Magnetic Therapy for Fibromyalgia comes in the form of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMF) or it’s twin brother from a different mother, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). We recognized the effectiveness of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Fibromyalgia back in 2002. We documented results in this area of research that pre-dated all peer reviewed literature.

PEMF rTMS fibromyalgia

It was explained to me in 2005 by a prominent physician Dr. Norman Gay that Fibroymalgia was caused by low tissue oxygen. Dr. Norman Gay, was the former Minister of Health for the Bahamas, past president of the Caribbean Bodybuilding Federation, the Bahamas Olympic Committee, the Bahamas Confederation of Amateur Sports, and Chairman of the Bahamas Boxing Commission. He told me, since your system obviously has an effect upon oxygenation, it was mostly likely the reason that it was helping these people.

Our novel night-time regimen is particularly effective at enhancing sleep, relieving stiffness and improving flexibility. MoreATP is the most logical reason. Low tissue oxygen is not a result of cardiovascular issues but of dysfunction in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (oxygen metabolism). The effect of which draws oxygen supply from the blood too quickly resulting in low blood and tissue oxygen, and produces inordinate amount of oxidative waste. EarthPulse™ is particularly helpful in conditions where people become easily tired or “winded”.

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) therapy has proven to be effective on Pain for 6 decades particularly in Eastern European research. PEMF Therapy is highly effective in a diverse range of therapeutic applications with no side-effects or adverse reactions. Got Pain?…PEMF is probably the answer to your prayers. We offer a 90 day money back guarantee and quite frankly don’t care what you suffer from. It either meets or exceeds your expectations or return it within 30 – 90 days.

PEMF for PainWe’ve had a few returns from clients with fibromyalgia over 14 years, but rarely. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for fibromyalgia has not been researched much until 2011. Currently, there is momentum building in the research area and quite of bit of published research in 2013 but solely in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

In October 2015 Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts found beneficial effect in 50% of the double-blinded study participants. tDCS is working on the pain signal in the brain. Nighttime PEMF on the other hand works on the cause of the pain.

EarthPulse™ PEMF is superior as it supports higher oxygen levels in the body.  Gets to the root of the cause of the fibro pain by by rising blood and tissue oxygen. Nightly, full-body application is likely the key to long term success.  When it works, it works really well and you’ve got at least a 90% statistical probability of success. If not simply return it.

Frequency specificity in pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is currently being investigated in the West after Eastern European research found particular frequency (10 Hz) highly effective more than 4 decades ago.

Frequency specific microcurrent has gotten some good coverage. A search on Google for “frequency specific microcurrent” AND fibromyalgia yields some 5400 results. A Google search for “pulsed electromagnetic field therapy” AND fibromyalgia yields some 6800 results. PEMF supplies microcurrent to tissues far more efficiently than “hands-on” microcurrent. Find out what you’re missing.

We have good reason to believe that it is the frequency specificity of microcurrent systems that produces the miraculous effects on fibro sufferers. EarthPulse™ has been using 9.6 Hz since its inception based upon the most effective Eastern European studies. See the sidebar link Why 9.6 Hz.

EarthPulse™ is modeled after Eastern Europe’s most effective and well tested frequencies and wave-forms. It is highly adaptable system that is primarily designed for nighttime use which is far more efficient and convenient than mat-type systems. If it doesn’t exceed your expectations (for any purpose), just return it for a full refund (less shipping charges).

Rarely do peer-reviewed PEMF studies prove less effective than placebo;…when they do, frequency, amplitude, wave-form and duration of application should be suspect.

See also our Migraine Bibliography, Pain bibliography.

The magnetic therapy fibromyalgia bibliography is offered for your education only and not intended as promotional material for our pulsed magnetic technology.

EarthPulse™ PEMF Disclaimer:

Peer-reviewed studies, PEMF customer reviews, videos, papers and links provided [the Information] on this website site and others we link to are not offered to suggest or imply that you will achieve similar results with use of the EarthPulse™ magnetic field supplementation device and methods. The information is for reference purposes only and not intended to recommend our pulsed electromagnetic field device system as a drug or as a diagnosis for any illness or disease condition; nor as a product to eliminate disease or other medical condition.

