Sandyk PEMF Research studies review

Dr. Reuven Sandyk: PicoTesla Magnetic Therapy Bibliography

PicoTesla pulsed magnetic therapy by Sandyk R. shown in peer reviewed research to quickly reduces symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, depression, MS, migraine headache, epilepsy.

Dr. Reuven Sandyk published with Professor Photios Anninos in 1991, and worked simultaneously with Anninos on frequency specific abnormalities in EEG of test subjects diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, ALS, migraine headache, cluster headache, depression, ADD, ADHD, Tourette’s; then reversal of symptoms of these disorders via very weak, pulsed electromagnetic field therapy. According to Sandyk and Anninos these changes were due to modifying brain-wave patterns, also called brain-wave-entrainment. Dr. Sandyk has published several hundred peer reviewed studies; you may review most of them all via PubMed citations below.

Professor Anninos and Dr. Sandyk have together and separately developed very effective electromagnetic field therapy devices and methods which provide quick, miraculous amelioration of patients’ symptoms. We’ve followed Sandyk and Anninos research since summer 2000 and met 4 person’s who had been treated by Professor Anninos in Greece and one by Dr. Sandyk.

Based upon video we have seen with our own eyes, If you’ve got Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, MS, Epilepsy, migraine headache, cluster headache, ADD, ADHD, depression or Tourette’s syndrome; we HIGHLY recommend you see either of them if you can afford the time and expense of travel.

See also Anninos PA , Jacobson JI; two more pioneers of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy to treat Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Epilepsy.


PicoTesla Magnetic Therapy Sandyk Reuven Research Bibliography

Notice in 1989 the shift in research toward electromagnetic field therapy for Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis MS, Alzheimer’s, attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD, migraine headache, cluster headache and Tourette’s syndrome.

In April 1992, notice discovery that Pineal calcification may be underlying cause of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders; and that electromagnetic field therapy of PicoTesla flux density may in fact reverse this calcification and the neurological deficits caused by it.

1. Int J Neurosci. 2006 Jul;116(7):775-826.
Serotonergic mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Abstract
Serotonin (5-HT) has been intimately linked with global regulation of motor behavior, local control of motoneuron excitability, functional recovery of spinal motoneurons as well as neuronal maturation and aging. Selective degeneration of motoneurons is the pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Motoneurons that are preferentially affected in ALS are also densely innervated by 5-HT neurons (e.g., trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal brainstem nuclei as well as ventral horn and motor cortex). Conversely, motoneuron groups that appear more resistant to the process of neurodegeneration in ALS (e.g., oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei) as well as the cerebellum receive only sparse 5-HT input. The glutamate excitotoxicity theory maintains that in ALS degeneration of motoneurons is caused by excessive glutamate neurotransmission, which is neurotoxic. Because of its facilitatory effects on glutaminergic motoneuron excitation, 5-HT may be pivotal to the pathogenesis and therapy of ALS. 5-HT levels as well as the concentrations 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), the major metabolite of 5-HT, are reduced in postmortem spinal cord tissue of ALS patients indicating decreased 5-HT release. Furthermore, cerebrospinal fluid levels of tryptophan, a precursor of 5-HT, are decreased in patients with ALS and plasma concentrations of tryptophan are also decreased with the lowest levels found in the most severely affected patients. In ALS progressive degeneration of 5-HT neurons would result in a compensatory increase in glutamate excitation of motoneurons. Additionally, because 5-HT, acting through presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors, inhibits glutamatergic synaptic transmission, lowered 5-HT activity would lead to increased synaptic glutamate release. Furthermore, 5-HT is a precursor of melatonin, which inhibits glutamate release and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, progressive degeneration of 5-HT neurons affecting motoneuron activity constitutes the prime mover of the disease and its progression and treatment of ALS needs to be focused primarily on boosting 5-HT functions (e.g., pharmacologically via its precursors, reuptake inhibitors, selective 5-HT1A receptor agonists/5-HT2 receptor antagonists, and electrically through transcranial administration of AC pulsed picotesla electromagnetic fields) to prevent excessive glutamate activity in the motoneurons. In fact, 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptor agonists have been shown to prevent glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical cell cultures and the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) improved locomotor function and survival of transgenic SOD1 G93A mice, an animal model of ALS.
PMID: 16861147
2.
Int J Neurosci. 1999 Aug;99(1-4):139-49.
AC pulsed electromagnetic fields-induced sexual arousal and penile erections in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) since brain dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of sexual behavior. Activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites, with resultant release of oxytocin from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, induces sexual arousal and erectile responses in experimental animals and humans. In Parkinsonian patients subcutaneous administration of apomorphine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, induces sexual arousal and penile erections. It has been suggested that the therapeutic efficacy of transcranial administration of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density in PD involves the activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites which are the principal site of action of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in PD. Here, 1 report 2 elderly male PD patients who experienced sexual dysfunction which was recalcitrant to treatment with anti Parkinsonian agents including selegiline, levodopa and tolcapone. However, brief transcranial administrations of AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla flux density induced in these patients sexual arousal and spontaneous nocturnal erections. These findings support the notion that central activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites is associated with the therapeutic efficacy of AC pulsed EMFs in PD. In addition, since the right hemisphere is dominant for sexual activity, partly because of a dopaminergic bias of this hemisphere, these findings suggest that right hemispheric activation in response to administration of AC pulsed EMFs was associated in these patient with improved sexual functions.
PMID: 10495212
3.
Int J Neurosci. 1999 Apr;97(3-4):225-33.
Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields improves olfactory function in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It may manifest in the early stages of the disease and infrequently may even antedate the onset of motor symptoms. The cause of olfactory dysfunction in PD remains unknown. Pathological changes characteristic of PD (i.e., Lewy bodies) have been demonstrated in the olfactory bulb which contains a large population of dopaminergic neurons involved in olfactory information processing. Since dopaminergic drugs do not affect olfactory threshold in PD patients, it has been suggested that olfactory dysfunction in these patients is not dependent on dopamine deficiency. I present two fully medicated Parkinsonian patients with long standing history of olfactory dysfunction in whom recovery of smell occurred during therapeutic transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density. In both patients improvement of smell during administration of EMFs occurred in conjunction with recurrent episodes of yawning. The temporal association between recovery of smell and yawning behavior is remarkable since yawning is mediated by activation of a subpopulation of striatal and limbic postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors induced by increased synaptic dopamine release. A high density of dopamine D2 receptors is present in the olfactory bulb and tract. Degeneration of olfactory dopaminergic neurons may lead to upregulation (i.e., supersensitivity) of postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors. Presumably, small amounts of dopamine released into the synapses of the olfactory bulb during magnetic stimulation may cause activation of these supersensitive receptors resulting in enhanced sense of smell. Interestingly, in both patients enhancement of smell perception occurred only during administration of EMFs of 7 Hz frequency implying that the release of dopamine and activation of dopamine D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb was partly frequency dependent. In fact, weak magnetic fields have been found to cause interaction with biological systems only within narrow frequency ranges (i.e., frequency windows) and the existence of such frequency ranges has been explained on the basis of the cyclotron resonance model.
PMID: 10372649
4.
Int J Neurosci. 1999 Mar;97(1-2):139-45.
Yawning and stretching induced by transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Yawning is considered a brainstem regulated behavior which is associated with changes in arousal and activity levels. Yawning and stretching are dopamine (DA) mediated behaviors and pharmacological studies indicate that these behaviors are associated with increased DA release coupled with stimulation of postsynaptic DA-D2 receptors. Despite their relation to the dopaminergic system, yawning and stretching are poorly documented in untreated or treated patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). A 49 year old fully medicated female patient with juvenile onset PD is presented in whom recurrent episodes of yawning and stretching developed during transcranial administration of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EM Fs) of picotesla flux density. These episodes have not been observed previously in this or other patients during treatment with levodopa or DA receptor agonists or in unmedicated PD patients during treatment with AC pulsed EMFs. It is suggested that yawning and stretching behavior resulted in this patient from a synergistic interaction between EMFs and DA derived from levodopa supplementation with EMFs possibly facilitating the release of DA and simultaneously activating postsynaptic DA-D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. In addition, it is postulated that the release of ACTH/MSH peptides from peptidergic neurons in the brain upon stimulation of the DA-D2 receptors reinforced the yawning and stretching behavior.
PMID: 10681123
5.
Int J Neurosci. 1999 Mar;97(1-2):131-8.
Serotonergic neuronal sprouting as a potential mechanism of recovery in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is widely considered as an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Damage to the bulbospinal serotonergic (5-HT) neurons occurs in the early paralytic stages of EAE in rats with the severity of neurologic signs corresponding to spinal serotonergic depletion. Neurologic recovery of EAE rats is associated with reestablishment of spinal 5-HT transmission possibly through sprouting of undamaged axons and nerve terminals. Damage to the bulbospinal serotonergic fibers also occurs in patients with MS (as reflected by reduced lumbar CSF 5-HIAA levels) and may contribute to several manifestations of the disease including autonomic dysregulation, sensory symptoms (i.e., paresthesias, pain) and motor symptoms (weakness, spasticity, clonus). Spinal serotonergic neuronal sprouting with regeneration of 5-HT nerve terminals may also occur in the early stages of MS and may be associated with spontaneous remission of MS symptoms following an acute relapse. Sprouting of serotonergic neurons may also explain the disparity in MS between the extent of demyelinating plaques and clinical signs of the disease. The chronic course of MS may be associated with progressive axonal degenerative changes with reduction of serotonergic nerve terminals and loss of their sprouting capability. It is proposed that the beneficial effects of treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields on the symptoms and course of the disease in patients with chronic progressive MS may be related in part to renewed sprouting of serotonergic neurons.
PMID: 10681122
6.
Int J Neurosci. 1999;98(1-2):83-94.
Impairment of depth perception in multiple sclerosis is improved by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with postural instability and an increased risk of falling which is facilitated by a variety of factors including diminished visual acuity, diplopia, ataxia, apraxia of gait, and peripheral neuropathy. Deficient binocular depth perception may also contribute to a higher incidence of postural instability and falling in these patients who, for example, find it an extremely difficult task to walk on uneven ground, over curbs, or up and down steps. I report a 51 year old woman with secondary progressive MS who experienced difficulties with binocular depth perception resulting in frequent falls and injuries. Deficient depth perception was demonstrated also on spontaneous drawing of a cube. Following a series of transcranial treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7,5 picotesla flux density, the patient experienced a major improvement in depth perception which was evident particularly on ascending and descending stairs. These clinical changes were associated with an improvement in spatial organization and depth perception on drawing a cube. These findings suggest that in MS impairment of depth perception, which is encoded in the primary visual cortex (area 17) and visual association cortex (areas 18 and 19), may be improved by administration of AC pulsed EMFs of picotesla flux density. The primary visual cortex is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons which modulate visual information processing. Cerebral serotonin concentrations are diminished in MS patients and at least some aspects of deficient depth perception in MS may be related to dysfunction of serotonergic transmission in the primary visual cortex. It is suggested that transcranial AC pulsed applications of EMFs improve depth perception partly by augmenting serotonergic transmission in the visual cortex.
PMID: 10395363
7.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 Sep;95(3-4):255-69.
Reversal of the bicycle drawing direction in Parkinson’s disease by AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The Draw-a-Bicycle Test is employed in neuropsychological testing of cognitive skills since the bicycle design is widely known and also because of its complex structure. The Draw-a-Bicycle Test has been administered routinely to patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders to evaluate the effect of transcranial applications of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density on visuoconstructional skills. A seminal observation is reported in 5 medicated PD patients who demonstrated reversal of spontaneous drawing direction of the bicycle after they received a series of transcranial treatments with AC pulsed EMFs. In 3 patients reversal of the bicycle drawing direction was observed shortly after the administration of pulsed EMFs while in 2 patients these changes were observed within a time lag ranging from several weeks to months. All patients also demonstrated a dramatic clinical response to the administration of EMFs. These findings are intriguing because changes in drawing direction do not occur spontaneously in normal individuals as a result of relateralization of cognitive functions. This report suggests that administration of AC pulsed EMFs may induce in some PD patients changes in hemispheric dominance during processing of a visuoconstructional task and that these changes may be predictive of a particularly favourable response to AC pulsed EMFs therapy.
PMID: 9777443
8.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 Jul;95(1-2):133-40.
Serotonergic neuronal atrophy with synaptic inactivation, not axonal degeneration, are the main hallmarks of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The neurological manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been considered to result from demyelination of axons with relative preservation of axonal integrity. This concept has been challenged recently by a landmark pathological study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which has demonstrated that axonal degeneration is also present. The authors of the study hypothesized that axonal degeneration is the pathological correlate of the irreversible neurological impairment in this disease. However, this hypothesis cannot be reconciled with the clinical results obtained with transcranial applications of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of picotesla flux density which have shown rapid and sustained improvement of symptoms including normalization of evoked potential responses in patients with chronic progressive or secondary progressive MS without demyelinated areas first undergoing remyelination or transected axons undergoing regeneration. Biochemical studies have shown that MS patients are serotonergically depleted with the extent of cerebral depletion correlating with the degree of motor disability and a chronic progressive course. It is believed that progressive serotonergic neuronal atrophy with synaptic inactivation, not axonal degeneration, are the hallmarks of the disease and that administration of AC pulsed magnetic fields improves symptoms of MS partly through reactivation of serotonergic neurons and amplification of synaptic serotonergic transmission.
PMID: 9845023
9.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 Jul;95(1-2):107-13.
