses to visual and auditory stimuli can be recovered during tACS. The main contribution of the present study is to provide critical evidence that during ongoing tACS, subtle modulations of oscillatory brain activity can be reconstructed even at the stimulation frequency. Future tACS experiments will be able to deliver direct physiological insights in order to further the understanding of the contribution of brain oscillations to cognition and behavior.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
KEYWORDS:
Artifact rejection; Entrainment; MEG; Magnetoencephalography; Transcranial alternating current stimulation; tACS
PMID: 26080310 [PubMed – in process] Free full text
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Select item 26079636
190.
Disabil Rehabil. 2015 Jun 17:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Mortensen J1, Figlewski K, Andersen H.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:
To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
METHODS:
A double-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT).
RESULTS:
Both groups improved JTT over time (p < 0.01). The anodal group improved grip strength compared with the sham group from baseline to post-assessment (p = 0.025). However, this difference was attenuated at one-week follow-up. There was a non-significant tendency for greater improvement in JTT in the anodal group compared with the sham group, from baseline to post-assessment (p = 0.158).
CONCLUSIONS:
Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor impairment. It is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based training. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to further explore possible effects of tDCS in patients with ICH. Implications for Rehabilitation Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based rehabilitation.
KEYWORDS:
ADL; home-based intervention; motor impairment; occupational therapy; stroke; tDCS; upper limb
PMID: 26079636 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26077954
191.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Jul-Aug;8(4):844-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.05.009. Epub 2015 Jun 6.
Bifrontal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Improves Daytime Vigilance and Sleepiness in a Patient With Organic Hypersomnia Following Reanimation.
Frase L1, Maier JG1, Zittel S1, Freyer T2, Riemann D3, Normann C2, Feige B1, Nitsche MA4, Nissen C5.
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PMID: 26077954 [PubMed]
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Select item 26076338
192.
Neuroreport. 2015 Aug 5;26(11):613-7. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000398.
Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance ability in motor imagery tasks.
Date S1, Kurumadani H, Watanabe T, Sunagawa T.
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown that motor-related areas are activated when individuals perform the hand mental rotation task (HMRT), which is used as a motor imagery task. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation, and anodal tDCS enhances the excitability of target regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tDCS during the HMRT. Eighteen healthy, right-handed participants in this study performed the HMRT before (pre) and immediately after (post) anodal or sham tDCS. Both anodal and sham tDCS were applied to the left scalp over the hand-knob area for 10 min with a current intensity of 1 mA. Reaction times and error rates were analyzed and compared. As main results, reaction times were significantly shorter for postanodal tDCS than for preanodal tDCS (P<0.01) or postsham tDCS (P<0.05). No significant differences in reaction times were observed between presham and postsham tDCS. These findings indicate that anodal tDCS during the HMRT can enhance task performance.
PMID: 26076338 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26076228
193.
Neuromodulation. 2015 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/ner.12320. [Epub ahead of print]
On the Use of the Terms Anodal and Cathodal in High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Technical Note.
Garnett EO1, Malyutina S1, Datta A2, den Ouden DB1.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The terms “anodal” and “cathodal” are widely used to describe transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of opposing polarities, often interpreted as excitatory and inhibitory, respectively. However, high-definition tDCS allows for complex electrode configurations that may not be characterized accurately as “anodal” and “cathodal.”
METHOD:
To illustrate challenges to data interpretation that may result from unclarity about the neuromodulatory effects of different field orientations, we present two high-definition tDCS experiments in the language domain, with different electrode configurations. We also present the modeled electric fields for a traditional tDCS setup, showing how brain stimulation may far exceed target regions.
CONCLUSIONS:
More research is warranted on the hypothesized inhibitory or excitatory effects of different electrode configurations. Moreover, conventional bicephalic 1 × 1 configurations using sponges or HD electrodes may not be accurately described by the terms “anodal” and “cathodal” either, as these terms only pertain to the desired effects over an area of interest, but not any other areas affected. Therefore, design and interpretation of (HD-)tDCS and conventional tDCS research studies should not be constrained by the anodal/cathodal dichotomy.
© 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.
KEYWORDS:
Anodal; brain stimulation; cathodal; polarity; tDCS
PMID: 26076228 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26074807
194.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 May 27;9:307. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00307. eCollection 2015.
The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease.
Crosson B1, McGregor KM2, Nocera JR2, Drucker JH3, Tran SM4, Butler AJ5.
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Abstract
The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered.
KEYWORDS:
aging; aphasia; hemiplegia; neuroimaging; rehabilitation; stroke; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation repetitive
PMID: 26074807 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4444823 Free PMC Article
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Select item 26073941
195.