The Information has not been evaluated by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Worldwide, there are no governmental health agencies that recognize a need to supplement natural magnetic fields using pulsed electromagnetic fields.

The Information and opinions provided on our website are based upon reputably published journals and first hand experience. The Information and opinions expressed anywhere on our web site or in printed materials or in videos are never to be construed as medical advice. This website, company, and its contractors, employees, organisers, participants, practitioners, promoters, or affiliates or its suppliers and vendors make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied with regard to the Information or how you choose to use it.

Magnetic Therapy Bahamas, Ltd. / Sleep Tech Intl. / EarthPulse Technologies, LLC make no medical claims, real or implied, as to benefit of our device and methods. Our product is not intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Readers should consult appropriate health professionals on any matter relating to their health and well-being. Readers accept all responsibility for self-experimentation.

EARTHPULSE IS STRICTLY A PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT TOOL GUARANTEED TO ENHANCE SLEEP AND PHYSICAL & MENTAL PERFORMANCE IN 90 DAYS OR YOUR MONEY BACK. WE MAKE NO OTHER CLAIMS REAL OR IMPLIED. SHOULD YOU NOT GET RESULTS EXCEEDING YOUR EXPECTATIONS, YOUR ONLY RECOURSE IS TO BEGIN RETURN PROCESS OF GOODS FOR FULL REFUND BETWEEN 30 AND 90 DAYS.

Fibromyalgia Study of Interest:

Arthritis Res Ther. 2012 Nov 1;14(6):R236. doi: 10.1186/ar4079.
Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia.
Shang Y, Gurley K, Symons B, Long D, Srikuea R, Crofford LJ, Peterson CA, Yu G.
Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Women with fibromyalgia (FM) have symptoms of increased muscular fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance, which may be associated with alterations in muscle microcirculation and oxygen metabolism. This study used near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies to noninvasively evaluate muscle blood flow, blood oxygenation and oxygen metabolism during leg fatiguing exercise and during arm arterial cuff occlusion in post-menopausal women with and without FM.
METHODS:
Fourteen women with FM and twenty-three well-matched healthy controls participated in this study.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our results suggest an alteration of muscle oxygen utilization in the FM population.

Exercise capacity and oxygen recovery half times of skeletal muscle in patients with fibromyalgia.
Dinler M, Kasikcioglu E, Akin A, Sayli O, Aksoy C, Oncel A, Berker E.
Rheumatol Int. 2007 Jan;27(3):311-3. Epub 2006 Sep 9. No abstract available.
PMID: 16964478

Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(5):950-2. Epub 2006 Jan 10.
Reduced tolerance of exercise in fibromyalgia may be a consequence of impaired microcirculation initiated by deficient action of nitric oxide.
Kasikcioglu E1, Dinler M, Berker E.
Author information
Abstract
Although the underlying mechanism responsible for muscular fatigue and exercise intolerance remains to be elucidated, it is reported two major mechanisms, central and peripheral hypothesis. As a peripheral mechanism, there are few reports on abnormalities of the microcirculation in patients with fibromyalgia. The key point to note is that ischemia associated with a modest decline in tissue oxygen causes muscle fatigue. It has been shown that have been found low muscle levels of phosphates and abnormalities in microcirculation in fibromyalgia.


Magnetic Therapy Fibromyalgia – Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy PEMF / rTMS Bibliography