Yawning and stretching–a behavioral syndrome associated with transcranial application of electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Intracerebral administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) elicits in experimental animals a yawning stretching behavior which is believed to reflect an arousal response mediated through the septohippocampal cholinergic neurons. A surge in plasma ACTH levels at night and just prior to awakening from sleep is also associated in humans with yawning and stretching behavior. Recurrent episodes of uncontrollable yawning and body stretching, identical to those observed upon awakening from physiological sleep, occur in a subset of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during transcranial therapeutic application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields of picotesla flux density. This behavioral response has been observed exclusively in young female patients who are fully ambulatory with a relapsing remitting course of the disease who also demonstrate a distinctly favorable therapeutic response to magnetic stimulation. ACTH is employed for the treatment of MS due to its immunomodulatory effects and a surge in its release in response to AC pulsed magnetic stimulation could explain some of the mechanism by which these fields improve symptoms of the disease.
PMID: 9845021
10.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 May;94(1-2):41-54.
Transcranial AC pulsed applications of weak electromagnetic fields reduces freezing and falling in progressive supranuclear palsy: a case report.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Freezing is a common and disabling symptom in patients with Parkinsonism. It affects most commonly the gait in the form of start hesitation and sudden immobility often resulting in falling. A higher incidence of freezing occurs in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) which is characterized clinically by a constellation of symptoms including supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, postural instability, axial rigidity, dysarthria, Parkinsonism, and pseudobulbar palsy. Pharmacologic therapy of PSP is currently disappointing and the disease progresses relentlessly to a fatal outcome within the first decade after onset. This report concerns a 67 year old woman with a diagnosis of PSP in whom freezing and frequent falling were the most disabling symptoms of the disease at the time of presentation. Both symptoms, which were rated 4 on the Unified Parkinson Rating Scale (UPRS) which grades Parkinsonian symptoms and signs from 0 to 4, with 0 being normal and 4 being severe symptoms, were resistant to treatment with dopaminergic drugs such as levodopa, amantadine, selegiline and pergolide mesylate as well as with the potent and highly selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor nortriptyline. Weekly transcranial applications of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of picotesla flux density was associated with approximately 50% reduction in the frequency of freezing and about 80-90% reduction in frequency of falling after a 6 months follow-up period. At this point freezing was rated 2 while falling received a score of 1 on the UPRS. In addition, this treatment was associated with an improvement in Parkinsonian and pseudobulbar symptoms with the difference between the pre-and post EMF treatment across 13 measures being highly significant (p < .005; Sign test). These results suggest that transcranial administration AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla flux density is efficacious in the treatment of PSP.
PMID: 9622798
11.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 Apr;93(3-4):251-6.
A neuromagnetic view of hippocampal memory functions.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Bursts of highly synchronized discharges of 4-7Hz sinusoidal wave activity can be recorded from the hippocampus during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These rhythmic discharges, the hippocampal theta activity, are generated in the dentate granule cells and the pyramidal cell layers of the CA1 field of the hippocampus. The physiological function of the hippocampal theta activity is elusive. The occurrence of this rhythm throughout the REM sleep stage suggests that it is related to some fundamental neurophysiological phenomena associated with REM sleep, particularly consolidation of memory processes. Synchronous oscillations among a population of neurons are expected to yield stronger, more coherent associated magnetic fields which, through their influence back on the electrical fields via induction, would exert an independent effect on the electrical activity of hippocampal neurons and additionally, could foster and reinforce these oscillations through self-induction. The snail-shaped structure of the hippocampal formation, which resembles a solenoid embedded in the temporal lobe, would be expected to amplify these magnetic fields. Additionally, the discovery of large ferromagnetic particles in the human hippocampus suggests that it may function as a large iron-core electromagnet. It is proposed that memory traces may be encoded or decoded magnetically and analogous to a videotape, each encoding unit (i.e., synapse, set of synapses or glial cell) could be magnetized in one direction, or the other through the flow of a strong, AC magnetic field along the hippocampal formation. The encoding of memory traces in the hippocampal formation may ultimately reflect an electromagnetic phenomenon.
PMID: 9639242
12.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 Apr;93(3-4):239-50.
Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields normalizes the latency of the visual evoked response in a multiple sclerosis patient with optic atrophy.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Visual evoked response (VER) studies have been utilized as supportive information for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may be useful in objectively monitoring the effects of various therapeutic modalities. Delayed latency of the VER, which reflects slowed impulse transmission in the optic pathways, is the most characteristic abnormality associated with the disease. Brief transcranial applications of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density are efficacious in the symptomatic treatment of MS and may also reestablish impulse transmission in the optic pathways. A 36 year old man developed an attack of right sided optic neuritis at the age of 30. On presentation he had blurring of vision with reduced acuity on the right and fundoscopic examination revealed pallor of the optic disc. A checkerboard pattern reversal VER showed a delayed latency to right eye stimulation (P100 = 132 ms; normal range: 95-115 ms). After he received two successive applications of AC pulsed EMFs of 7.5 picotesla flux density each of 20 minutes duration administered transcranially, there was a dramatic improvement in vision and the VER latency reverted to normal (P100= 107 ms). The rapid improvement in vision coupled with the normalization of the VER latency despite the presence of optic atrophy, which reflects chronic demyelination of the optic nerve, cannot be explained on the basis of partial or full reformation of myelin. It is proposed that in MS synaptic neurotransmitter deficiency is associated with the visual impairment and delayed VER latency following optic neuritis and that the recovery of the VER latency by treatment with pulsed EMFs is related to enhancement of synaptic neurotransmitter functions in the retina and central optic pathways. Recovery of the VER latency in MS patients may have important implications with respect to the treatment of visual impairment and prevention of visual loss. Specifically, repeated pulsed applications of EMFs may maintain impulse transmission in the optic nerve and thus potentially sustain its viability.
PMID: 9639241
13.
Int J Neurosci. 1998 Feb;93(1-2):43-54.
Reversal of a body image disorder (macrosomatognosia) in Parkinson’s disease by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Macrosomatognosia refers to a disorder of the body image in which the patient perceives a part or parts of his body as disproportionately large. Macrosomatognosia has been associated with lesions in the parietal lobe, particularly the right parietal lobe, which integrates perceptual-sensorimotor functions concerned with the body image. It has been observed most commonly in patients with paroxysmal cerebral disorders such as epilepsy and migraine. The Draw-a-Person-Test has been employed in neuropsychological testing to identify disorders of the body image. Three fully medicated elderly Parkinsonian patients who exhibited, on the Draw-a-Person Test, macrosomatognosia involving the upper limbs are presented. In these patients spontaneous drawing of the figure of a man demonstrated disproportionately large arms. Furthermore, it was observed that the arm affected by tremor or, in the case of bilateral tremor, the arm showing the most severe tremor showed the greatest abnormality. This association implies that dopaminergic mechanisms influence neuronal systems in the nondominant right parietal lobe which construct the body image. After receiving a course of treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density applied transcranially, these patients’ drawings showed reversal of the macrosomatognosia. These findings demonstrate that transcranial applications of AC pulsed EMFs affect the neuronal systems involved in the construction of the human body image and additionally reverse disorders of the body image in Parkinsonism which are related to right parietal lobe dysfunction.
PMID: 9604168
14.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Nov;92(1-2):95-102.
Treatment with electromagnetic fields improves dual-task performance (talking while walking) in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased risk of falling resulting from visual disturbances, difficulties with gait and balance, apraxia of gait and peripheral neuropathy. These factors often interact synergistically to compromise the patient’s gait stability. It has long been recognized that walking involves a cognitive component and that simultaneous cognitive and motor operations (dual-task) such as talking while walking may interfere with normal ambulation. Talking while walking reflects an example of a dual-task which is frequently impaired in MS patients. Impaired dual-task performance during walking may compromise the patient’s gait and explain why in some circumstances, MS patients unexpectedly lose their balance and fall. Frontal lobe dysfunction, which commonly occurs in MS patients, may disrupt dual-task performance and increase the risk of falling in these patients. This report concerns a 36 old man with remitting-progressive MS with an EDSS score of 5.5 who experienced marked increase in spasticity in the legs and trunk and worsening of his gait and balance, occasionally resulting in falling, when talking while walking. His gait and balance improved dramatically after he received two successive transcranial treatments, each of 45 minutes, with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla flux density. Simultaneously, there was improvement in dual-task performance to the extent that talking while walking did not adversely affect his ambulation. In addition, neuropsychological testing revealed an almost 5-fold increase in word output on the Thurstone’s Word-Fluency Test, which is sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction. It is suggested that facilitation of dual-task performance during ambulation contributes to the overall improvement of gait and balance observed in MS patients receiving transcranial treatment with AC pulsed EMFs.
PMID: 9522259
15.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Nov;92(1-2):63-72.
Speech impairment in Parkinson’s disease is improved by transcranial application of electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 52 year old fully medicated physician with juvenile onset Parkinsonism experienced 4 years ago severe “on-off” fluctuations in motor disability and debilitating speech impairment with severe stuttering which occurred predominantly during “on-off” periods. His speech impairment improved 20%-30% when sertraline (75 mg/day), a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was added to his dopaminergic medications which included levodopa, amantadine, selegiline and pergolide mesylate. A more dramatic and consistent improvement in his speech occurred over the past 4 years during which time the patient received, on a fairly regular basis, weekly transcranial treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of picotesla flux density. Recurrence of speech impairment was observed on several occasions when regular treatments with EMFs were temporarily discontinued. These findings demonstrate that AC pulsed applications of picotesla flux density EMFs may offer a nonpharmacologic approach to the management of speech disturbances in Parkinsonism. Furthermore, this case implicates cerebral serotonergic deficiency in the pathogenesis of Parkinsonian speech impairment which affects more than 50% of patients. It is believed that pulsed applications of EMFs improved this patient’s speech impairment through the facilitation of serotonergic transmission which may have occurred in part through a synergistic interaction with sertraline.
PMID: 9522256
16.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Oct;91(3-4):189-97.
Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields improves the response to levodopa in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 52 year old fully medicated Parkinsonian patient with severe disability (stage 4 on the Hoehn & Yahr disability scale) became asymptomatic 10 weeks after he received twice weekly transcranial treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of picotesla flux density. Prior to treatment with EMFs, his medication (Sinemet CR) was about 50% effective and he experienced end-of-dose deterioration and diurnal-related decline in the drug’s efficacy. For instance, while his morning medication was 90% effective, his afternoon medication was only 50% effective and his evening dose was only 30% effective. Ten weeks after introduction of treatment with EMFs, there was 40% improvement in his response to standard Sinemet medication with minimal change in its efficacy during the course of the day or evening. These findings demonstrate that intermittent, AC pulsed applications of picotesla flux density EMFs improve Parkinsonian symptoms in part by enhancing the patient’s response to levodopa. This effect may be related to an increase in the capacity of striatal DA neurons to synthesize, store and release DA derived from exogenously supplied levodopa as well as to increased serotonin (5-HT) transmission which has been shown to enhance the response of PD patients to levodopa. Since decline in the response to levodopa is a phenomenon associated with progression of the disease, this case suggests that intermittent applications of AC pulsed EMFs of picotesla flux density reverse the course of chronic progressive PD.
PMID: 9394226
Select item 9430330
17.
J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Fall;3(3):267-90.
I. Role of the pineal gland in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Despite intensive research over the past several decades, the etiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. The last 20 years have seen only meager advances in the treatment of the disease in part because too much attention has been devoted to the process of demyelination and its relationship to the neurologic symptoms and recovery of the disease. A host of biological phenomena associated with the disease involving interactions among genetic, environmental, immunologic, and hormonal factors, cannot be explained on the basis of demyelination and, therefore, require refocusing attention on alternative explanations, one of which implicates the pineal gland as the pivotal mover of the disease. This review summarizes the evidence linking dysfunction of the pineal gland with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and course of the disease. The pineal hypothesis of MS also provided the impetus for the development of a novel and highly effective therapeutic modality, one that involves the transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla flux density.
PMID: 9430330
18.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Sep;91(1-2):57-68.
Reversal of cognitive impairment in an elderly parkinsonian patient by transcranial application of picotesla electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 74 year old retired building inspector with a 15 year history of Parkinson’s disease (PD) presented with severe resting tremor in the right hand, generalized bradykinesia, difficulties with the initiation of gait with freezing, mental depression and generalized cognitive impairment despite being fully medicated. Testing of constructional abilities employing various drawing tasks demonstrated drawing impairment compatible with severe left hemispheric dysfunction. After receiving two successive transcranial applications, each of 20 minutes duration, with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla flux density and frequencies of 5Hz and 7Hz respectively, his tremor remitted and there was dramatic improvement in his drawing performance. Additional striking improvements in his drawing performance occurred over the following two days after he continued to receive daily treatments with EMFs. The patient’s drawings were subjected to a Reliability Test in which 10 raters reported 100% correct assessment of pre- and post drawings with all possible comparisons (mean 2 = 5.0; p < .05). This case demonstrates in PD rapid reversal of drawing impairment related to left hemispheric dysfunction by brief transcranial applications of AC pulsed picotesla flux density EMFs and suggests that cognitive deficits associated with Parkinsonism, which usually are progressive and unaffected by dopamine replacement therapy, may be partly reversed by administration of these EMFs. Treatment with picotesla EMFs reflects a “cutting edge” approach to the management of cognitive impairment in Parkinsonism.
PMID: 9394215
19.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):271-5.
The accelerated aging hypothesis of Parkinson’s disease is not supported by the pattern of circadian melatonin secretion.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Hypotheses pertaining to the etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have suggested that the disease reflects an accelerated form of the normal aging process. Aging is associated with progressive failure of the pineal gland associated with a gradual decline in nighttime plasma melatonin secretion. The decline in melatonin secretion with age, at an average rate of 10-15% per decade, is considered a marker of brain aging in humans and estimations of plasma melatonin levels could be used to distinguish the processes of normal aging from pathological age-related changes. The accelerated aging hypothesis of PD is not supported by studies which have examined nocturnal melatonin secretion in drug naive Parkinsonian patients compared to age matched normal control subjects. Specifically, these studies have revealed no significant differences in the melatonin rhythms (i.e., peak nocturnal melatonin level and 24-hour melatonin output) between PD patients and normal age matched controls. On the other hand, melatonin secretion is significantly lower in Alzheimer’s patients compared to age matched normal subjects. Collectively, it is suggested, on the basis of melatonin circadian rhythms, that Alzheimer’s disease rather than PD is related to an accelerated aging process, a hypothesis which is supported by pathological and neurochemical studies.
PMID: 9352432
20.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):177-85.
Treatment with electromagnetic fields reverses the long-term clinical course of a patient with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It is estimated that 10-20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a chronic progressive (CP) course characterized by an insidious onset of neurological deficits followed by steady progression of disability in the absence of symptomatic remission. To date no therapeutic modality has proven effective in reversing the clinical course of CP MS although there are indications that prolonged treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields (EMFs) alters the clinical course of patients with CP MS. A 40 year-old woman presented in December of 1992 with CP MS with symptoms of spastic paraplegia, loss of trunk control, marked weakness of the upper limbs with loss of fine and gross motor hand functions, severe fatigue, cognitive deficits, mental depression, and autonomic dysfunction with neurogenic bladder and bowel incontinence. Her symptoms began at the age of 18 with weakness of the right leg and fatigue with long distance walking and over the ensuing years she experienced steady deterioration of functions. In 1985 she became wheelchair dependent and it was anticipated that within 1-2 years she would become functionally quadriplegic. In December of 1992 she began experimental treatment with EMFs. While receiving regularly weekly transcortical treatments with AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla range intensity she experienced during the first year improvement in mental functions, return of strength in the upper extremities, and recovery of trunk control. During the second year she experienced the return of more hip functions and recovery of motor functions began in her legs. For the first time in years she can now initiate dorsiflexion of her ankles and actively extend her knees voluntarily. Over the past year she started to show signs of redevelopment of reciprocal gait. Presently, with enough function restored in her legs, she is learning to walk with a walker and is able to stand unassisted and maintain her balance for a few minutes. She also regained about 80% of functions in the upper limbs and hands. Most remarkably, there was no further progression of the disease during the 4 years course of magnetic therapy. This patient’s clinical recovery cannot be explained on the basis of a spontaneous remission. It is suggested that pulsed applications of picotesla EMFs affect the neurobiological and immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CP MS.
PMID: 9352426
21.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):159-67.
Reversal of a visuoconstructional disorder by weak electromagnetic fields in a child with Tourette’s syndrome.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Tourette’s syndrome (TS), a chronic familial neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized clinically by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics and by the presence of a variety of neurobehavioral and neurocognitive abnormalities including hyperactivity, self-mutilatory behavior, obsessive-compulsive behavior, learning disabilities, and conduct disorder. Cognitive deficits related to right hemispheric dysfunction are common in TS patients accounting for decrements in visuospatial, visuoconstructional and visuomotor skills. An 11 year old boy with a 5 years history of TS exhibited during a routine neuropsychological assessment an unusual visuoconstructional disorder which previously has been observed in dyslexic children. Specifically, when instructed to draw a bicycle from memory, he drew spontaneously a design executed from the perspective of a bird’s eye view. After receiving a 20 minute treatment session with picotesla range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) applied extracranially, this visuocontructional disorder was spontaneously reversed and he drew an elaborate and detailed bicycle positioned in profile. A placebo EMF treatment, which was administered prior to magnetic therapy, had no effect on this child’s visuoconstructional disorder. During the ensuing week there was a marked reduction in the child’s hyperactive behavior with attentuation of motor tics. Spontaneous drawing of a bicycle a week after the administration of magnetic therapy was executed in profile although some elements were presented from a bird’s eye view. This case demonstrates the potential impact of treatment with picotesla EMFs in reversing specific cognitive deficits in TS related to right posterior hemispheric dysfunction.
PMID: 9352424
22.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):145-57.
Resolution of sleep paralysis by weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Sleep paralysis refers to episodes of inability to move during the onset of sleep or more commonly upon awakening. Patients often describe the sensation of struggling to move and may experience simultaneous frightening vivid hallucinations and dreams. Sleep paralysis and other manifestations of dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep, which reflect deficient monoaminergic regulation of neural modulators of REM sleep, have been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A 40 year old woman with remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) experienced episodes of sleep paralysis since the age of 16, four years prior to the onset of her neurological symptoms. Episodes of sleep paralysis, which manifested at a frequency of about once a week, occurred only upon awakening in the morning and were considered by the patient as a most terrifying experience. Periods of mental stress, sleep deprivation, physical fatigue and exacerbation of MS symptoms appeared to enhance the occurrence of sleep paralysis. In July of 1992 the patient began experimental treatment with AC pulsed applications of picotesla intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 5Hz frequency which were applied extracerebrally 1-2 times per week. During the course of treatment with EMFs the patient made a dramatic recovery of symptoms with improvement in vision, mobility, balance, bladder control, fatigue and short term memory. In addition, her baseline pattern reversal visual evoked potential studies, which showed abnormally prolonged latencies in both eyes, normalized 3 weeks after the initiation of magnetic therapy and remained normal more than 2.5 years later. Since the introduction of magnetic therapy episodes of sleep paralysis gradually diminished and abated completely over the past 3 years. This report suggests that MS may be associated with deficient REM sleep inhibitory neural mechanisms leading to sleep paralysis secondary to the intrusion of REM sleep atonia and dream imagery into the waking state. Pineal melatonin and monoaminergic neurons have been implicated in the induction and maintenance of REM sleep and the pathogenesis of sleep paralysis and it is suggested that resolution of sleep paralysis in this patient by AC pulsed applications of EMFs was related to enhancement of melatonin circadian rhythms and cerebral serotoninergic neurotransmission.
PMID: 9352423
23.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jun;90(1-2):129-33.
Influence of the pineal gland on the expression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: possible relationship to the aquisition of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease, is widely considered as an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is believed that breakdown of the blood brain barrier (BBB) reflects the initial mechanism in the induction of EAE. It has been reported that while neonatally pinealectomized Wistar rats develop extensive pathological changes and severe neurologic deficits upon induction of EAE with allogeneic spinal cord in adjuvant, adult rats pinealectomized at 6 weeks of age appeared resistant to the induction of EAE. These findings suggest that: (a) the pineal gland influences the expression of EAE and, by inference, the integrity of the BBB; and (b) there is an age-related window of susceptibility to the development of EAE possibly related to the level of maturation of the pineal gland and functional integrity of the BBB. This age-related susceptibility to the development of EAE in rats may be relevant to the timing of aquisition of MS where a viral infection in childhood is thought to initiate the induction of autosensitization to myelin antigens. More specifically, it is suggested that the viral infection associated with the development of MS most likely is acquired in infancy prior to the establishment of the melatonin circadian rhythms between 3 and 9 months of age.
PMID: 9285294
24.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jun;90(1-2):75-86.
Treatment with weak electromagnetic fields restores dream recall in a parkinsonian patient.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Absent or markedly reduced REM sleep with cessation of dream recall has been documented in numerous neurological disorders associated with subcortical dementia including Parkinson’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and Huntington’s chorea. This report concerns a 69 year old Parkinsonian patient who experienced complete cessation of dreaming since the onset of motor disability 13 years ago. Long term treatment with levodopa and dopamine (DA) receptor agonists (bromocriptine and pergolide mesylate) did not affect dream recall. However, dreaming was restored after the patient received three treatment sessions with AC pulsed picotesla range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) applied extracranially over three successive days. Six months later, during which time the patient received 3 additional treatment sessions with EMFs, he reported dreaming vividly with intense colored visual imagery almost every night with some of the dreams having sexual content. In addition, he began to experience hypnagogic imagery prior to the onset of sleep. Cessation of dream recall has been associated with right hemispheric dysfunction and its restoration by treatment with EMFs points to right hemispheric activation, which is supported by improvement in this patient’s visual memory known to be subserved by the right temporal lobe. Moreover, since DA neurons activate REM sleep mechanisms and facilitate dream recall, it appears that application of EMFs enhanced DA activity in the mesolimbic system which has been implicated in dream recall. Also, since administration of pineal melatonin has been reported to induce vivid dreams with intense colored visual imagery in normal subjects and narcoleptic patients, it is suggested that enhanced nocturnal melatonin secretion was associated with restoration of dream recall in this patient. These findings demonstrate that unlike chronic levodopa therapy, intermittent pulsed applications of AC picotesla EMFs may induce in Parkinsonism reactivation of reticular-limbic-pineal systems involved in the generation of dreaming.
PMID: 9285289
25.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jun;90(1-2):59-74.
Immediate recovery of cognitive functions and resolution of fatigue by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Cognitive deficits are common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment in MS are unknown and there is presently no effective therapeutic modality which has shown efficacy in improving cognitive deficits in MS. A 53 year old college professor with a long history of secondary progressive MS experienced, over the preceding year, noticeable deterioration in cognitive functions with difficulties in short and long term memory, word finding in spontaneous speech, attention and concentration span. Unable to pursue his academic activities, he was considering early retirement. Mental examination disclosed features of subcortical and cortical dementia involving frontal lobe, left hemispheric and right hemispheric dysfunction. Almost immediately following the extracerebral application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla intensity and a 4-Hz sinusoidal wave, the patient experienced a heightend sense of well being, which he defined as enhancement of cognitive functions with a feeling “like a cloud lifted off my head.” He reported heightend clarity of thinking and during the application of EMFs he felt that words were formed faster and he experienced no difficulty finding the appropriate words. His speech was stronger and well modulated and he felt “energized” with resolution of his fatigue. There was improvement in manual dexterity and handwriting and testing of constructional praxis demonstrated improvement in visuospatial, visuoperceptive and visuomotor functions. It is suggested that some of the cognitive deficits associated with MS, which are caused by synaptic disruption of neurotransmitter functions, may be reversed through pulsed applications of picotesla range EMFs.
PMID: 9285288
26.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jan;89(1-2):53-60.
The biological significance of yawning elicited by application of electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
PMID: 9134448
27.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jan;89(1-2):39-51.
Progressive cognitive improvement in multiple sclerosis from treatment with electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It has long been recognized that cognitive impairment occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) particularly among patients with a chronic progressive course. MS is considered a type of “subcortical dementia” in which cognitive and behavioral abnormalities resemble those observed in patients with a frontal lobe syndrome. The Bicycle Drawing Test is employed for the neuropsychological assessment of cognitive impairment specifically that of mechanical reasoning and visuographic functioning. It also provides clues concerning the patient’s organizational skills which are subserved by the frontal lobes. Extracerebral pulsed applications of picotesla flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been shown to improve cognitive functions in patients with MS. I present three patients with long standing symptoms of MS who, on the initial baseline, pretreatment Bicycle Drawing Test, exhibited cognitive impairment manifested by omissions of essential details and deficient organizational skills. All patients demonstrated progressive improvement in their performance during treatment with EMFs lasting from 6-18 months. The improvement in cognitive functions, which occurred during the initial phases of the treatment, was striking for the changes in organizational skills reflecting frontal lobe functions. These findings demonstrate that progressive recovery of cognitive functions in MS patients are observed over time through continued administration of picotesla flux intensity EMFs. It is believed that the beneficial cognitive effects of these EMFs are related to increased synaptic neurotransmission and that the progressive cognitive improvement noted in these patients is associated with slow recovery of synaptic functions in monoaminergic neurons of the frontal lobe or its projections from subcortical areas.
PMID: 9134447
28.
Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jan;89(1-2):29-38.
Lack of a correlation between demyelinating plaques on MRI scan and clinical recovery in multiple sclerosis by treatment with electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 50 year-old woman presented in January of 1995 with a prolonged history of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and was classified at the time with a remitting-progressive course. Her chief symptoms included slurring of speech, impairment of vision with intermittent diplopia, difficulties with gait and balance with spastic-ataxic gait, mental depression, insomnia, fatigue, impaired cognitive functions notably poor short term memory and recurrent urinary tract and sinus infections. An MRI scan showed multiple nodular demyelinating lesions scattered in the subcortical white matter and periventricularly of both cerebral hemispheres. Over the following 18 months, while receiving three treatment sessions per week with picotesla electro-magnetic fields (EMFs) which were applied extracranially, she showed a significant recovery in both physical and mental symptoms and additionally experienced decreased susceptibility to infections. In addition, the course of her disease appeared to have stabilized as opposed to the preceding 5 years during which time she experienced insidious, steady deterioration in her functioning. Despite this remarkable clinical recovery through the application of EMFs, and MRI scan obtained at the same diagnostic center 18 months after initiation of treatment with EMFs showed no changes in the number and size of the demyelinating plaques. These findings demonstrate lack of a correlation between recovery of symptoms and the number and extent of demyelinating plaques on MRI scan. It has been known since the days of Charcot in the latter half of the 19th century that in MS there is a great disparity between the histopathological changes of the disease and neurologic deficits. This report enhances the notion that demyelination may reflect an epiphenomenon of the disease.
PMID: 9134446
29.
J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Winter;3(4):365-86.
Therapeutic effects of alternating current pulsed electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is the third most common cause of severe disability in patients between the ages of 15 and 50 years. The cause of the disease and its pathogenesis remain unknown. The last 20 years have seen only meager advances in the development of effective treatments for the disease. No specific treatment modality can cure the disease or alter its long-term course and eventual outcome. Moreover, there are no agents or treatments that will restore premorbid neuronal function. A host of biological phenomena associated with the disease involving interactions among genetic, environmental, immunologic, and hormonal factors, cannot be explained on the basis of demyelination alone and therefore require refocusing attention on alternative explanations, one of which implicates the pineal gland as pivotal. The pineal gland functions as a magnetoreceptor organ. This biological property of the gland provided the impetus for the development of a novel and highly effective therapeutic modality, which involves transcranial applications of alternating current (AC) pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla flux density. This review summarizes recent clinical work on the effects of transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields for the symptomatic treatment of the disease.
PMID: 9449058
30.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov;87(3-4):219-24.
Melatonin supplements for aging.
Sandyk R1.
PMID: 9003982
31.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov;87(3-4):209-17.
Brief communication: electromagnetic fields improve visuospatial performance and reverse agraphia in a parkinsonian patient.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 73 year old right-handed man, diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 1982, presented with chief complaints of disabling resting and postural tremors in the right hand, generalized bradykinesia and rigidity, difficulties with the initiation of gait, freezing of gait, and mild dementia despite being fully medicated. On neuropsychological testing the Bicycle Drawing Test showed cognitive impairment compatible with bitemporal and frontal lobe dysfunction and on attempts to sign his name he exhibited agraphia. After receiving two successive treatments, each of 20 minutes duration, with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla intensity and 5 Hz frequency sinusoidal wave, his drawing to command showed improvement in visuospatial performance and his signature became legible. One week later, after receiving two additional successive treatments with these EMFs each of 20 minutes duration with a 7 Hz frequency sinusoidal wave, he drew a much larger, detailed and visuospatially organized bicycle and his signature had normalized. Simultaneously, there was marked improvement in Parkinsonian motor symptoms with almost complete resolution of the tremors, start hesitation and freezing of gait. This case demonstrates the dramatic beneficial effects of AC pulsed picotesla EMFs on neurocognitive processes subserved by the temporal and frontal lobes in Parkinsonism and suggest that the dementia of Parkinsonism may be partly reversible.
PMID: 9003981
32.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov;88(1-2):75-82.
Treatment with electromagnetic field alters the clinical course of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis–a case report.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It is estimated that 10-20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a chronic progressive (CP) course characterized by an insidious of neurological deficits followed by steady progression of disability in the absence of symptomatic remission. No therapeutic modality has shown specific efficacy in the treatment of patients with CP MS and there are no data to indicate that any pharmacologic or other modality alters the clinical course of CP MS. Treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is a highly effective modality for the symptomatic management of MS including the chronic progressive form. In addition, this treatment also appears to alter the natural course of the disease in CP patients. A 36 year-old man experienced, at the age of 31, insidious weakness in the legs and several months later developed difficulties with balance with ataxia of gait. His gait abnormality progressed slowly over the following years and at the age of 35 he was severely disabled with spastic paraparesis and ataxia using a rolling walker for ambulation and a scooter for longer distances. In particular, his disability had progressed rapidly over the six months preceding the initiation of treatment with EMFs. He as classified have CP MS and his prognosis was considered extremely unfavorable due to the degree of cerebellar and pyramidal tract involvement and the rapid course of deterioration. In July 1995 the patient began experimental treatment with EMFs. While receiving three treatment sessions a week over 12 months he experienced improvement in cerebellar functions such as gait, balance and tremor as well as bowel and bladder functions, mood, sleep and cognitive function and resolution of diplopia, blurring of vision, dysarthria, paresthesias in the hands, and fatigue. Most remarkably, there was no further progression of the disease during the course of magnetic therapy. This case illustrated that treatment with EMFs, in addition to producing symptomatic improvement, also reverses the clinical course of CP MS.
PMID: 9003966
33.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov;88(1-2):71-4.
Treatment with weak electromagnetic fields controls drooling in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
PMID: 9003965
34.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Oct;87(1-2):5-15.
Suicidal behavior is attenuated in patients with multiple sclerosis by treatment with electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A marked decrease in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite (5-HIAA) has been demonstrated in postmortem studies of suicide victims with various psychiatric disorders. Depression is the most common mental manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS) which accounts for the high incidence of suicide in this disease. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are reduced in MS patients and nocturnal plasma melatonin levels were found to be lower in suicidal than in nonsuicidal patients. These findings suggest that the increased risk of suicide in MS patients may be related to decreased 5-HT functions and blunted circadian melatonin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that extracerebral applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla range rapidly improved motor, sensory, affective and cognitive deficits in MS. Augmentation of cerebral 5-HT synthesis and resynchronization of circadian melatonin secretion has been suggested as a key mechanism by which these EMFs improved symptoms of the disease. Therefore, the prediction was made that this treatment modality would result in attenuation of suicidal behavior in MS patients. The present report concerns three women with remitting-progressive MS who exhibited suicidal behavior during the course of their illness. All patients had frequent suicidal thoughts over several years and experienced resolution of suicidal behavior within several weeks after introduction of EMFs treatment with no recurrence of symptoms during a follow-up of months to 3.5 years. These findings demonstrate that in MS pulsed applications of picotesla level EMFs improve mental depression and may reduce the risk of suicide by a mechanism involving the augmentation of 5-HT neurotransmission and resynchronization of circadian melatonin secretion.
PMID: 8913816
35.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Oct;87(1-2):1-4.
Electromagnetic fields for treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 8913815
36.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Sep;86(3-4):257-62.
The long-term impact of treatment with electromagnetic fields on visual memory in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 8884396
37.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):79-85.
Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on body image perception in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Cerebellar ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and also one of the least responsive to pharmacotherapy. However, cerebellar symptoms often improve dramatically in MS patients by brief, extracerebral applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This report concerns two MS patients with chronic disabling ataxia who experienced rapid improvement in gait and balance after receiving a series of treatments with EMFs. To assess whether improvement in cerebellar gait is accompanied by changes in body image perception, a parietal lobe function, both patients were administered the Human Figure Drawing Test before and after a series of brief treatments with EMFs. Prior to application of EMFs these patients’ free drawings of a person showed a figure with a wide-based stance characteristic of cerebellar ataxia. After receiving a series of EMFs treatments both patients demonstrated a change in body image perception with the drawings of the human figure showing a normal stance. These findings demonstrate that in MS improvement in cerebellar symptoms by pulsed applications of picotesla EMFs is associated with changes in the body image.
PMID: 8828062
38.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):67-77.
Treatment with weak electromagnetic fields attenuates carbohydrate craving in a patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Pharmacological studies have implicated serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the regulation of food intake and food preference. It has been shown that the urge to consume carbohydrate rich foods is regulated by 5-HT activity and that carbohydrate craving is triggered by 5-HT deficiency in the medical hypothalamus. Ingestion of carbohydrate foods stimulates insulin secretion which accelerates the uptake of tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT and melatonin, into the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Thus, carbohydrate craving might be considered a form of “self medication” aimed at correcting an underlying dysfunction of cerebral 5-HT and pineal melatonin functions. A 51 year old woman with remitting-progressive MS experienced carbohydrate craving during childhood and adolescence and again in temporal association with the onset of her first neurological symptoms at the age of 45. Carbohydrate craving, which resembled the pattern observed in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), was attenuated by a series of extracranial AC pulsed applications of picotesla (10(-12) Tesla) flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It is suggested that AC pulsed EMFs applications activated retinal mechanisms which, through functional interactions with the medial hypothalamus, initiated an increased release of 5-HT and resynchronization of melatonin secretion ultimately leading to a decrease in carbohydrate craving. The occurrence of carbohydrate craving in early life may have increased the patient’s vulnerability to viral infection given the importance of 5-HT and melatonin in immunomodulation and the regulation of the integrity of the blood brain barrier. The recurrence of this craving in temporal relation to the onset of neurological symptoms suggests that 5-HT deficiency and impaired pineal melatonin functions are linked to the timing of onset of the clinical symptoms of the disease. The report supports the role of experimental factors in the pathophysiology of MS.
PMID: 8828061
39.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):47-53.
Tryptophan availability and the susceptibility to stress in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
In his seminal description of the clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1868 Charcot suggested that psychological stress is an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. MS patients often relate that mental stress exacerbates their symptoms and even provokes attacks of their disease. Moreover, a subgroup of MS patients experiences exacerbation of symptoms following a period of mental stress rather than occurring at times when stress is maximal, i.e., attacks are reported to occur on the rebound from stress. Psychological stress may also contribute to the onset and long term clinical deterioration of the disease. Mental stress is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in increased release of ACTH and cortisol secretion. Stress-induced activation of the HPA axis is associated with an increased metabolism of cerebral serotonin (5-HT) the synthesis of which is dependent upon the availability of its precursor tryptophan. Thus, increased tryptophan availability may partly underlie the general response to stress. Plasma and CSF tryptophan levels are diminished in chronic MS patients and it is suggested that plasma tryptophan levels are even lower in patients who are stressed. Attenuated increase in the availability of systemic tryptophan in response to stress is thought to underlie the susceptibility of MS patients to stress. This hypothesis is supported by the findings in chronic MS patients of a significantly diminished adrenal cortisol reactivity to insulin-induced hypoglycemia which is considered a stress response mediated through the 5-HT system. Consequently, since patients with MS exhibit an abnormal response to stress it follows that increased tryptophan availability through dietary supplementation would diminish their vulnerability to psychological stress. Additionally, if sustained or repeated stress contributes to progression and clinical deterioration of the disease then chronic tryptophan supplementation also may halt its progression.
PMID: 8828059
40.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):33-45.
Reversal of an acute parkinsonian syndrome associated with multiple sclerosis by application of weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The occurrence of movement disorders and particularly Parkinsonian symptoms is uncommon in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite the rather frequent presence of demyelinating plaques in the basal ganglia. This disparity between the occurrence of clinical symptoms in MS and the distribution of demyelinating plaques suggests that impairment of neurotransmitter functions rather than demyelination may be critical to the clinical manifestations of the disease. A 48 year old woman with remitting-progressive MS developed a bilateral Parkinsonian syndrome in association with acute emotional stress which resolved after she received two brief successive extracerebral applications of low frequency picotesla flux density electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It is believed that in this patient Parkinsonism may have existed in a subclinical form and that acute stress, which previously has been shown to precipitate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, triggered the onset of Parkinsonism by further reducing dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The rapid reversal of the Parkinsonian syndrome by EMFs was related to a presumed augmentation of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission which, on the basis of CSF studies, is reduced in chronic MS patients. The efficacy of EMFs in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease had been documented previously but this report demonstrates that this treatment modality is beneficial also for the treatment of Parkinsonism developing in the setting of other neurodegenerative disorders.
PMID: 8828058
41.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Jul;86(1-2):23-31.
Estrogen’s impact on cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It has long been suspected that hormonal factors contribute directly and indirectly to the etiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The susceptibility of MS is higher in women than in men and women are even more susceptible to hormonal influences when onset occurs at an early or delayed age. Pregnancy has a short-term favorable effect on the course of the disease but there is an increased rate of relapse during the post-partum period. In addition, women often report premenstrual exacerbation of their symptoms with remission during menses. These findings suggest that in women estrogens may exert a stabilizing effect on the clinical manifestations of MS. The role of estrogens is supported also by observations of a higher incidence of cognitive impairment in women than men with MS. A 50 year old woman with a remitting progressive MS experienced profound deterioration in cognitive functions during withdrawal from estrogen therapy which was initiated for the treatment of amenorrhea. Improvement in cognitive functions occurred shortly after she restarted therapy with an estrogen/progesterone preparation and was maintained during long term therapy. Serotonin (5-HT) mechanisms have been implicated in memory functions and estrogens modulate these functions through an interaction with 5-HT2 receptors in the cerebral cortex and limbic system. It is suggested that estrogen withdrawal induces impairment in cognitive functions through dysregulation of 5-HT2 receptor activity and 5-HT neurotransmission. These findings suggest that estrogens have a beneficial influence on cognitive functions in MS patients and that hormonal supplementation might be advised in menopausal and postmenopausal MS patients for the prevention of cognitive deterioration.
PMID: 8828057
42.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):125-9.
Weak electromagnetic fields potentiate the effects of 4-aminopyridine in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 8727688
43.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):111-24.
Freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease is improved by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Freezing, a symptom characterized by difficulty in the initiation and smooth pursuit of repetitive movements, is a unique and well known clinical feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It usually occurs in patients with long duration and advanced stage of the disease and is a major cause of disability often resulting in falling. In PD patients freezing manifests most commonly as a sudden attack of immobility usually experienced during walking, attempts to turn while walking, or while approaching a destination. Less commonly it is expressed as arrest of speech or handwriting. The pathophysiology of Parkinsonian freezing, which is considered a distinct clinical feature independent of akinesia, is poorly understood and is believed to involve abnormalities in dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission in critical motor control areas including the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, locus coeruleus and spinal cord. In general, freezing is resistant to pharmacological therapy although in some patients reduction or increase in levodopa dose may improve this symptom. Three medicated PD patients exhibiting disabling episodes of freezing of gait are presented in whom brief, extracerebral applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla range improved freezing. Two patients had freezing both during “on” and “off” periods while the third patient experienced random episodes of freezing throughout the course of the day. The effect of each EMFs treatment lasted several days after which time freezing gradually reappeared, initially in association with “off” periods. These findings suggest that the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the development of freezing are sensitive to the effects of EMFs, which are believed to improve freezing primarily through the facilitation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission at both junctional (synaptic) and nonjunctional neuronal target sites.
PMID: 8727687
44.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):101-10.