Cell. 2015 Jun 18;161(7):1527-38. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.025. Epub 2015 Jun 11.
ER Stress Sensor XBP1 Controls Anti-tumor Immunity by Disrupting Dendritic Cell Homeostasis.
Cubillos-Ruiz JR1, Silberman PC2, Rutkowski MR3, Chopra S2, Perales-Puchalt A3, Song M2, Zhang S4, Bettigole SE5, Gupta D6, Holcomb K6, Ellenson LH7, Caputo T6, Lee AH7, Conejo-Garcia JR3, Glimcher LH8.
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Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) are required to initiate and sustain T cell-dependent anti-cancer immunity. However, tumors often evade immune control by crippling normal DC function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response factor XBP1 promotes intrinsic tumor growth directly, but whether it also regulates the host anti-tumor immune response is not known. Here we show that constitutive activation of XBP1 in tumor-associated DCs (tDCs) drives ovarian cancer (OvCa) progression by blunting anti-tumor immunity. XBP1 activation, fueled by lipid peroxidation byproducts, induced a triglyceride biosynthetic program in tDCs leading to abnormal lipid accumulation and subsequent inhibition of tDC capacity to support anti-tumor T cells. Accordingly, DC-specific XBP1 deletion or selective nanoparticle-mediated XBP1 silencing in tDCs restored their immunostimulatory activity in situ and extended survival by evoking protective type 1 anti-tumor responses. Targeting the ER stress response should concomitantly inhibit tumor growth and enhance anti-cancer immunity, thus offering a unique approach to cancer immunotherapy.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comment in
Tumour immunology: Stressed DCs can’t handle T cells. [Nat Rev Immunol. 2015]
ER Stress in Dendritic Cells Promotes Cancer. [Cell. 2015]
Cancer: A dendritic-cell brake on antitumour immunity. [Nature. 2015]
PMID: 26073941 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC4580135 [Available on 2016-06-18]
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Select item 26073740
196.
Eur J Neurol. 2015 Sep;22(9):1317-22. doi: 10.1111/ene.12748. Epub 2015 Jun 13.
Left parietal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation enhances gesture processing in corticobasal syndrome.
Bianchi M1, Cosseddu M1, Cotelli M2, Manenti R2, Brambilla M2, Rizzetti MC3, Padovani A1, Borroni B1.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a clinical entity characterized by higher cortical dysfunctions associated with asymmetric onset of levodopa-resistant parkinsonism, dystonia and myoclonus. One of the most typical and distressful features of CBS is limb apraxia, which affects patients in their everyday life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive procedure of cortical stimulation, which represents a promising tool for cognitive enhancement and neurorehabilitation. The present study investigated whether anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex (PARC), would improve ideomotor upper limb apraxia in CBS patients.
METHODS:
Fourteen patients with possible CBS and upper limb apraxia were enrolled. Each patient underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right PARC) and one session of placebo tDCS. Ideomotor upper limb apraxia was assessed using the De Renzi ideomotor apraxia test that is performed only on imitation.
RESULTS:
A significant improvement of the De Renzi ideomotor apraxia test scores (post-stimulation versus pre-stimulation) after active anodal stimulation over the left PARC was observed (χ(2) = 17.6, P = 0.0005), whilst no significant effect was noticed after active anodal stimulation over the right PARC (χ(2) = 7.2, P = 0.07). A post hoc analysis revealed a selective improvement in the De Renzi ideomotor apraxia score after active anodal stimulation over the left PARC compared with placebo stimulation considering both right (P = 0.03) and left upper limbs (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS:
These findings indicate that tDCS to the PARC improves the performance of an ideomotor apraxia test in CBS patients and might represent a promising tool for future rehabilitation approaches.
© 2015 EAN.
KEYWORDS:
apraxia; corticobasal syndrome; tDCS
PMID: 26073740 [PubMed – in process]
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Select item 26073443
197.
Cortex. 2015 May 21. pii: S0010-9452(15)00161-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.023. [Epub ahead of print]
Localizing the effects of anodal tDCS at the level of cortical sources: A Reply to Bailey et al., 2015.
Romero Lauro LJ1, Pisoni A2, Rosanova M3, Casarotto S4, Mattavelli G2, Bolognini N5, Vallar G5.
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KEYWORDS:
Cortical excitability; Source modeling; TMS-EEG; tDCS
PMID: 26073443 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 26073148
198.
Cortex. 2015 Aug;69:175-85. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.05.014. Epub 2015 May 22.
Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex.