To read the original source, use Pubmed and search for Title of the citation

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Fibromyalgia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Knijnik LM, Dussán-Sarria JA, Rozisky JR, Torres IL, Brunoni AR, Fregni F, Caumo W.
Pain Pract. 2015 Jan 12. doi: 10.1111/papr.12276. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25581213rTMS in fibromyalgia: a randomized trial evaluating QoL and its brain metabolic substrate.
Parkitny L, Alto P, O’Connell NE, Guedj E, Boyer L.
Neurology. 2014 Dec 2;83(23):2192. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001088. No abstract available.
PMID: 25452458Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic pain: a review of the literature.
Galhardoni R, Correia GS, Araujo H, Yeng LT, Fernandes DT, Kaziyama HH, Marcolin MA, Bouhassira D, Teixeira MJ, de Andrade DC.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Apr;96(4 Suppl):S156-72. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.11.010. Epub 2014 Nov 28. Review.
PMID: 25437106rTMS in fibromyalgia: a randomized trial evaluating QoL and its brain metabolic substrate.
Boyer L, Dousset A, Roussel P, Dossetto N, Cammilleri S, Piano V, Khalfa S, Mundler O, Donnet A, Guedj E.
Neurology. 2014 Apr 8;82(14):1231-8. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000280. Epub 2014 Mar 26.
PMID: 24670891

Neurology. 2014 Apr 8;82(14):1231-8. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000280. Epub 2014 Mar 26.
rTMS in fibromyalgia: a randomized trial evaluating QoL and its brain metabolic substrate.
Boyer L1, Dousset A, Roussel P, Dossetto N, Cammilleri S, Piano V, Khalfa S, Mundler O, Donnet A, Guedj E.

Joint Bone Spine. 2014 Jan;81(1):22-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2013.04.015. Epub 2013 Jun 17.
Relieving pain in rheumatology patients: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a developing approach.
Pérocheau D1, Laroche F2, Perrot S3.

Mol Pain. 2013 Jul 2;9:33. doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-9-33.
Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients.
Tzabazis A, Aparici CM, Rowbotham MC, Schneider MB, Etkin A, Yeomans DC.

Relieving pain in rheumatology patients: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a developing approach.

Pérocheau D, Laroche F, Perrot S.
Joint Bone Spine. 2013 Jun 17. doi:pii: S1297-319X(13)00116-4. 10.1016/j.jbspin.2013.04.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Efficacy and practical issues of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic medically unexplained symptoms of pain.
Li CT, Su TP, Hsieh JC, Ho ST.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2013 Jun;51(2):81-7. doi: 10.1016/j.aat.2013.06.003. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

Efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review.
Marlow NM, Bonilha HS, Short EB.
Pain Pract. 2013 Feb;13(2):131-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2012.00562.x. Epub 2012 May 28. Review.

Unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex does not affect cognition in patients with fibromyalgia.
Baudic S, Attal N, Mhalla A, Ciampi de Andrade D, Perrot S, Bouhassira D.
J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Jan;47(1):72-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.09.003. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on fibromyalgia: a randomized sham-controlled trial with 1-mo follow-up.
Lee SJ, Kim DY, Chun MH, Kim YG.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Dec;91(12):1077-85. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3182745a04.

Non-invasive stimulation therapies for the treatment of refractory pain.
Nizard J, Lefaucheur JP, Helbert M, de Chauvigny E, Nguyen JP.
Discov Med. 2012 Jul;14(74):21-31. Review.

Ten sessions of adjunctive left prefrontal rTMS significantly reduces fibromyalgia pain: a randomized, controlled pilot study.
Short EB, Borckardt JJ, Anderson BS, Frohman H, Beam W, Reeves ST, George MS.
Pain. 2011 Nov;152(11):2477-84. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.05.033. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Is rTMS a therapeutic option in chronic pain syndrome? Insights from the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Lefaucheur JP.
Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1447-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.03.004. Epub 2011 Mar 29. No abstract available.

Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia.
Mhalla A, Baudic S, Ciampi de Andrade D, Gautron M, Perrot S, Teixeira MJ, Attal N, Bouhassira D.
Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1478-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.034. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

Efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, sham-controlled longitudinal clinical trial.
Valle A, Roizenblatt S, Botte S, Zaghi S, Riberto M, Tufik S, Boggio PS, Fregni F.
J Pain Manag. 2009;2(3):353-361.

Brain Stimul. 2011 Oct;4(4):210-217.e1. Epub 2010 Dec 17.
rTMS over the cerebellum modulates temperature detection and pain thresholds through peripheral mechanisms.
Zunhammer M, Busch V, Griesbach F, Landgrebe M, Hajak G, Langguth B.
Source
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University of Regensburg, Germany.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Sep 21. doi: 10.1002/bem.20703. [Epub ahead of print]
Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): A systematic literature review.
Hug K, Röösli M.
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

 

Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1447-8. Epub 2011 Mar 29.
Is rTMS a therapeutic option in chronic pain syndrome? Insights from the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Lefaucheur JP.
Source
Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Est Créteil, Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, 51 Avenue du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.

 

Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1478-85. Epub 2011 Mar 11.
Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia.
Mhalla A, Baudic S, Ciampi de Andrade D, Gautron M, Perrot S, Teixeira MJ, Attal N, Bouhassira D.
Source
INSERM U-987, CHU Ambroise Paré, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt F-92100, France.

 

Pain. 2011 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia.
Mhall A, Baudic S, de Andrade DC, Gautron M, Perrot S, Teixeira MJ, Attal N, Bouhassira D.
In conclusion, these results suggest that TMS may be a valuable and safe new therapeutic option in patients with fibromyalgia. The analgesic effects induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex can be maintained over 6months in patients with fibromyalgia, using monthly stimulation.

J ECT. 2011 Mar;27(1):33-7.
The use of slow-frequency prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory neuropathic pain.
Sampson SM, Kung S, McAlpine DE, Sandroni P.
Source
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Clin J Pain. 2009 Oct;25(8):722-8.
Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical study.
Sutbeyaz ST, Sezer N, Koseoglu F, Kibar S.
Fourth Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

J Pain Manag. 2009;2(3):353-361.
Efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, sham-controlled longitudinal clinical trial.
Valle A, Roizenblatt S, Botte S, Zaghi S, Riberto M, Tufik S, Boggio PS, Fregni F.
Pathology Department, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

Is rTMS a therapeutic option in chronic pain syndrome? Insights from the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Lefaucheur JP.
Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1447-8. Epub 2011 Mar 29. No abstract available.

Efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, sham-controlled longitudinal clinical trial.
Valle A, Roizenblatt S, Botte S, Zaghi S, Riberto M, Tufik S, Boggio PS, Fregni F. J Pain Manag. 2009;2(3):353-361.

The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to relieve pain.
Lefaucheur JP, Antal A, Ahdab R, Ciampi de Andrade D, Fregni F, Khedr EM, Nitsche M, Paulus W.
Brain Stimul. 2008 Oct;1(4):337-44. Epub 2008 Oct 7. Review.

Use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in pain relief.
Lefaucheur JP.
Expert Rev Neurother. 2008 May;8(5):799-808. Review.

Effects of unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex on chronic widespread pain in fibromyalgia.

Passard A, Attal N, Benadhira R, Brasseur L, Saba G, Sichere P, Perrot S, Januel D, Bouhassira D.
Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2661-70. Epub 2007 Sep 14.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a low-frequency magnetic field in the treatment of musculoskeletal chronic pain.
Thomas AW, Graham K, Prato FS, McKay J, Forster PM, Moulin DE, Chari S.
Pain Res Manag. 2007 Winter;12(4):249-58.

Slow-frequency rTMS reduces fibromyalgia pain.

Sampson SM, Rome JD, Rummans TA.
Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):115-8.
2008 May;8(5):799-808.

Use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in pain relief.

Lefaucheur JP.

Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 51, Avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France. jean-pascal.lefaucheur@hmn.aphp.fr

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cerebral cortex is a noninvasive strategy that could have the potential to relieve severe chronic pain, at least partially and transiently. The most studied target of stimulation is the precentral (motor) cortex, but other targets, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the parietal cortex, could be of interest. Analgesic effects have been produced by rTMS in patients with neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia or visceral pain. Therapeutic applications of rTMS in pain syndromes are limited by the short duration of the induced effects, but prolonged pain relief can be obtained by performing rTMS sessions every day for several weeks. In patients who respond to rTMS but relapse, surgical implantation of epidural cortical electrodes and a pulse generator can be proposed to make clinical effects more permanent. The rate of improvement produced by rTMS may be predictive for the outcome of the implanted procedure. The place of rTMS as a therapeutic tool in the management of chronic pain remains to be determined

Brain Res Rev. 2007 Dec;56(2):346-61. Epub 2007 Aug 28.