Application of weak electromagnetic fields facilitates sensory-motor integration in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Electrophysiological studies in behaving animals have shown the function of cerebral serotonin (5-HT) neurons to be altered in association with motor output in both the tonic and repetitive modes and also in relation to an orienting response. Brainstem 5-HT neurons increase their firing rate two to five-fold during repetitive motor activity to facilitate motor output while simultaneously suppressing transmission in sensory pathways. Reciprocally, during an orienting response motor activity is suppressed and 5-HT neuronal activity is inhibited to facilitate transmission of sensory information. These reciprocal changes in 5-HT neuronal activity serve to facilitate brainstem reticular sensory-motor integration which, due to 5-HT neurotransmission deficiency, may be disrupted in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). For instance, MS patients are unable to process auditory information in the presence of competing ambient stimuli, while under a controlled laboratory environment they demonstrate unimpaired verbal information processing. This report concerns three MS patients who experienced rapid deterioration in balance resulting in falling when subjected, during ambulation, to distracting external auditory stimuli. After receiving a series of treatments with low frequency picotesla range intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which were applied extracranially for brief periods, these patients experienced resolution of these symptoms with ambulation being unaffected by auditory stimuli. It is suggested that application of picotesla EMFs may restore abnormal reticular sensory-motor integration in MS patients with the effect being related to facilitation of 5-HT neurotransmission at both junctional (synaptic) and nonjunctional neuronal target sites.
PMID: 8727686
45.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):93-9.
Bidirectional effect of electromagnetic fields on ketanserin-induced yawning in patients with multiple sclerosis: the role of melatonin.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
5-HT2 receptors regulate sleep including yawning behavior. Ritanserin, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, increases the duration of slow wave in rats and humans. This effect is more pronounced during the light period when melatonin plasma levels are low; melatonin inhibits the sleep effects of ritanserin. These findings indicate that melatonin co-determines the effects of ritanserin on sleep. In a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients ketanserin, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, induces recurrent yawning particularly when administered in daytime. The frequency of yawning induced by the drug was modified by AC pulsed picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs) which affect melatonin secretion. Two MS patients are presented in whom the frequency of ketanserin-induced yawning was altered in opposite directions by these EMFs. The first patient, a 50 year old woman with a remitting-relapsing course, developed recurrent yawning and sleepiness after administration of ketanserin (10 mg, PO). Yawning was decreased dramatically during application of EMFs but was unaffected by a placebo EMFs treatment. The second patient, a 35 year old man with a chronic progressive course, manifested a single and brief yawn after administration of an equal dose of ketanserin. Yawning was increased dramatically during application of EMFs while remaining unchanged during a placebo EMFs treatment. These observations demonstrate a bidirectional effect of picotesla flux EMFs on ketanserin-induced yawning which may be related to differences in daytime melatonin plasma levels among MS patients. If validated by estimations of melatonin plasma levels in a larger cohort of patients the information derived from the effects of picotesla EMFs on ketanserin-induced yawning could be used to: (a) assess pineal melatonin functions in patients with MS; (b) indicate differences in pineal functions between male and female MS patients; and (c) indicate a relationship between plasma melatonin levels and the fatigue of MS.
PMID: 8727685
46.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):79-91.
Weak electromagnetic fields increase the amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP response in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Visual evoked potential (VEP) studies are widely used for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are also useful in monitoring the effects of various therapeutic modalities in the disease. Brief, extracerebral applications of picotesla (pT) range flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of low frequency have been shown efficacious in the treatment of motor and cognitive symptoms in MS implying that this treatment modality improves action potential transmission in demyelinating pathways. This report documents three MS patients with a remitting-progressive course in whom two successive brief extracerebral applications of pT range EMFs caused an immediate increase (and normalization) of the amplitudes of the visual evoked response in the eye previously affected by optic neuritis. However, the pretreatment prolonged latencies of the evoked responses remained essentially unchanged after the administration of EMFs. Since the latency of the VEP reflects the degree of conduction velocity and the amplitude the degree of conduction block in demyelinating optic pathways, the report demonstrates that extracerebral applications of these EMFs may rapidly reverse conduction block in demyelinating fibers. Reversal of the conduction block, which is though to be related to changes in axonal Na+ and K+ channels and synaptic neurotransmitter release, accounts for the immediate improvement of vision and other neurological deficits observed in MS patients following exposure to these EMFs.
PMID: 8727684
47.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):187-94.
Effects of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields on dopaminergic transmission in Tourette’s syndrome.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Tourette’s syndrome (TS), a chronic familial neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized clinically by the presence of motor and vocal tics that wax and wane in severity over the time and by the occurrence of a variety of neurobehavioral disorders. It is believed that the tics of TS result from increased dopamine (DA) activity caused by postsynaptic DA receptor supersensitivity. The synthesis and release of DA is regulated presynaptically by a specific class of DA D2 receptors, termed autoreceptors activation of which causes inhibition of DA synthesis and release. In experimental animals and humans administration of small doses of apomorphine, a DA D2 autoreceptor agonist, produces yawning. Recurrent episodes of yawning followed by increased motor tic activity was observed in two patients with TS during exposure to brief, extracranial applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs). On the basis of these observations it is suggested that recurrent episodes of yawning in response to application of EMFs was induced by activation of presynaptic DA D2 autoreceptors while further exposure to these EMFs caused excessive stimulation of postsynaptic DA D2 receptors resulting in exacerbation of the tics. Thus, the dual effects of picotesla flux EMFs on the DA D2 autoreceptor and the postsynaptic receptor resemble the biphasic pharmacological and behavioral properties of apomorphine, a DA agonist which activates the autoreceptors in low doses while in higher doses causes stimulation of the postsynaptic receptors producing exacerbation of symptoms of TS. These findings demonstrate that picotesla flux EMFs applied extracerebrally may influence nigrostriatal DA transmission at pre- and postsynaptic DA D2 receptor sites.
PMID: 8707481
48.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):177-86.
Treatment with weak electromagnetic fields improves fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It is estimated that 75-90% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue at some point during the course of the disease and that in about half of these patients, subjective fatigue is a primary complaint. In the majority of patients fatigue is present throughout the course of the day being most prominent in the mid to late afternoon. Sleepiness is not prominent, but patients report that rest may attenuate fatigability. The pathophysiology of the fatigue of MS remains unknown. Delayed impulse conduction in demyelinated zones may render transmission in the brainstem reticular formation less effective. In addition, the observation that rest may restore energy and that administration of pemoline and amantadine, which increase the synthesis and release of monoamines, often improve the fatigue of MS suggest that depletion of neurotransmitter stores in damaged neurons may contribute significantly to the development of fatigue in these patients. The present report concerns three MS patients who experienced over several years continuous and debilitating fatigue throughout the course of the day. Fatigue was exacerbated by increased physical activity and was not improved by rest. After receiving a course of treatments with picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which were applied extracranially, all patients experienced improvement in fatigue. Remarkably, patients noted that several months after initiation of treatment with EMFs they were able to recover, after a short period of rest, from fatigue which followed increased physical activity. These observations suggest that replenishment of monoamine stores in neurons damaged by demyelination in the brainstem reticular formation by periodic applications of picotesla flux intensity EMFs may lead to more effective impulse conduction and thus to improvement in fatigue including rapid recovery of fatigue after rest.
PMID: 8707480
49.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):165-75.
Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP response in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Visual evoked potential (VEP) studies are widely used for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are also useful in monitoring the effects of various therapeutic modalities in the disease. Prolongation of the VEP latencies has been demonstrated in patients with MS and in other neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD), a disorder characterized by deficient cerebral dopamine (DA) functions. Pharmacological and biochemical studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between the amplitude of the VEP response and cerebral DA levels. Since brief, extracerebral applications of picotesla (pT) range flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of low frequency have been shown to produce rapid improvement in motor and cognitive symptoms in PD, it is expected that application these EMFs would lead also to an increase in the amplitude of VEP response. This report documents three randomly selected PD patients who, following two successive brief extracerebral applications of pT range EMFs, showed an almost 3-fold increase of the mean pretreatment amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP in response to monocular stimulation. One patient underwent also a placebo EMF treatment which did not result in a significant change in the posttreatment amplitude. The study demonstrates that in Parkinsonian patients extracerebral application of these EMFs rapidly increases in amplitude of the VEP response and, by inference, cerebral DA levels presumably by increasing DA release.
PMID: 8707479
50.
Int J Neurosci. 1996 Feb;84(1-4):157-64.
Resolution of partial cataplexy in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Cataplexy, an ancillary symptom of narcolepsy, involves the sudden loss of muscle tone without altered consciousness usually brought on by sudden excitement or emotional influence and extreme exertions (Guilleminault et al., 1974; Parks et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1992; 1993; Scrima, 1981; Baker, 1985). Attacks of generalized cataplexy produce complete atonic, areflexic partial or complete paralysis of striated muscles commonly involving the leg muscles resulting in collapse of the knees and falling while milder forms often termed partial cataplexy may manifest by sagging of the face, eyelid, or jaw, dysarthria, blurred vision, drooping of the head, weakness of an arm or leg, buckling at the knees, or simply a momentary sensation of weakness that is imperceptible to observers (Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1993). The duration of cataplexy is usually a few seconds, although severe episodes can last several minutes and rarely several hours or days in the case of “status cataplecticus” (Parkes et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Billiard & Cadilhac, 1985; Aldrich, 1992; 1993). This report concerns a 51 year old man with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis who exhibited daily episodes of partial cataplexy which resolved within 3 weeks after he received treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields.
PMID: 8707478
51.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Dec;83(3-4):187-98.
Premenstrual exacerbation of symptoms in multiple sclerosis is attenuated by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It has been suspected that hormonal factors contribute to the etiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). A direct relationship between MS and endocrine functions is suggested by changes in disease activity during the phases of the menstrual cycle. A subset of women with MS experience premenstrual worsening of symptoms which improve dramatically with the onset of menstruation. The biological mechanisms underlying these changes in disease activity are unexplained but may be related to cyclical fluctuations in gonadal sex steroid hormones, abrupt changes in the activity of the endogenous opioid peptides and fluctuations in plasma melatonin levels which affect neuronal excitability and immune functions. Extracerebral application of weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla range intensity has been reported efficacious in the treatment of MS with patients experiencing sustained improvement in motor, sensory, autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. The present report concerns two women with chronic progressive stage MS who experienced, coincident with increasing functional disability, regular worsening of their symptoms beginning about a week before menstruation and abating with the onset of menstruation. These symptoms resolved two months after the initiation of treatment with EMFs. The report supports the association between the endocrine system and MS and indicates that brief, extracranial applications of these magnetic fields modifies the activity of neuroendocrine systems which precipitate worsening of MS symptoms premenstrually.
PMID: 8869427
52.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Dec;83(3-4):153-63.
The pineal gland, cataplexy, and multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Since the discovery of melatonin as the principal hormone of the pineal gland in 1963, scientists have come to recognize that melatonin is a “master hormone” involved in the control of circadian rhythms and other biological functions. Although little is known about the influence of the pineal gland on motor control, important clues may be obtained by considering the pattern of melatonin secretion during the sleep cycles and particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when melatonin plasma levels are at their lowest. Since REM sleep is characterized by the occurrence of profound atonia which results in an almost complete paralysis of striated muscles, it is suggested that there might be a causal relationship between inhibition of melatonin secretion during REM sleep and the development of REM sleep atonia. This relationship is supported by the findings that melatonin regulates the activity of brainstem serotonin (5-HT) neurons which characteristically cease to fire during REM sleep and which faciliate the development of REM sleep atonia. Moreover, as the muscular atonia of REM sleep is physiologically and pharmacologically indistinguishable from cataplexy, it is possible that the pineal gland also influences to the development of cataplexy. Cataplexy is an ancillary symptom of narcolepsy and also occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). In fact, it is believed that several of the neurological symptoms experienced by patients with MS such as weakness in the legs, feeling of collapsing knees, paroxysmal sudden falling, weakness in the neck, extreme fatigue, intermittent paresthesias, slurring of speech and intermittent blurring of vision, which often are exacerbated by stress and other emotional influences, may reflect the manifestations of cataplexy. Thus, several of the clinical features of MS may reflect a dissociated state of wakefulness and sleep and may improve by the administration of anticataplectic drugs.
PMID: 8869424
53.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Nov;83(1-2):81-92.
Resolution of dysarthria in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It has been reported that 50% or more of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit speech impairment (dysarthria) which in some cases can be exceedingly disabling. Currently there is no effective medical treatment for the dysarthria of MS which occurs as a result of lesions to the cerebellum and its outflow tracts. It was reported recently that extracranial application of brief AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity produced in patients with MS sustained improvement in motor functions including cerebellar symptomatology. This communication concerns two MS patients with a chronic progressive course who exhibited severe dysarthria which improved already during the initial treatment with pulsed EMFs and which resolved completely 3-4 weeks later. Since application of EMFs has been shown to alter: (a) the resting membrane potential and synaptic neurotransmitter release through an effect involving changes in transmembrane calcium flux; and (b) the secretion of pineal melatonin which in turn influences the synthesis and release of serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cerebellum, it is suggested that the immediate improvement of the dysarthria occurred as a result of changes in cerebellar neurotransmitter functions particularly 5-HT and GABA rather than from remyelination.
PMID: 8746751
54.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Nov;83(1-2):69-79.