Hsu WY1, Zanto TP2, Anguera JA2, Lin YY3, Gazzaley A4.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been proposed to play an important role in neural processes that underlie multitasking performance. However, this claim is underexplored in terms of direct causal evidence.
OBJECTIVE:
The current study aimed to delineate the causal involvement of the DLPFC during multitasking by modulating neural activity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to engagement in a demanding multitasking paradigm.
METHODS:
The study is a single-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experiment. Anodal tDCS or sham tDCS was applied over left DLPFC in forty-one healthy young adults (aged 18-35 years) immediately before they engaged in a 3-D video game designed to assess multitasking performance. Participants were separated into three subgroups: real-sham (i.e., real tDCS in the first session, followed by sham tDCS in the second session 1 h later), sham-real (sham tDCS first session, real tDCS second session), and sham-sham (sham tDCS in both sessions).
RESULTS:
The real-sham group showed enhanced multitasking performance and decreased multitasking cost during the second session, compared to first session, suggesting delayed cognitive benefits of tDCS. Interestingly, performance benefits were observed only for multitasking and not on a single-task version of the game. No significant changes were found between the first and second sessions for either the sham-real or the sham-sham groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest a causal role of left prefrontal cortex in facilitating the simultaneous performance of more than one task, or multitasking. Moreover, these findings reveal that anodal tDCS may have delayed benefits that reflect an enhanced rate of learning.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Attention; Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; Multitasking; Transcranial direct current stimulation
PMID: 26073148 [PubMed – in process] PMCID: PMC4522400 [Available on 2016-08-01]
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Select item 26073146
199.
Cortex. 2015 Aug;69:152-65. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.05.007. Epub 2015 May 21.
Non-linear effects of transcranial direct current stimulation as a function of individual baseline performance: Evidence from biparietal tDCS influence on lateralized attention bias.
Benwell CS1, Learmonth G2, Miniussi C3, Harvey M4, Thut G5.
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Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a well-established technique for non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). However, the technique suffers from a high variability in outcome, some of which is likely explained by the state of the brain at tDCS-delivery but for which explanatory, mechanistic models are lacking. Here, we tested the effects of bi-parietal tDCS on perceptual line bisection as a function of tDCS current strength (1 mA vs 2 mA) and individual baseline discrimination sensitivity (a measure associated with intrinsic uncertainty/signal-to-noise balance). Our main findings were threefold. We replicated a previous finding (Giglia et al., 2011) of a rightward shift in subjective midpoint after Left anode/Right cathode tDCS over parietal cortex (sham-controlled). We found this effect to be weak over our entire sample (n = 38), but to be substantial in a subset of participants when they were split according to tDCS-intensity and baseline performance. This was due to a complex, nonlinear interaction between these two factors. Our data lend further support to the notion of state-dependency in NIBS which suggests outcome to depend on the endogenous balance between task-informative ‘signal’ and task-uninformative ‘noise’ at baseline. The results highlight the strong influence of individual differences and variations in experimental parameters on tDCS outcome, and the importance of fostering knowledge on the factors influencing tDCS outcome across cognitive domains.
Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Brain stimulation; Plasticity; Pseudoneglect; Psychophysics; Visual attention
PMID: 26073146 [PubMed – in process] Free full text
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Select item 26073069
200.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Aug;55:547-72. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.05.017. Epub 2015 Jun 12.
Noninvasive stimulation of the temporoparietal junction: A systematic review.
Donaldson PH1, Rinehart NJ2, Enticott PG3.
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Abstract
Imaging and lesion studies have suggested numerous roles for the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), for example in attention and neglect, social cognition, and self/other processing. These studies cannot establish causal relationships, and the importance and relevance of (and interrelationships between) proposed roles remain controversial. This review examined studies that use noninvasive transcranial stimulation (NTS) to explore TPJ function. Of the 459 studies identified, 40 met selection criteria. The strengths and weaknesses of NTS-relevant parameters used are discussed, and methodological improvements suggested. These include the need for careful selection of stimulation sites and experimental tasks, and use of neuronavigation and concurrent functional activity measures. Without such improvements, overlapping and discrete functions of the TPJ will be difficult to disentangle. Nevertheless, the contributions of these studies to theoretical models of TPJ function are discussed, and the clinical relevance of TPJ stimulation explored. Some evidence exists for TPJ stimulation in the treatment of auditory hallucinations, tinnitus, and depersonalisation disorder. Further examination of the TPJ in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder is also warranted.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Noninvasive transcranial stimulation; Social cognition; TDCS; TMS; TPJ; Temporoparietal junction; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation