Pulsed Magnetic Therapy and Parkinson's Disease; a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) & pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) research bibliography.

Peer-reviewed pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy (in case of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's nearly exclusively in form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation  - rTMS/TMS -) is presented. Finally after working more than a decade in the field, rTMS research is increasing in this field since 2013. 
 
These rTMS studies show improved symptoms in Parkinson's disease. These effects are ATP (cell energy) related more than likely. More-ATP in brain and endocrine tissue results in significant beneficial effects. In our experience, nightly stimulation during sleep improves sleep and results in symptomatic relief and halting progression.

Unlike electo-convulsive therapy (ECT), these types of therapy lack expected or unexpected adverse reactions. Readers beware... a review of the literature for latest updates (since March 2011) find more and more red-herring studies at 1 Hz (which we have repeatedly stated) generally shown to be ineffective. Properly designed studies of frequency and duration rarely fail. Even some studies at 1 Hz with adequate duration of exposure do show benefit. Obviously the beneficial effects are dose-related. 60 pulses at 1 Hz = 1 minute exposure and we find such study design laughable. More and more studies are being found to use 10 Hz rTMS and we say it's about time. 12 years we've been promoting 10 Hz (9.6 hz) for all recovery issues including Parkinson's do to its effect on mitochondrial ATP production in cells, particularly that of endocrine tissues.

You may view some of our early Parkinson's clients in our YouTube® Parkinson's playlist showing amazing results after just 3 hours sessions at 10 Hz. Our new v.5 allows precise 9.6 Hz setting for first time since going digital in 2004.

See also; Sandyk R, Anninos PA , Jacobson JI; three pioneers of electromagnetic field therapy to treat Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and epilepsy.


Parkinson's and Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy / rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) bibliography

Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2015 Jan 16:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on Parkinson motor function: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Zhu H1, Lu Z2, Jin Y1, Duan X1, Teng J1, Duan D3.

Brain Stimul. 2014 Nov 15. pii: S1935-861X(14)00361-1. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.11.005. [Epub ahead of print]
TMS Enhances Retention of a Motor Skill in Parkinson's Disease.
Moisello C1, Blanco D1, Fontanesi C1, Lin J1, Biagioni M2, Kumar P2, Brys M2, Loggini A3, Marinelli L3, Abbruzzese G3, Quartarone A4, Tononi G5, Di Rocco A2, Ghilardi MF6; Sensory Motor Integration Lab (SMILab).

J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Aug;21(8):1373-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2013.11.025. Epub 2014 Mar 13.
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for dyskinesia and motor performance in Parkinson's disease.
Sayın S1, Cakmur R2, Yener GG2, Yaka E2, Uğurel B3, Uzunel F2.

J Neural Transm. 2014 Jul;121(7):743-54. doi: 10.1007/s00702-014-1178-2. Epub 2014 Feb 23.
The effects of 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by tDCS on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease.
von Papen M1, Fisse M, Sarfeld AS, Fink GR, Nowak DA.

J Neurosci Res. 2014 Jun;92(6):761-71. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23361. Epub 2014 Feb 12.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields potentiate neurite outgrowth in the dopaminergic MN9D cell line.
Lekhraj R1, Cynamon DE, DeLuca SE, Taub ES, Pilla AA, Casper D.

J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.01.037. Epub 2014 Feb 4.
Cognitive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with neurodegenerative diseases - clinician's perspective.
Anderkova L1, Rektorova I2.

Brain Stimul. 2014 Mar-Apr;7(2):336-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
Boosting response inhibition neural network with rTMS may improve dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.
Obeso I1, Strafella AP2.

Brain Stimul. 2014 Mar-Apr;7(2):297-300. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.10.007. Epub 2013 Oct 29.
Excitatory deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with H-coil as add-on treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: an open label, pilot study.
Spagnolo F1, Volonté MA2, Fichera M3, Chieffo R1, Houdayer E4, Bianco M4, Coppi E1, Nuara A1, Straffi L3, Di Maggio G1, Ferrari L1, Dalla Libera D3, Velikova S4, Comi G1, Zangen A5, Leocani L6.

J Neural Transm. 2014;121(3):267-74. doi: 10.1007/s00702-013-1100-3. Epub 2013 Oct 17.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation transiently reduces punding in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study.
Nardone R1, De Blasi P, Höller Y, Christova M, Tezzon F, Trinka E, Brigo F.

Cereb Cortex. 2014 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Functional Dopaminergic Neurons in Substantia Nigra are Required for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Motor Plasticity.
Hsieh TH1, Huang YZ, Rotenberg A, Pascual-Leone A, Chiang YH, Wang JY, Chen JJ.

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2014;32(6):743-53. doi: 10.3233/RNN-140397.
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on freezing of gait in patients with Parkinsonism.
Lee SY1, Kim MS1, Chang WH1, Cho JW2, Youn JY2, Kim YH3.

Brain Res. 2013 Nov 6;1537:290-302. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.08.051. Epub 2013 Aug 30.
Therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.
Lee JY1, Kim SH, Ko AR, Lee JS, Yu JH, Seo JH, Cho BP, Cho SR.

Brain Stimul. 2013 Nov;6(6):884-91. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 May 29.
High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary foot motor area in Parkinson's disease.
Maruo T1, Hosomi K, Shimokawa T, Kishima H, Oshino S, Morris S, Kageyama Y, Yokoe M, Yoshimine T, Saitoh Y.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Jul;115(7):887-91. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.08.032. Epub 2012 Sep 11.
A prospective pilot study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for gait dysfunction in vascular parkinsonism.
Yip CW1, Cheong PW, Green A, Prakash PK, Fook-Cheong SK, Tan EK, Lo YL.

Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013 Jul;10(6):578-96.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation of degenerating brain: a comparison of normal aging, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.
Ljubisavljevic MR1, Ismail FY, Filipovic S.

J Physiother. 2013 Jun;59(2):128. doi: 10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70167-X.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with treadmill training can modulate corticomotor inhibition and improve walking performance in people with Parkinson's disease.
Mak MK1.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013 Jun;19(6):573-85. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.01.007. Epub 2013 Mar 7.
Safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of the literature.
Vonloh M1, Chen R, Kluger B.

Neurology. 2013 Apr 9;80(15):1400-5. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828c2f66. Epub 2013 Mar 20.
Supplementary motor area stimulation for Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled study.
Shirota Y1, Ohtsu H, Hamada M, Enomoto H, Ugawa Y; Research Committee on rTMS Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

Therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

Lee JY, Kim SH, Ko AR, Lee JS, Yu JH, Seo JH, Cho BP, Cho SR.
Brain Res. 2013 Aug 30. doi:pii: S0006-8993(13)01206-7. 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.08.051. [Epub ahead of print]

Non-invasive brain stimulation: a new frontier in the treatment of neurogenic speech-language disorders.
Murdoch BE, Barwood CH.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol. 2013 Jun;15(3):234-44. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2012.745605. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves handwriting in Parkinson's disease.
Randhawa BK, Farley BG, Boyd LA.
Parkinsons Dis. 2013;2013:751925. doi: 10.1155/2013/751925. Epub 2013 May 8.

High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Primary Foot Motor Area in Parkinson's Disease.
Maruo T, Hosomi K, Shimokawa T, Kishima H, Oshino S, Morris S, Kageyama Y, Yokoe M, Yoshimine T, Saitoh Y.
Brain Stimul. 2013 May 29. doi:pii: S1935-861X(13)00160-5. 10.1016/j.brs.2013.05.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Transcranial magnetic stimulation of degenerating brain: a comparison of normal aging, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.
Ljubisavljevic MR, Ismail FY, Filipovic S.
Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013 Jul;10(6):578-96

Non-invasive brain stimulation: a new frontier in the treatment of neurogenic speech-language disorders.
Murdoch BE, Barwood CH.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol. 2013 Jun;15(3):234-44. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2012.745605. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with treadmill training can modulate corticomotor inhibition and improve walking performance in people with Parkinson's disease.
Mak MK.
J Physiother. 2013 Jun;59(2):128. doi: 10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70167-X.

Safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of the literature.
Vonloh M, Chen R, Kluger B.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013 Jun;19(6):573-85. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.01.007. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Primary Foot Motor Area in Parkinson's Disease.
Maruo T, Hosomi K, Shimokawa T, Kishima H, Oshino S, Morris S, Kageyama Y, Yokoe M, Yoshimine T, Saitoh Y.
Brain Stimul. 2013 May 29. doi:pii: S1935-861X(13)00160-5. 10.1016/j.brs.2013.05.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Supplementary motor area stimulation for Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled study.
Shirota Y, Ohtsu H, Hamada M, Enomoto H, Ugawa Y; Research Committee on rTMS Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.
Neurology. 2013 Apr 9;80(15):1400-5. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828c2f66. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Acoustic evaluation of short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor aspects of speech in Parkinson's disease.
Eliasova I, Mekyska J, Kostalova M, Marecek R, Smekal Z, Rektorova I.
J Neural Transm. 2013 Apr;120(4):597-605. doi: 10.1007/s00702-012-0953-1. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

rTMS as a treatment for neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders.
Barwood CH, Murdoch BE.
Acta Neurol Scand. 2013 Feb;127(2):77-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2012.01710.x. Epub 2012 Aug 9. Review.

Combination of rTMS and treadmill training modulates corticomotor inhibition and improves walking in Parkinson disease: a randomized trial.
Yang YR, Tseng CY, Chiou SY, Liao KK, Cheng SJ, Lai KL, Wang RY.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Jan;27(1):79-86. doi: 10.1177/1545968312451915. Epub 2012 Jul 10.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves handwriting in Parkinson's disease.
Randhawa BK, Farley BG, Boyd LA.
Parkinsons Dis. 2013;2013:751925. doi: 10.1155/2013/751925. Epub 2013 May 8.

[Stimulation of primary motor cortex and reorganization of cortical function].
Saitoh Y, Hosomi K, Maruo T.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2012;52(11):1182-4. Japanese.

Controlled study of 50-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson disease. (RED HERRING)
Benninger DH, Iseki K, Kranick S, Luckenbaugh DA, Houdayer E, Hallett M.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 Nov-Dec;26(9):1096-105. doi: 10.1177/1545968312445636. Epub 2012 May 15.

Effect of intermittent theta-burst stimulation on akinesia and sensorimotor integration in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Degardin A, Devos D, Defebvre L, Destée A, Plomhause L, Derambure P, Devanne H.
Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Sep;36(5):2669-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08158.x. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

Treatment of articulatory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Murdoch BE, Ng ML, Barwood CH.
Eur J Neurol. 2012 Feb;19(2):340-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03524.x. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

New approach to gait disorders therapy in late stages of Parkinson's disease.
Litvinenko IV, Khalimov RR, Trufanov AG, Krasakov IV, Khaĭmov DA.
Adv Gerontol. 2012;25(2):267-74. Russian.

Cerebellum. 2011 Dec;10(4):804-11.
Is the Cerebellum a Potential Target for Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease? Results of 1-Hz rTMS on Upper Limb Motor Tasks.
Minks E, Mareček R, Pavlík T, Ovesná P, Bareš M.
Source
First Department of Neurology, St. Anne's University Hospital and School of Medicine, Masaryk University, Pekařská 53, 656 91, Brno, Czech Republic,
Mov Disord. 2010 Oct 30;25(14):2311-7.

Eur J Neurol. 2011 Oct 4. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03524.x. [Epub ahead of print]
Treatment of articulatory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Murdoch BE, Ng ML, Barwood CH.
Source
Centre for Neurogenic Communication Disorders Research, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld, Australia Speech Scien

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Sep 1;10(6):693-702.
Is rTMS an Effective Therapeutic Strategy that Can Be Used to Treat Parkinson's Disease?
Arias-Carrion O, Machado S, Paes F, Velasques B, Teixeira S, Cardenas-Morales L, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Nardi AE.
Source
Department of Neurology,Philipps University-Marburg, Baldingerstrasse D-35033 Marburg,Germany.

J Neurol. 2011 Jul;258(7):1268-80. Epub 2011 Feb 5.
Effects of rTMS on Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal fMRI study.
González-García N, Armony JL, Soto J, Trejo D, Alegría MA, Drucker-Colín R.
Source
Depto. de Neuropatología Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-600, 04510 Mexico, D.F., Mexico.

Mov Disord. 2011 Jul;26(8):1545-8. doi: 10.1002/mds.23663. Epub 2011 Apr 7.
The role of the inferior frontal gyri in cognitive processing of patients with Parkinson's disease: A pilot rTMS study.
Srovnalova H, Marecek R, Rektorova I.
Source
Movement Disorders Center, First Department of Neurology, Masaryk University, St. Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology, Teaching Hospital Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2010 Nov;50(11):803-7.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in clinical neurology.
Matsumoto H, Ugawa Y.
Source
Department of Neurology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center.

The impact of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in Parkinson's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pal E, Nagy F, Aschermann Z, Balazs E, Kovacs N.
Source
Department of Neurology, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.

Mov Disord. 2010 Oct 30;25(14):2311-7.
The impact of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in Parkinson's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pal E, Nagy F, Aschermann Z, Balazs E, Kovacs N.

Mov Disord. 2010 Sep 15;25(12):1830-8. (classic example of red-herring study... 1 hz which we've said time and again does't have as great an effect as 10 Hz effect and for 50 pulses... a total of less than 60 seconds. utter bull***!)
Controlled (yea, controlled not to work) trial on the effect of 10 days low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor signs in Parkinson's disease.(researchers like these should be shot...literally as this type of research costs millions of people undeserved pain and suffering).
Arias P, Vivas J, Grieve KL, Cudeiro J.
Neuroscience and Motor Control Group (NEUROcom), Department of Medicine-INEF and Institute for Biomedical Research (INIBIC), University of A Coruña, Spain.



Department of Neurology, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
PLoS One. 2010 Mar 22;5(3):e9675.
Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait in Parkinsonian patients with and without freezing of gait.
Arias P, Cudeiro J.
Neuroscience and Motor Control Group (NEUROcom), Department of Medicine-INEF, University of A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2010;28(4):561-8.
rTMS effects on levodopa induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease patients: searching for effective cortical targets.
Koch G.
Laboratorio di Neurologia Clinica e Comportamentale, Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS, Rome, Italy Stroke Unit, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Neuroreport. 2010 Mar 10;21(4):268-72.
The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on a model rat of Parkinson's disease.
Yang X, Song L, Liu Z.
Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated To Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rats with Parkinson's disease. rTMS was given to rats with Parkinson's disease induced by 6-OHDA, daily for 4 weeks to examine the protective effects. Rotational test showed that rTMS significantly attenuated apomorphine-induced turns in rats with Parkinson's disease. Tissue processing showed that rTMS alleviated 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in rat substantia nigra. Furthermore, rTMS decreased the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat substantia nigra, and prevented the fall of dopamine in the striatum of rats with Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol Sci. 2009 Dec 15;287(1-2):143-6. Epub 2009 Aug 31.
High-frequency rTMS over the supplementary motor area improves bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease: subanalysis of double-blind sham-controlled study.
Hamada M, Ugawa Y, Tsuji S; Effectiveness of rTMS on Parkinson's Disease Study Group, Japan.
Collaborators (18)
Department of Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Neurology. 2009 Jul 14;73(2):113-9.
Cerebellar magnetic stimulation decreases levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson disease.
Koch G, Brusa L, Carrillo F, Lo Gerfo E, Torriero S, Oliveri M, Mir P, Caltagirone C, Stanzione P.
Laboratorio di Neurologia Clinica e Comportamentale Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS Via Ardeatina 306 00179 Roma, Italy

Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2009 Sep 20;34(3):63-71.
Effects of Low-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

(ctually, quite surprised this showed effect and 1/5 hz)
Furukawa T, Izumi S, Toyokura M, Masakado Y.
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193

Mov Disord. 2009 Feb 15;24(3):357-63.
Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on Parkinson motor function--systematic review of controlled clinical trials.
Elahi B, Elahi B, Chen R.
Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. behzad.elahi@utoronto.ca
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on motor signs in Parkinson's disease (PD). Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus bibliographic, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Relevant controlled clinical trials published between January 1985 and October 2007 were extracted, reviewed, and validated according to the study protocol. The outcome of interest was the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). We calculated the effect size for the included studies. Sensitivity analysis was performed to further assess factors that may change the results. Ten randomized, controlled clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Pooling of the results from these trials yielded an effect size of -0.58 in UPDRS for high-frequency rTMS studies and no significant effects for low-frequency rTMS studies. The benefit of high-frequency rTMS on motor signs in PD was confirmed by the meta-analysis. Lower frequency rTMS had little effect on motor signs in PD. (love being right)

Mov Disord. 2009 Jan 30;24(2):246-53.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.
Filipović SR, Rothwell JC, van de Warrenburg BP, Bhatia K.
Burden Neurological Institute, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Jul 20;121(14):1307-12.
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on adenosine triphosphate content and microtubule associated protein-2 expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (stroke) in rat brain.
Feng HL, Yan L, Cui LY.
Department of Neurology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China.
RESULTS: rTMS could significantly increase ATP content and MAP-2 expression in the left brain following ischemic insult (P < 0.01) and different rTMS parameters had different effects on the ATP level and the MAP-2 expression in the left striatum. A high-frequency rTMS played an important role in MAP-2 expression and ATP preservation.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that rTMS induced significant increase of ATP content and MAP-2 expression in the injured area of the brain, suggesting that the regulation of both ATP and MAP-2 may be involved in the biological mechanism of the effect of rTMS on neural recovery. Therefore, rTMS may become a potential adjunctive therapy for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

Mov Disord. 2008 Aug 15;23(11):1524-31.
High-frequency rTMS over the supplementary motor area for treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Hamada M, Ugawa Y, Tsuji S; Effectiveness of rTMS on Parkinson's Disease Study Group, Japan.
Collaborators (18)
Department of Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Apr;5(2):345-61.
Noninvasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease and dystonia.
Wu AD, Fregni F, Simon DK, Deblieck C, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Int J Biomed Imaging. 2008;2008:372125.
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a possible target for modulating dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Rektorova I, Sedlackova S, Telecka S, Hlubocky A, Rektor I.
First Department of Neurology, Masaryk University, Saint Anne's Hospital, Pekarská 53, 65691Brno,

Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct;118(10):2189-94. Epub 2007 Aug 21.
An open study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression with Parkinson's disease.
Epstein CM, Evatt ML, Funk A, Girard-Siqueira L, Lupei N, Slaughter L, Athar S, Green J, McDonald W, DeLong MR.
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct;118(10):2189-94. Epub 2007 Aug 21. Links
An open study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression with Parkinson's disease.
Epstein CM, Evatt ML, Funk A, Girard-Siqueira L, Lupei N, Slaughter L, Athar S, Green J, McDonald W, Delong MR.
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Mov Disord. 2007 Aug 15;22(11):1645-9.
Motor cortex stimulation for levodopa-resistant akinesia: case report.
Tani N, Saitoh Y, Kishima H, Oshino S, Hatazawa J, Hashikawa K, Yoshimine T.
Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Aug 21;:1-11 [Epub ahead of print] Links
rTMS treatment for depression in Parkinson's disease increases BOLD responses in the left prefrontal cortex.
Cardoso EF, Fregni F, Martins Maia F, Boggio PS, Luis Myczkowski M, Coracini K, Lopes Vieira A, Melo LM, Sato JR, Antonio Marcolin M, Rigonatti SP, Cruz AC, Reis Barbosa E, Amaro E.
NIF, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Jul;3(7):383-93.
Technology insight: noninvasive brain stimulation in neurology-perspectives on the therapeutic potential of rTMS and tDCS.
Fregni F, Pascual-Leone A.
Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Mov Disord. 2007 May 15;22(7):1046-50.
Dopamine levels after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease: preliminary results.
Khedr EM, Rothwell JC, Shawky OA, Ahmed MA, Foly N, Hamdy A.
Department of Neurology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt. emankhedr99@yahoo.com
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty untreated PD patients with moderate to severe symptoms (Hoehn & Yahr state III-V 1967) were assessed on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and with an enzyme immunoassay for quantitative determination of plasma dopamine before and after six daily sessions of 25 Hz rTMS with 3,000 stimuli over the right and left hand and leg motor cortex.
RESULTS: There was significant improvement in UPDRS compared with the baseline. Serum dopamine level also was significantly elevated over the same interval. There was a significant correlation between UPDRS and serum dopamine level before and after treatment.
CONCLUSION: Improved motor performance in PD after repeated session of rTMS may be related to an elevation of serum dopamine concentration.

Expert Rev Neurother. 2007 Feb;7(2):165-77.
New advances in the rehabilitation of CNS diseases applying rTMS.
Málly J, Stone TW.
Department of Neurorehabilitation, Institute of Neurorehabilitation, Sopron, Hungary

Mov Disord. 2006 Dec;21(12):2201-5.Links
Effect of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor performance in Parkinson's disease.
Khedr EM, Rothwell JC, Shawky OA, Ahmed MA, Hamdy A.
Department of Neurology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.

Neurophysiol Clin. 2006 May-Jun;36(3):125-33. Epub 2006 Aug 22. Links
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): insights into the treatment of Parkinson's disease by cortical stimulation.
Lefaucheur JP.
Service de physiologie, explorations fonctionnelles, hôpital Henri-Mondor, Assistance-publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 51, avenue du Marechal-Lattre-de-Tassigny, Créteil, France.


J Neurol Sci. 2003 May 15;209(1-2):41-6.

Effects of successive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor performances and brain perfusion in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Ikeguchi M, Touge T, Nishiyama Y, Takeuchi H, Kuriyama S, Ohkawa M.
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kagawa Medical University, 1750-1, Ikenobe, Miki-cho Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2003 Mar;61(1):146-52. Epub 2003 Apr 16.
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation]
[Article in Portuguese]
Conforto AB, Marie SK, Cohen LG, Scaff M.
Divisao de Clinica Neurologica, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2002 Oct;17(7):353-6
Combining high and low frequencies in rTMS antidepressive treatment: preliminary results.
Conca A, Di Pauli J, Beraus W, Hausmann A, Peschina W, Schneider H, Konig P, Hinterhuber H.
Departments of Psychiatry I and II, Regional Hospital, 6830 Rankweil, Austria.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2002 Aug;19(4):272-93
Applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in movement disorders.
Cantello R.
Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Neurology, School of Medicine, Amedeo Avogadro University, Novara, Italy.

Neuropharmacology 2002 Jul;43(1):101-9
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal system.
Keck ME, Welt T, Muller MB, Erhardt A, Ohl F, Toschi N, Holsboer F, Sillaber I.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.

Mov Disord 2002 May;17(3):528-32
Therapeutic efficacy of bilateral prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients with Parkinson's disease: an open study.
Dragasevic N, Potrebic A, Damjanovic A, Stefanova E, Kostic VS.
Institute of Neurology Clinical Center of Serbia, Medical School, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

Neurology 2002 Apr 23;58(8):1288-90
Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Moser DJ, Jorge RE, Manes F, Paradiso S, Benjamin ML, Robinson RG.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA. 

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):687-90
Three and six-month outcome following courses of either ECT or rTMS in a population of severely depressed individuals--preliminary report.
Dannon PN, Dolberg OT, Schreiber S, Grunhaus L.
Psychiatry Division, ECT-TMS Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Encephale 2002 Mar-Apr;28(2):169-75
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression]
[Article in French]
Saba G, Januel D, Glikman J.
Psychiatre, assistant, Unite de Recherche clinique, Secteur III, Service du docteur Glikman, EPS de Ville Evrard, 5, rue du Docteur Delafontaine, 93200 Saint-Denis, France.

Arch Neurol 2002 Mar;59(3):413-7
Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum in essential tremor: a controlled study.
Gironell A, Kulisevsky J, Lorenzo J, Barbanoj M, Pascual-Sedano B, Otermin P.
Servei de Neurologia, Hospital de Sant Pau, Av Sant Antoni Ma Claret 167, 08025

Nervenarzt 2001 Dec;72(12):932-8
[Contralateral and ipsilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson patients]
[Article in German]
de Groot M, Hermann W, Steffen J, Wagner A, Grahmann F.
Klinik und Poliklinik fur Neurologie, Universitatsklinikum Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 22a, 04103 Leipzig.

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2001 Sep-Oct;129(9-10):235-8
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson 's disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

J Affect Disord 2001 Sep;66(1):83-8
The impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on pituitary hormone levels and cortisol in healthy subjects.
Evers S, Hengst K, Pecuch PW.
Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 33, 48129 Munster, Germany.

J Neurol 2001 Sep;248 Suppl 3:III48-52
Therapeutic effect and mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.
Shimamoto H, Takasaki K, Shigemori M, Imaizumi T, Ayabe M, Shoji H.
Shimamoto Neurosurgical Clinic, Kurume University School of Medicine, Ohnojo-city, Fukuoka, Japan.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2001 Autumn;35(4):149-69
A meta-analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Russo J, Avery DH.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359896, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

J Neurosci 2001 Aug 1;21(15):RC157
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human prefrontal cortex induces dopamine release in the caudate nucleus.
Strafella AP, Paus T, Barrett J, Dagher A.
Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4.

Neurosci Lett 2001 May 11;303(3):165-8
Striatal dopaminergic metabolism is increased by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.
Meissner W, Reum T, Paul G, Harnack D, Sohr R, Morgenstern R, Kupsch A.
Department of Neurology, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Biol Psychiatry 2001 Jul 1;50(1):22-7
Acute mood and thyroid stimulating hormone effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression.
Szuba MP, O'Reardon JP, Rai AS, Snyder-Kastenberg J, Amsterdam JD, Gettes DR, Wassermann E, Evans DL.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Brain Topogr 2000 Winter;13(2):135-44
Nonlinear analysis of brain activity in magnetic influenced Parkinson patients.
Anninos PA, Adamopoulos AV, Kotini A, Tsagas N.
Dept. of Medicine, Demokrition University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Nippon Rinsho. 2000 Oct;58(10):2120-4.
[Parkinson's disease and depression]
[Article in Japanese]
Kurokawa K, Yuasa T.
Department of Neurology, Kohnodai Hospital.
Up to 40% of cases of Parkinson's disease are associated with the occurrence of depression. The symptoms of the patients' depressive state may be factors such as significant weight change, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, decreased concentration and indecisiveness, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation. Given these conditions, drugs prove ineffective in many cases. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been reported to be beneficial in cases of drug-resistant depression. ECT has also been applied to Parkinsonian patients with depression and found to be effective with both depression and the Parkinsonian symptom. Transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) has recently been investigated for application in cases of depression and has become known as a valuable tool for depression therapy. TMS is easily implemented even in outpatient therapy. TMS will make a great contribution to the therapy of depression with Parkinson's disease.

Int J Neurosci. 1998 Sep;95(3-4):255-69.
Reversal of the bicycle drawing direction in Parkinson's disease by AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1998 Feb;93(1-2):43-54.
Reversal of a body image disorder (macrosomatognosia) in Parkinson's disease by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Services of Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Nov;92(1-2):63-72.
Speech impairment in Parkinson's disease is improved by transcranial application of electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Oct;91(3-4):189-97.
Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields improves the response to levodopa in Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1997 Sep;91(1-2):57-68.
Reversal of cognitive impairment in an elderly parkinsonian patient by transcranial application of picotesla electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Department of Neuroscience, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):111-24.
Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease is improved by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1995 Jun;82(3-4):255-68.
Reversal of visuospatial deficit on the Clock Drawing Test in Parkinson's disease by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.

Panminerva Med. 1995 Jun;37(2):98-104.
A physical mechanism in the treatment of neurologic disorders with externally applied pico Tesla magnetic fields.
Jacobson JI, Yamanashi WS.
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research, Jupiter, FL 33477-1418, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1995 Mar;81(1-2):67-82.
Improvement in short-term visual memory by weak electromagnetic fields in Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1995 Mar;81(1-2):47-65.
Weak electromagnetic fields reverse visuospatial hemi-inattention in Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.

Panminerva Med 1994 Dec;36(4):201-5
Pineal-hypothalamic tract mediation of picotesla magnetic fields in the treatment of neurological disorders.
Jacobson JI.
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research, Jupiter, FL

Int J Neurosci. 1994 Nov;79(1-2):99-110.
A drug naive parkinsonian patient successfully treated with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.

Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jul;77(1-2):23-46.
Improvement in word-fluency performance in Parkinson's disease by administration of electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R.
Neuro Communication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811.

Neurology 1994 May;44(5):892-8
Akinesia in Parkinson's disease. II. Effects of subthreshold repetitive transcranial motor cortex stimulation.
Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Sole J, Brasil-Neto JP, Cammarota A, Grafman J, Hallett M.
Human Cortical Physiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jun;70(3-4):233-54.
Rapid improvement of visuoperceptive functions by picoTesla range magnetic fields in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R, Iacono RP.

Int J Neurosci. 1993 May;70(1-2):85-96.
The effects of external picoTesla range magnetic fields on the EEG in Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R, Derpapas K.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811.

Int J Neurosci. 1993 Mar-Apr;69(1-4):167-83.
Further observations on the unique efficacy of picoTesla range magnetic fields in Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R, Derpapas K.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811.

Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jan;68(1-2):85-91.
Weak magnetic fields antagonize the effects of melatonin on blood glucose levels in Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R.
Department of Medical Physics, University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Int J Neurosci. 1992 Oct;66(3-4):209-35.
Magnetic fields in the therapy of parkinsonism.
Sandyk R.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811.

Int J Neurosci 1992 Mar;63(1-2):141-50
Magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N, Derpapas K.
Democrition University of Thrace, Department of Medical Physics and Polytechnic School, Alexandroupolis and Xanthi, Greece.

End of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy / rTMS Parkinson's bibliography