Reversal of alexia in multiple sclerosis by weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The occurrence of cognitive deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized since 1877 when Charcot first observed “enfeeblement of memory” in his patients. Cognitive deficits have been reported in almost 50% of patients with a relapsing-remitting course and in a significantly higher percentage of patients with a chronic progressive course leading to intellectual disability which is often severe enough to preclude employment. MS is considered a form of subcortical dementia and the occurrence of classical cortical disorders such as aphasia, agnosia and apraxia is reported to be rare in the disease. However, in my experience alexia, a reading impairment unrelated to visual acuity or visual field defects, is common in patients with MS. Recently, I reported that treatment with picotesla range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is an efficacious modality in the management of both the motor and cognitive symptoms of MS. Three patients with MS who developed alexia as a manifestation of the disease are presented. In all patients the alexia was reversed several months after they began treatment with EMFs. Since alexia usually reflects a disconnection syndrome whereby lesions involving the left visual cortex and the splenium of the corpus callosum disconnect language association areas from visual association areas, it is suggested that reversal of the alexia in these patients by EMFs was related to improved interhemispheric transcallosal transmission of visual information. In addition, it is conceivable that changes in the metabolism of monoamines, which are involved in visual information processing and reading comprehension, may have been important in causing reversal of the alexia. This report further supports the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in reversing specific cognitive deficits in MS.
PMID: 8746750
55.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Nov;83(1-2):45-57.
Long term beneficial effects of weak electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 39 year-old severely disabled woman with a 19 year history of chronic relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) began to experience improvement in symptoms within 24 hours after she received experimental treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Pattern reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) study obtained three weeks after the initiation of the first magnetic treatment showed a return to normal of the P100 latencies in each eye. The patient continued to receive 1-2 EMFs treatments per week and during the following 32 months she made a dramatic recovery with resolution of diplopia, blurring of vision, dysarthria, ataxia of gait, and bladder dysfunction as well as improvement in fatigue, heat tolerance, mood, sleep, libido, and cognitive functions. VEP studies, which were repeated in April of 1995 more than 2 1/2 years after the initiation of magnetic treatment, showed that P100 latencies remained normal in each eye providing objective documentation that continued application of these EMFs may sustain normal conduction in the damaged optic pathways over a long period of time. This is the first case report documenting the dramatic long term beneficial effects of treatment with picotesla range EMFs in a patient with MS.
PMID: 8746748
56.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Nov;83(1-2):1-6.
Diurnal variations in vision and relations to circadian melatonin secretion in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It has long been recognized that symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) wax and wane with fluctuations occurring on an hour to-hour basis throughout a 24 hour period. It has been proposed that changes in circadian core body temperature, which alter axonal conductivity, may account for the fluctuations of symptoms in MS. A 51-year-old man with MS is reported in whom visual acuity deteriorated throughout the course of the day only to improve again at night between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. These changes in vision were unrelated to rest or physical activity, but appeared to coincide with the circadian secretion of melatonin which is coupled to the circadian temperature rhythms. Since melatonin lowers body temperature, it is hypothesized that the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion was related to improvement in vision in this patient. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that administration of melatonin (3 mg, orally) at 2:00 p.m., when the patient experienced severe blurring of vision, resulted within 15 minutes in a dramatic improvement in visual acuity and in normalization of the visual evoked potential latency after stimulation of the left eye. Moreover, since the pineal gland is a thermoregulatory organ which functions to prevent excessive rise of body temperature, it is possible that since MS is associated with dysfunction of the pineal gland, these patients may experience diminished capacity to eliminate heat at rest or during physical activity with resultant elevation of body temperatures which may further compromise neurologic functions by causing failure of axonal conduction.
PMID: 8746744
57.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Jun;82(3-4):285-302.
Weak electromagnetic fields improve body image perception in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with various cognitive deficits and it has been suggested that it be considered a form of subcortical dementia. It is now recognized that visuoperceptive and visuomotor deficits commonly occur in MS patients particularly in those with chronic progressive course of the disease. The Human Figure Drawing Test has been employed in the assessment of generalized intellectual deterioration and specifically in the evaluation of visuoperceptive, visuospatial and visuoconstructional abilities in brain injured patients. I have demonstrated recently, on the basis of various drawing test, the external application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improved visuoperceptive and visuospatial functions in patients with MS. In the present communication I present five MS patients who were administered the Human Figure Drawing Test before and after a series of treatments with EMFs. Prior to application of EMFs four of these patients’ drawings showed distortions, poor perspectives, impoverished facial expression, and lack of attention to details suggesting poor body image perception related to right posterior hemispheric dysfunction. In response to the administration of EMFs the group demonstrated improvement in motor disability which was associated with a striking improvement in the drawing particularly the drawings of the face the perception of which is localized to the right parietal lobe. These findings demonstrate that treatment with pT EMFs improves body image perception in MS patients thus corroborating previous observations which demonstrated this treatment modality to exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions in patients with MS.
PMID: 7558655
58.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Jun;82(3-4):269-83.
Improvement of body image perception in Parkinson’s disease by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive deficits ultimately leading in about 30% of patients to the development of dementia. These studies have demonstrated also a greater decrement of right hemispheric functions which are manifested by visuospatial deficits occurring in up to 90% of PD patients. The Human Figure Drawing Test has been employed in the assessment of generalized intellectual deterioration and specifically in the evaluation of visuperceptive, visuospatial and visuoconstructional abilities in brain injured patients. I have demonstrated recently, on the basis of various drawing tests, that external application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improved visuoperceptive and visuospatial functions in Parkinsonian patients. In the present communication I present 4 fully medicated nondemented Parkinsonian patients who were administered the Human Figure Drawing Test before and after a series of treatments with EMFs. The Human Figure Drawing Test was selected for the study specifically since it was shown to be sensitive to the effects of surgery to the basal ganglia in Parkinsonian patients. Prior to application of EMFs these patients’ drawings showed distortion, poor perspective, impoverished facial expression, and lack of attention to details suggested poor body image perception related to right posterior hemispheric dysfunction. In response to the administration of EMFs the group demonstrated a striking improvement in the drawings particularly the depiction of the face the perception of which is localized to the right parietal lobe. These findings demonstrate that treatment with pT EMFs improves body image perception in Parkinsonian patients, a deficit which may remain unaffected by treatment with standard dopaminergic pharmacotherapy.
PMID: 7558654
59.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Jun;82(3-4):255-68.
Reversal of visuospatial deficit on the Clock Drawing Test in Parkinson’s disease by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Visuospatial deficits are among the most frequently encountered abnormalities in neuropsychological testing of patients with Parkinson’s disease, being present in up to 90% of cases. Clinically, impairment of visuospatial functions may not be noted by Parkinsonian patients but may contribute to various functional disabilities including frequent falls, difficulties operating a vehicle, ambulating, and dressing. I have reported recently that treatment with external electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity is an effective nonpharmacological modality in the management of the motor and various cognitive deficits of Parkinsonism including visuoperceptive and visuospatial functions. The present communication concerns four fully medicated Parkinsonian patients who, in response to treatment with EMFs, exhibited reversal of visuospatial impairments as demonstrated on the Clock Drawing Test. Specifically, prior to treatment with EMFs these patients demonstrated a visuospatial deficit which was evident by the placement of the numbers on the clock distant from the periphery. Following a series of treatments with EMFs this visuospatial deficit was corrected. The report supports prior observations demonstrating that externally applied pT range intensity EMFs may bring about reversal of visuospatial deficits in Parkinsonian patients which usually are not improved by treatment with dopaminergic or anticholinergic drugs.
PMID: 7558653
60.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Jun;82(3-4):223-42.
Chronic relapsing multiple sclerosis: a case of rapid recovery by application of weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 54 year-old woman was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1985 at the age of 45 after she developed diplopia, slurred speech, and weakness in the right leg. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan obtained in 1985 showed several areas of plaque formation distributed in the periventricular white matter and centrum semiovale bilaterally. Coincident with slow deterioration in her condition since 1990 a second MRI scan was obtained in 1991 which showed a considerable increase in the number and size of plaques throughout both cerebral hemispheres, subcortical white matter, periventricularly and brainstem. In 1994, the patient received treatment with Interferon beta- 1b (Betaseron) for 6 months with no improvement in symptoms. However, following two successive extracranial applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range each of 20 minutes duration the patient experienced an immediate improvement in symptoms most dramatically in gait, balance, speech, level of energy, swallowing, mood, and vision. On a maintenance program of 3 treatments per month the patient’s only symptom is mild right foot and leg weakness. The report points to the unique efficacy of externally applied pT range EMFs in the symptomatic treatment of MS, indicates a lack of an association between the extent of demyelinating plaques on MRI scan and rate and extent of recovery in response to EMFs, and supports the notion that dysfunction of synaptic conductivity due to neurotransmitter deficiency particularly of serotonin (5-HT) contributes more significantly to the development of MS symptoms than the process of demyelination which clinically seems to represent an epiphenomenon of the disease.
PMID: 7558651
61.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 May;82(1-2):113-25.
Weak electromagnetic fields restore dream recall in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It is now well established that dreaming is a phenomenon associated with REM sleep and that we dream far more than we can recall. Loss of dream recall has been reported in association with cerebral lesions of different sites with predilection to the posterior cerebral hemispheres. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterised by the presence of diffuse pathological lesions affecting cortical, subcortical, and brainstem areas which are implicated in the generation and maintenance of REM sleep as well as dream recall. Although MS is associated with a high incidence of sleep disturbances, little is known about the frequency of dreaming and particularly dream recall in these patients and their association with such features as the course of the disease, extent of neurological deficits, rate of progression, sites of demyelinating plaques on MRI scan, and recovery. In my experience morning dream recall and probably dreaming activity become infrequent with the onset and/or during periods of exacerbation of the disease. The present communication concerns four selected MS patients who experienced alterations in dream content and loss of morning dream recall during the course of the disease. In all patients dream recall was restored, along with improvement in neurological symptoms, following the external application of a series of treatments with weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs). These findings suggest that in MS morning dream recall may decline and cease to occur during the course of the disease. Recurrence of dream recall may be a marker of clinical recovery which can be used to assess neurologic improvement in patients undergoing treatment with experimental treatment modalities.
PMID: 7591509
62.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Apr;81(3-4):215-24.
Resolution of Lhermitte’s sign in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Dann LC.
Abstract
Lhermitte’s sign, the occurrence of an electrical sensation passing down the back to the legs on flexion of the neck is a common and characteristic feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) which is related to spinal cord lesions affecting the posterior columns and cervical nerve roots. The Lhermitte’s sign, which has been reported to occur at some time in up to 25% of MS patients, is seldom painful but is often a cause of distress to the patient and usually a marker of increased disease activity. Treatment with extracranial picotesla range pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been found efficacious in the management of various MS symptoms including pain syndromes. The present communication concerns three MS patients in whom two brief applications of EMFs resulted in resolution of the Lhermitte’s sign which emerged during a period of exacerbation of symptoms in one patient and during a prolonged phase of symptom deterioration in the other two patients. As the cause of the Lhermitte’s sign is thought to result from the spread of ectopic excitation in demyelinated plaques in the cervical and thoracic regions of the spinal cord, it is hypothesized that the effects of EMFs are related to the reduction of axonal excitability via a mechanism involving changes in ionic membrane permeability. A systemic effect on pain control systems is also postulated to occur secondary to the effects of EMFs on neurotransmitter activity and pineal melatonin functions. This report underscores the efficacy of picotesla EMFs in the management of paroxysmal pain symptoms in MS.
PMID: 7628912
63.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Apr;81(3-4):199-213.
Improvement of right hemispheric functions in a child with Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome by weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome (GTS) is a chronic, familial neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology characterized clinically by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics and by the presence of a variety of neurobehavioral and neurocognitive abnormalities including hyperactivity, self-multilatory behavior, obsessive-compulsive behavior, learning disabilities, and conduct disorder. On the basis of neuropsychological assessments it has been suggested that GTS is associated with greater right than left hemispheric dysfunction which accounts for decrements in visuospatial, visuoconstructional and visuomotor skills in these patients. Recent case studies have demonstrated that extracranial application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improves visuospatial and visuoperceptive functions in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. I now present a 6 1/2 year old boy with GTS in whom this treatment modality produced, in addition to symptomatic behavioral improvement, also improvement in visuoconstructional and visuomotor skills as evidenced on various drawing tasks particularly copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, a task which is especially vulnerable to right hemispheric functions. These findings suggest that pT range EMFs may be useful for the treatment of GTS and related disorders and also reverse some of the cognitive impairments associated with the disease which are related to right hemispheric dysfunction and which contribute to learning disabilities in these patients.
PMID: 7628911
64.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Mar;81(1-2):95-100.
Cholinergic mechanisms in Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), a chronic, familial, neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized clinically by the presence of motor and vocal tics that wax and wane in severity over time and by the occurrence of a variety of neurobehavioral disturbances including hyperactivity, self-mutilatory behavior, obsessive compulsive behavior, learning disabilities, and conduct disorder. Pharmacological studies suggest that the tics of GTS result from dysfunction of monoaminergic systems, more specifically from increased dopaminergic activity due to postsynaptic dopamine receptor supersensitivity. However, given that striatal dopaminergic and cholinergic systems exhibit reciprocal antagonism in other movement disorders such as Parkinsonism and chorea, it is conceivable that the cholinergic system is implicated in the disease. In the present communication it is proposed that: (a) the emergence of motor and vocal tics in GTS is associated with increased central cholinergic activity; (b) cholinergic overactivity is involved in the manifestation of other symptoms in GTS including depression, sleep disorders, motion sickness, pain, sensory tics, and the waxing and waning course of the disease; (c) abnormalities of the cholinergic system support previous evidence linking GTS with delayed cerebral maturation in a subset of young patients; and (d) drugs which stimulate cholinergic receptors may exacerbate symptoms of GTS, and as with dopamine agonists, should be avoided in patients with GTS.
PMID: 7775075
Select item 7775074
65.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Mar;81(1-2):83-93.