The use of tDCS and CVS as methods of non-invasive brain stimulation.
Been G, Ngo TT, Miller SM, Fitzgerald PB.

Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) are safe methods for selectively modulating cortical excitability and activation, respectively, which have recently received increased interest regarding possible clinical applications. tDCS involves the application of low currents to the scalp via cathodal and anodal electrodes and has been shown to affect a range of motor, somatosensory, visual, affective and cognitive functions. Therapeutic effects have been demonstrated in clinical trials of tDCS for a variety of conditions including tinnitus, post-stroke motor deficits, fibromyalgia, depression, epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. Its effects can be modulated by combination with pharmacological treatment and it may influence the efficacy of other neurostimulatory techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. CVS involves irrigating the auditory canal with cold water which induces a temperature gradient across the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus. This has been shown in functional brain-imaging studies to result in activation in several contralateral cortical and subcortical brain regions. CVS has also been shown to have effects on a wide range of visual and cognitive phenomena, as well as on post-stroke conditions, mania and chronic pain states. Both these techniques have been shown to modulate a range of brain functions, and display potential as clinical treatments. Importantly, they are both inexpensive relative to other brain stimulation techniques such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Pain Res Manag. 2007 Winter;12(4):249-58.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a low-frequency magnetic field in the treatment of musculoskeletal chronic pain.
Thomas AW, Graham K, Prato FS, McKay J, Forster PM, Moulin DE, Chari S.

Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2661-70. Epub 2007 Sep 14.
Effects of unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex on chronic widespread pain in fibromyalgia.
Passard A, Attal N, Benadhira R, Brasseur L, Saba G, Sichere P, Perrot S, Januel D, Bouhassira D.
INSERM U-792, Boulogne-Billancourt F-92100 France.
Non-invasive unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex induces analgesic effects in focal chronic pain syndromes, probably by modifying central pain modulatory systems. Neuroimaging studies have shown bilateral activation of a large number of structures, including some of those involved in pain processing, suggesting that such stimulation may induce generalized analgesic effects. We also assessed the effects of rTMS on the pressure pain threshold at tender points ipsi- and contralateral to stimulation. Active rTMS significantly reduced pain and improved several aspects of quality of life (including fatigue, morning tiredness, general activity, walking and sleep) for up to 2 weeks after treatment had ended. The analgesic effects were observed from the fifth stimulation onwards and were not related to changes in mood or anxiety. The effects of rTMS were more long-lasting for affective than for sensory pain, suggesting differential effects on brain structures involved in pain perception. Only few minor and transient side effects were reported during the stimulation period. Our data indicate that unilateral rTMS of the motor cortex induces a long-lasting decrease in chronic widespread pain and may therefore constitute an effective alternative analgesic treatment for fibromyalgia.

Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Dec;54(12):3988-98.
A randomized, sham-controlled, proof of principle study of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.
Fregni F, Gimenes R, Valle AC, Ferreira MJ, Rocha RR, Natalle L, Bravo R, Rigonatti SP, Freedman SD, Nitsche MA, Pascual-Leone A, Boggio PS.
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.
This is electric current stimulation and not rTMS: This doesn’t work nearly as well as rTMS or PEMF directly into the area.
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by dysfunctional brain activity. Because transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate brain activity noninvasively and can decrease pain in patients with refractory central pain, we hypothesized that tDCS treatment would result in pain relief in patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive sham stimulation or real tDCS with the anode centered over the primary motor cortex (M1) or the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (2 mA for 20 minutes on 5 consecutive days). A blinded evaluator rated the patient’s pain, using the visual analog scale for pain, the clinician’s global impression, the patient’s global assessment, and the number of tender points. Other symptoms of fibromyalgia were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Safety was assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. To assess potential confounders, we measured mood and anxiety changes throughout the trial.
RESULTS: Anodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex induced significantly greater pain improvement compared with sham stimulation and stimulation of the DLPFC (P < 0.0001). Although this effect decreased after treatment ended, it was still significant after 3 weeks of followup (P = 0.004). A small positive impact on quality of life was observed among patients who received anodal M1 stimulation. This treatment was associated with a few mild adverse events, but the frequency of these events in the active-treatment groups was similar to that in the sham group. Cognitive changes were similar in all 3 treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide initial evidence of a beneficial effect of tDCS in fibromyalgia, thus encouraging further trials.