Parkinsonian micrographia reversed by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Micrographia is one of the characteristic clinical signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD) which is linked to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. It has been reported recently that external application of weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range and of low frequency produced dramatic improvements in motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients indicating that a specific range of electromagnetic energy increases, among others, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the present communication, I present two fully mediated Parkinsonian patients who, prior to the application of EMFs, drew lilliputian sized figures reflecting the micrographia of the disease. In both patients a series of treatments with pT EMFs produced, in addition to improvement in motor symptoms, a dramatic increase in the size of their drawings with reversal of their micrographia. Since both patients were maintained on dopaminergic medications prior to and during treatment with EMFs it is suggested that Parkinsonian micrographia is related also to abnormalities of nondopaminergic systems which are affected by weak EMFs. This report corroborates previous observations demonstrating the powerful antiParkinsonian effect of pT range EMFs and highlights the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in Parkinsonism.
PMID: 7775074
66.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Mar;81(1-2):67-82.
Improvement in short-term visual memory by weak electromagnetic fields in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive deficits ultimately leading in about 30% of patients to the development of dementia. These studies have demonstrated also a greater decrement of right hemispheric functions with visuospatial deficits occurring in up to 90% of PD patients. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) Test has been employed in the assessment of right hemispheric functions and particularly for the evaluation of visuoconstructive abilities and short-term visual memory. I have demonstrated recently that external application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity is an effective nonpharmacological modality in the management of the motor and cognitive deficits of Parkinsonism. In the present communication I present 3 fully medicated nondemented PD patients (mean age: 68 +/- 8.1 yrs; mean duration of illness: 9.0 +/- 4.0 yrs; mean disability on the Hoehn and Yahr scale: 3) who were tested on the ROCF Test before and after a series of treatments with EMFs. In response to the administration of EMFs the group demonstrated a mean of 23.1 +/- 13.6% improved performance on copy of the ROCF and a 39.3 +/- 13.4% improvement of short-term recall of the ROCF. These findings demonstrate that treatment with pT EMFs improves deficits in visuospatial functions and visual memory in Parkinsonism which usually remain unaffected during standard treatment with dopaminergic pharmacotherapy.
PMID: 7775073
67.
Int J Neurosci. 1995 Mar;81(1-2):47-65.
Weak electromagnetic fields reverse visuospatial hemi-inattention in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Drawing tasks, both free and copied, have achieved a central position in neuropsychological testing of patients with unilateral cerebral dysfunction by virtue of their sensitivity to different kinds of organic brain disorders and their ability to provide information on lateralized brain damage. In the drawings of patients with right hemispheric damage, visuospatial neglect is revealed by the omission of details on the side of the drawing contralateral to the hemispheric lesion. Patients with unilateral cerebral damage, particularly those with left hemispheric damage, also demonstrate a tendency to place their drawings on the side of the page ipsilateral to the cerebral lesion, a phenomenon which has been termed visuospatial hemi-inattention. It has been reported previously that brief external application of alternating pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improved visuoperceptive and visuospatial functions and reversed neglect in Parkinsonian patients. The present communication concerns four fully medicated elderly nondemented Parkinsonian patients (mean age: 74.7 +/- 4.6 yrs; mean duration of illness: 7.7 +/- 5.2 yrs) in whom application of these EMFs produced reversal of visuospatial hemi-inattention related to left hemispheric dysfunction. These findings support prior observations demonstrating that pT EMFs may bring about reversal of certain cognitive deficits in Parkinsonian patients.
PMID: 7775072
68.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Dec;79(3-4):199-212.
Weak electromagnetic fields attenuate tremor in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Dann LC.
Abstract
It has been estimated that about 75% of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) have tremor which can be exceedingly disabling. The most common tremor observed in patients with MS is a cerebellar intention tremor (‘kinetic tremor’) although postural tremor (‘static tremor’) is also common and often extremely incapacitating. Currently there is no effective medical treatment for the tremor of MS which, in some severe cases, may be abolished by stereotactic thalamotomy. It was reported recently that extracranial application of brief AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range produced improvement in motor and cognitive functions in patients with MS. The present communication concerns three MS patients with a chronic progressive course of the disease (mean age: 39.3 +/- 8.3 years; mean duration of illness: 11.3 +/- 3.2 years) in whom brief external applications of pulsed EMFs of 7.5 pT intensity reduced intention and postural tremors resulting in significant functional improvement. The report suggests that these extremely low intensity EMFs are beneficial also in the treatment of tremors in MS and that this treatment may serve as an alternative method to stereotactic thalamotomy in the management of tremor in MS. The mechanisms by which EMFs attenuate the tremors of MS are complex and are thought to involve augmentation of GABA and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the cerebellum and its outflow tracts.
PMID: 7744562
69.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Dec;79(3-4):169-84.
Reversal of visuospatial hemi-inattention in patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The occurrence of cognitive impairment including visuoperceptive and visuospatial deficits have long been recognized to occur in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) particularly among patients with a chronic progressive course. In MS visuospatial and visuoperceptive deficits have been attributed to the presence of diffuse demyelinating plaques which “disconnect” the brainstem reticular formation and other subcortical structures involved in attention and arousal from cortical areas thus causing a state of hypoarousal. It has been reported recently that brief external applications of alternating pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improved visuoperceptive and visuospatial functions in MS patients. The present communication concerns three female patients with chronic progressive course of MS (mean age: 52.3 +/- 2.0 yrs; mean duration of illness: 17.6 +/- 10.2 yrs) who, on tests of free drawings, demonstrated visuospatial hemi-inattention as a feature of more global cognitive deterioration. In all patients brief applications of EMFs rapidly reversed this cognitive deficit. These findings support prior observations demonstrating that pT EMFs may bring about reversal of certain cognitive deficits in MS patients which, to my knowledge, remain unaffected by any other treatment modality.
PMID: 7744559
70.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Nov;79(1-2):99-110.
A drug naive parkinsonian patient successfully treated with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Brief cerebral application of picotesla (pT) electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been demonstrated an efficacious, revolutionary treatment modality for the therapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with clinical benefits being evident in all motor aspects of the disease as well as in nonmotor symptoms such as mood, sleep, pain, sexual dysfunction, autonomic regulation and cognitive functions. Since treatment with pT EMF has involved PD patients who were treated with dopaminergic agents at the time they received EMF there may have been a synergistic interaction between dopaminergic drugs and EMF. The present communication concerns a 49-year-old male Parkinsonian patient with stage 3 disability on the Hoehn and Yahr scale (1967) who, in response to brief extracranial applications of pT EMF, demonstrated a marked improvement in motor, depressive symptomatology and cognitive functions and was classified as stage 1 several weeks later. This case is remarkable in that the patient did not receive treatment with dopaminergic drugs prior to or during the course of EMF therapy. It suggests that (a) pT range EMF may be efficacious as a monotherapy for PD and should be considered also as a treatment modality for de novo diagnosed patients, and (b) application of these EMF improves Parkinsonism by a mechanism which involves, among others, augmentation of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission.
PMID: 7744555
71.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Nov;79(1-2):75-90.
Improvement in word-fluency performance in patients with multiple sclerosis by electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Impairment of cognitive functions is well recognized in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), especially those with a chronic progressive course. In fact, MS has been considered a type of “subcortical dementia” in which cognitive and behavioral abnormalities resemble those observed in patients with frontal lobe syndrome. Patients with frontal lobe syndrome are known to exhibit diverse cognitive and behavioral abnormalities which include, among others, diminished spontaneity of speech with difficulties producing appropriate words and phrases. It has been reported recently that extracranial application of extremely weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the picotesla range produced improvement in motor and cognitive functions in patients with MS. The present report concerns three women with MS (mean age: 44.3 +/- 8.5 yrs; mean duration of illness: 18.3 +/- 3.5 yrs), two with chronic progressive course and the third with a relapsing-remitting course in whom the Thurstone Word-Fluency Test, a reputed test of frontal lobe function, was administered prior to and following a series of 4 to 5 treatment sessions with EMF. Prior to the initiation of treatment with EMF all patients demonstrated word fluency performance which was well below age and sex-matched normal controls of similar level of education (mean output of MS patients was 42.6 +/- 1.1 words vs. 79.0 +/- 6.2 words of the controls). A series of treatments with EMF produced a 100% increase in word output within a short period of time (mean: 83.3 +/- 14.0 words). These findings suggest that this treatment modality improves frontal lobe functions in patients with MS and corroborate previous reports indicating beneficial effects of EMF on cognitive functions in these patients.
PMID: 7744553
72.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Sep;78(1-2):53-66.
Improvement by picoTesla range magnetic fields of perceptual-motor performance and visual memory in a patient with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
The occurrence of cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized since 1877 when Charcot first observed “enfeeblement of memory.” It is now recognized that visuoperceptive and visuomotor deficits commonly occur in MS patients particularly in those with a chronic progressive course of the disease. Using various drawing tests as markers of constructional performance, we reported recently that treatment with picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) rapidly improved visuoperceptive and constructional abilities in patients with MS. We now report a 58 year old man with a 37 year history of chronic progressive MS in whom external application of MF in the picoTesla range produced rapid improvement of neurologic symptoms including walking, balance, sensory symptoms, and bladder functions. The patient’s recovery was associated with a significant improvement in perceptual-motor functions as demonstrated on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and the Trail Making tests. Specifically, the patient demonstrated a 41% improvement over pretest values on copying the Complex figure and a 72% improvement in recall of the figure immediately after MF treatment. A further 4% improvement on copying the figure and a 27% improvement on recall was demonstrated 24 hours later. On the Trail Making test the patient demonstrated an overall improvement of 39% in Part A of the test and a 24% improvement in Part B of the test 24 hours after application of MF. These findings confirm the beneficial effects of picoTesla range MF in the treatment of MS and demonstrate the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in improving some of the cognitive deficits of the disease.
PMID: 7829292
73.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Sep;78(1-2):111-22.
Naltrexone attenuates the antiparkinsonian effects of picoTesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
Extracranial treatment with magnetic fields (MF) in the picoTesla range has been shown an efficacious treatment modality in the management of Parkinsonism. The mechanisms by which such extremely weak MF improve Parkinsonian symptoms are unknown. As the pineal gland has been shown to function as a “magnetosensor” and since exposure to various intensities of MF disrupts melatonin secretion, it has been proposed that the beneficial effects of MF in Parkinsonism are partly mediated through the actions of pineal melatonin. Animal studies indicate that externally applied MF also influence the activity of the opioid peptides which have been implicated in a broad range of pathological conditions including Parkinsonism. To explore whether the beneficial effects of MF in Parkinsonism involve the mediation of the opioid systems and following informed consent, we administered the opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone (50 mg, P.O.) to a Parkinsonian patient after he showed improvement of symptoms with application of MF. Results of the trial showed that naltrexone partially reversed the antiparkinsonian effects of MF thus suggesting that opioid peptides are involved in mediating the clinical effects of these extremely weak MF in Parkinsonism. These results also suggest that intact opioid systems may be required for a full expression of the antiparkinsonian effect of picoTesla range MF.
PMID: 7829285
74.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Aug;77(3-4):243-59.
Rapid normalization of visual evoked potentials by picoTesla range magnetic fields in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
This communication concerns a 55 year old woman with a 5 year history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in whom a single external application of extremely low magnetic fields (MF) (7.5 picoTesla; 5 Hz frequency) of 20 minutes duration resulted in a rapid improvement in symptoms including vision, cerebellar symptomatology (ataxia and dysarthria), bladder functions, mood, sleep, cognitive functions and fatigue. Improvement in the patient’s symptoms was associated with normalization of the pretreatment abnormal visual evoked potential (VEP) latencies within 24 hours after magnetic treatment. The rapid normalization of the VEP latencies suggests that recovery did not occur as a result of remyelination but probably was related to enhancement of neurotransmitter functions. MF have been shown to alter cellular calcium metabolism which may facilitate axonal conduction in demyelinating plaques. Furthermore, as MF affects the release of the pineal gland’s principal hormone, melatonin, which influences the release of monoamines, it is also hypothesized that the effects of picoTesla MF in MS are partly mediated by the pineal gland which has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS (Sandyk, 1992 a).
PMID: 7814217
75.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Aug;77(3-4):203-27.
Further observations on the effects of external picoTesla range magnetic fields on visual memory and visuospatial functions in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The occurrence of cognitive deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized since 1877 when Charcot first observed “enfeeblement of memory” in his patients and subsequently Gowers (1893) described “failure of memory.” The presence of cognitive deficits in MS may be a major cause of disability which is often severe enough to preclude employment. Impairment of memory including visual memory is one of the most common features of the dementia of MS and may be evident in early stages of the disease. Disturbances of visuospatial and visuomotor functions are also commonly encountered in MS patients reflecting the multiplicity of lesion sites in the disease. Recently, I have reported that treatment with magnetic fields (MF) in the picoTesla range is an efficacious modality in the management of MS and have demonstrated improvement in visuospatial functions with this treatment modality. In the present communication I present four additional patients with MS in whom application of these extremely weak MF produced an improvement in visual memory as well as visuospatial and visuomotor functions. The data presented demonstrate the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in reversing some of the cognitive deficits associated with MS.
PMID: 7814214
76.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jul;77(1-2):85-8.
Stephen Walter Ranson (1880-1942): a pioneer in hypothalamic research.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 7989164
77.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jul;77(1-2):77-84.