 

Pain. 2006 May;122(1-2):22-7. Epub 2006 Feb 21.
Comment in: * Pain. 2006 May;122(1-2):11-3.
Reduction of intractable deafferentation pain by navigation-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex. Hirayama A, Saitoh Y, Kishima H, Shimokawa T, Oshino S, Hirata M, Kato A, Yoshimine T. Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. The precentral gyrus (M1) (TOP OF THE HEAD) is a representative target for electrical stimulation therapy of pain. To date, few researchers have investigated whether pain relief is possible by stimulation of cortical areas other than M1. According to recent reports, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can provide an effect similar to that of electrical stimulation. With this in mind, we therefore examined several cortical areas as stimulation targets using a navigation-guided rTMS and compared the effects of the different targets on pain. Twenty patients with intractable deafferentation pain received rTMS of M1, the postcentral gyrus (S1), premotor area (preM), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Each target was stimulated with ten trains of 10-s 5-Hz TMS pulses, with 50-s intervals in between trains. Intensities were adjusted to 90% of resting motor thresholds. Thus, a total of 500 stimuli were applied. Sham stimulations were undertaken at random. The effect of rTMS on pain was rated by patients using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ten of the 20 patients (50%) indicated that stimulation of M1, but not other areas, provided significant and beneficial pain relief (p<0.01). Results indicated a statistically significant effect lasting for 3 hours after the stimulation of M1 (p<0.05). Stimulation of other targets was not effective. The M1 was the sole target for treating intractable pain with rTMS, in spite of the fact that M1, S1, preM, and SMA are located adjacently.

Pain Res Manag. 2006 Summer;11(2):85-90.
Exposure to a specific pulsed low-frequency magnetic field: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of effects on pain ratings in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients.
Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2. BACKGROUND: Specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to induce analgesia (antinociception) in rodents and healthy human volunteers. OBJECTIVE: The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain and anxiety ratings was investigated in two patient populations. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design was used. METHOD: The present study investigated the effects of an acute 30 min magnetic field exposure. CONCLUSION: These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief.

Pain.2006 Apr;121(3):276-80. Epub 2006 Feb 21.
Electroconvulsive therapy improves severe pain associated with fibromyalgia. Usui C, Doi N, Nishioka M, Komatsu H, Yamamoto R, Ohkubo T, Ishizuka T, Shibata N, Hatta K, Miyazaki H, Nishioka K, Arai H. Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. The pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains unknown. Several reports have recently suggested the novel concept that fibromyalgia is due to the central nervous system becoming hyper-responsive to a peripheral stimulus. The effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as pain remedication in cases of fibromyalgia without major depressive disorder was studied in a prospective trial lasting three months. Our study clearly demonstrated that pain was significantly less severe after ECT, as indicated by the VAS scale for pain and the evaluation of TPs. A further notable observation was that thalamic blood flow was also improved. We conclude that a course of ECT produced notable improvements in both intractable severe pain associated with fibromyalgia and also in terms of thalamic blood flow.

Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):115-8.
Slow-frequency rTMS reduces fibromyalgia pain.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, W11A, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that fibromyalgia (FM) is a centrally mediated pain disorder. Antidepressants, including electroconvulsive therapy, provide some symptomatic relief in FM and other pain disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new antidepressant treatment, which may also be useful in treating chronic pain. All had improvement in pain, and two had complete resolution of pain. Only one of the four subjects had an antidepressant response. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest a possible role for rTMS in treating FM.

End Fibromyalgia and Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy / rTMS Bibliography