Reversal of micrographia in Parkinson’s disease by application of picoTesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
Micrographia, a common and often early sign of Parkinson’s disease (PD), is a sensitive clinical marker of the severity of bradykinesia and rigidity in the disease. As micrographia may be reversed by treatment with dopaminergic drugs and may emerge during therapy with neuroleptic agents, it is thought to reflect striatal dopaminergic deficiency. It has been reported recently that external application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) produced a dramatic improvement in the motor symptoms of PD suggesting that these weak MF enhance striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the present communication, we present a 61 year old patient with PD in whom picoTesla range MF attenuated the severity of bradykinesia and rigidity, improved postural stability, and rapidly reversed the micrographia within 30 minutes after termination of treatment. In contrast, sham (placebo) MF did not influence the severity of the motor symptoms of the disease or the associated micrographia. This report demonstrates the antiParkinsonian effect of picoTesla range MF and highlights the unique efficacy of these weak MF in the therapy of Parkinsonism.
PMID: 7989163
78.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jul;77(1-2):23-46.
Improvement in word-fluency performance in Parkinson’s disease by administration of electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The association between degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system and the motor manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) provided the impetus for the development of DA replacement therapy. However, clinical experience has demonstrated that DA-ergic drugs, while attenuating the motor symptoms of PD, have little or no consistent effect on the mental and cognitive symptoms of the disease which are thought to be related partly to degeneration of the meso-cortico-limbic DA system. Thus, failure of DA-ergic drugs to improve the mental and cognitive deficits of PD indicates that these agents cannot fully restore DA functions in the meso-cortico-limbic circuits. The present communication concerns five fully medicated Parkinsonian patients in whom application of a series of treatments with electromagnetic fields (EMF) of extremely low intensity (in the picotesla range) and frequency (5-8Hz) produced a dramatic improvement in performance on Thurstone’s World-Fluency Test, a sensitive marker of frontal lobe functions. These findings suggest that in contrast to DA replacement therapy application of low intensity EMF may improve frontal lobe functions in patients with PD presumably by augmenting DA activity in the mesocortical system. As deficiency of the frontal DA system has been implicated also in the development of akinesia and freezing in PD these observations may explain the beneficial effects of EMF on the motor manifestations of the disease.
PMID: 7989159
79.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jun;76(3-4):249-57.
The co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and migraine headache: the serotoninergic link.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
The occurrence of migraine headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized for quite some time but the significance of this association to the pathogenesis of MS largely has been ignored. Several reports have documented that migraine headaches may occur during exacerbation of symptoms and may even herald the onset of relapse in MS. We present three MS patients in whom migraine headaches developed during a period of relapse. As migraine has been linked to changes in serotonin (5-HT) functions, the emergence of migraine headaches coincident with the onset of relapse implicates dysregulation of the 5-HT system in the pathophysiology of MS. This hypothesis is plausible considering the evidence that MS patients are serotonergically depleted and that 5-HT is involved in maintaining the integrity of the blood brain barrier, disruption of which is believed to occur in the initial stages of exacerbation of MS symptoms. Furthermore, this hypothesis may have potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of exacerbations of MS and possibly in the prevention of relapse in the disease.
PMID: 7960481
80.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jun;76(3-4):227-9.
The effects of external picotesla range magnetic fields on the EEG in Parkinson’s disease: a follow up study.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 7960478
Select item 7960477
81.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jun;76(3-4):185-225.
Alzheimer’s disease: improvement of visual memory and visuoconstructive performance by treatment with picotesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Impairments in visual memory and visuoconstructive functions commonly occur in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, I reported that external application of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of extremely low intensity (in the picotesla range) and of low frequency (in the range of 5Hz-8Hz) improved visual memory and visuoperceptive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Since a subgroup of Parkinsonian patients, specifically those with dementia, have coexisting pathological and clinical features of AD, I investigated in two AD patients the effects of these extremely weak EMF on visual memory and visuoconstructive performance. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test as well as sequential drawings from memory of a house, a bicycle, and a man were employed to evaluate the effects of EMF on visual memory and visuoconstructive functions, respectively. In both patients treatment with EMF resulted in a dramatic improvement in visual memory and enhancement of visuoconstructive performance which was associated clinically with improvement in other cognitive functions such as short term memory, calculations, spatial orientation, judgement and reasoning as well as level of energy, social interactions, and mood. The report demonstrates, for the first time, that specific cognitive symptoms of AD are improved by treatment with EMF of a specific intensity and frequency. The rapid improvement in cognitive functions in response to EMF suggests that some of the mental deficits of AD are reversible being caused by a functional (i.e., synaptic transmission) rather than a structural (i.e., neuritic plaques) disruption of neuronal communication in the central nervous system.
PMID: 7960477
82.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 May;76(1-2):81-6.
The relationship between melatonin secretion and serum cholesterol in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
We have reported recently that nocturnal melatonin levels are reduced in a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We have also noted in these patients a high incidence of hypercholesterolemia and propose that this may be linked to dysfunction of the pineal gland since pinealectomy in rats was reported to be associated with elevation of blood cholesterol levels. To test this hypothesis, we studied the relationship between nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and serum cholesterol levels in a cohort of 24 MS patients (4 men; 20 women; mean age: 40.2 years SD = 9.5) who were admitted to an inpatient neurologic clinic for acute exacerbation of symptoms. For the purpose of comparison we also evaluated in these patients the association between melatonin levels and serum triglyceride (TG) levels. As predicted, we found a significantly higher serum cholesterol level in 10 patients who had low nocturnal plasma melatonin levels (mean: 17.1 pg/ml +/- 5.9) compared to 14 patients in whom melatonin levels were in the normal range (mean: 42.9 pg/ml +/- 10.6) (mean cholesterol = 241.5 mg/dl +/- 50.8 vs. 183.7 mg/dl +/- 27.2; p < .001). In contrast, serum TG levels did not differ significantly between the groups. As serum cholesterol levels were statistically unrelated to TG levels, these findings suggest a specific association between pineal melatonin and cholesterol metabolism. If confirmed in future research, these findings suggest that the pineal gland may exert a cholesterol reducing effect and that melatonin could be used therapeutically in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
PMID: 7960472
83.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 May;76(1-2):71-9.
The relationship of pineal calcification to cerebral atrophy on CT scan in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Calcification is a known morphological feature of the pineal gland. The mechanisms underlying the development of pineal calcification (PC) are elusive although there is experimental evidence that calcification may be a marker of the past secretory activity of the gland and/or of degeneration. The increased incidence of PC with aging suggests that it may reflect cerebral degenerative changes as well. In a recent Editorial in this Journal it was proposed that the pineal gland is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cerebral atrophy, which can be demonstrated on CT scan, is a common feature of MS resulting from demyelination and gliosis. If PC is a marker of a cerebral degenerative process, then one would expect a higher incidence of calcification of the gland in patients with cerebral atrophy compared to those without cerebral atrophy. To test this hypothesis, we studied the incidence of PC on CT scan in a cohort of 48 MS patients, 21 of whom had cerebral atrophy. For the purpose of comparison, we also assessed the incidence of choroid plexus calcification (CPC) in relation to cerebral atrophy. PC was found in 42 patients (87.5%) and its incidence in patients with cerebral atrophy was significantly higher compared to the incidence in patients without cerebral atrophy (100% vs. 77.7%; p < .025). In contrast, CPC was unrelated to cerebral atrophy or to PC thus supporting the notion of a specific association between the pineal gland and the pathogenesis of MS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 7960471
84.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Apr;75(3-4):229-37.
Relationship of nocturnal melatonin levels to duration and course of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common of the demyelinating diseases of the CNS. The clinical course and prognosis of the disease are variable. Characteristically, the illness tends to progress in a series of relapses and remissions. Over the years there is a tendency for the patient to enter a phase of slow and steady deterioration of neurologic function. In about 10%-20% of patients, the course of the disease is not punctuated by a fluctuating course, but rather by an inexorable progression from the onset. The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis and clinical course of MS. Since MS is generally a chronic progressive disorder, we predicted an association between duration of illness and the activity of the pineal gland. To investigate this hypothesis further, we studied nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in relation to duration of illness in a cohort of 32 MS patients (4 men, 28 women; mean age: 41.1 years; SD = 11.1; mean duration of illness: 13.1 years; SD = 12.4) randomly selected from consecutive hospital admissions to a Neurology service for exacerbation of symptoms. For the purpose of comparison, we also studied in the sample serum prolactin levels. The cohort included 7 patients in whom the duration of illness since onset of first neurological symptoms was < or = 5 years (mean: 3.0 years +/- 1.1) and a cohort of 25 patients in whom the duration of illness was > 5 years (mean: 15.6 years +/- 12.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 8050864
85.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Apr;75(3-4):213-28.
Reversal of a visuoconstructional deficit in Parkinson’s disease by application of external magnetic fields: a report of five cases.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Visuoperceptive and visuomotor deficits are among the most frequently encountered abnormalities in neuropsychological testing of patients with Parkinson’s disease, being present in up to 90% of cases. Clinically, the presence of visuoperceptive and visuomotor impairment may not be noted by Parkinsonian patients but may contribute to various functional disabilities including difficulties operating a vehicle, ambulating, and dressing. The present communication concerns five medicated Parkinsonian patients who responded to extracranial treatment with magnetic fields in the picotesia range intensity with improvement in motor, behavioral, and autonomic functions as well as visuoconstructional tasks as demonstrated on the Bicycle Drawing test. Specifically, prior to treatment with magnetic fields these patients failed to draw the spokes in the wheels of a bicycle that extended completely to the periphery of the rim. I considered this observation to reflect a specific visuoconstructional deficit inherent to the Parkinsonian disease process. This visuoconstructional impairment was reversed, however, by external applications of magnetic fields. The report supports prior observations demonstrating that picotesla range intensity magnetic fields may bring about reversal of specific cognitive deficits in Parkinsonian patients.
PMID: 8050863
86.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Mar;75(1-2):65-71.
Paroxysmal itching in multiple sclerosis during treatment with external magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Paroxysmal attacks of itching constitute a rare sensory symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is generally thought that paroxysmal itching, a form of subthreshold pain sensation, is caused by transversely spreading ephaptic activation (i.e., activation via an artificial synapse) of axons within a partially demyelinated lesion in fiber tracts in the CNS, most commonly in the spinal cord. In MS, attacks of paroxysmal itching have been reported to occur either as the initial symptom of the disease or at the onset of an acute relapse. I present two female MS patients aged 36 and 40 years in whom paroxysmal itching was a prominent sensory symptom which occurred at the onset of treatment with external picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) and coincident with the process of neurologic recovery. This report suggests that picoTesla range MF may cause activation of neuronal transmission along partially demyelinated axons of pain conduction in the spinal cord. The occurrence of rapid neurologic recovery with initiation of treatment with MF supports the notion that impaired synaptic conductivity rather than demyelination underlies some of the neurologic deficits of MS.
PMID: 8050852
87.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Mar;75(1-2):91-102.
Successful treatment of respiratory dyskinesia with picoTesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Derpapas K.
Abstract
Respiratory dyskinesia, a syndrome characterized by an irregular respiratory rate, tachypnea, and grunting, is a serious complication of chronic neuroleptic therapy. It frequently occurs in elderly women and is commonly associated with clinical features of Tardive dyskinesia (TD). Respiratory dyskinesia initially was considered to be a rare complication of chronic neuroleptic treatment, but more recent reports indicate that respiratory abnormalities are common in patients treated with antipsychotic medications. The appropriate management of patients with respiratory dyskinesia has not been determined as the underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We present a schizophrenic patient on long term antipsychotic therapy who presented with respiratory dyskinesia associated with symptoms of TD and tardive Tourette’s syndrome which emerged coincident with an abrupt withdrawal of neuroleptic therapy. In this patient, external application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) produced rapid attenuation in the severity of respiratory and motor dyskinesias. As the pineal gland is considered a magnetosensor and since exposure of experimental animals and humans to external MF alters melatonin secretion, we then propose that the beneficial effects of MF involve the mediation of the pineal gland which has been implicated previously in the pathophysiology of drug-induced movement disorders including TD.
PMID: 7914186
88.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jan-Feb;74(1-4):95-103.
Pineal calcification and its relationship to the fatigue of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Fatigue is one of the most common clinical features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is a frequent cause of disability. The pathogenesis of fatigue remains obscure. It may result from impaired propagation of action potentials in areas of demyelination. Other contributors may be mental depression, immobility, and physical disability. The fatigue of MS may be relieved by diverse pharmacological drugs such as amantadine and pemoline, but the mechanisms by which these agents act to ameliorate fatigue are unknown. Attention has been focused recently on the relationship between MS and the pineal gland and evidence has been presented to implicate the pineal gland and melatonin in the pathogenesis of the disease. To investigate this relationship further, we studied in 47 MS patients (mean age: 41.6 +/- 9.9 yrs; mean duration of illness: 13.6 +/- 12.6 yrs) the association between fatigue and incidence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan, which is thought to reflect past secretory activity of the gland. For comparison, we also evaluated the incidence of choroid plexus calcification (CPC) in these patients. The sample included 20 patients who experienced ongoing, debilitating fatigue during the course of the disease. 27 patients who did not complain of fatigue served as controls. The two groups were not distinguishable with respect to age, sex, age of onset, chronicity, course (relapsing-remitting vs. chronic progressive), and severity of the disease (ambulatory vs. immobile), as well as the incidence of affective illness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 7928120
89.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jan-Feb;74(1-4):9-16.
Autonomic functions in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease.
Awerbuch GI1, Sandyk R.
Abstract
Disturbances of autonomic nervous functions are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may develop as a result of pathological changes in centers of autonomic regulation such as the hypothalamus, brainstem, and sympathetic ganglia. We examined cardiovascular reflexes using bedside, noninvasive procedures in 20 unmedicated PD patients with early stages of the disease (stage 1 and 2 on the Hoehn and Yahr’s scale). Sixteen patients (80%) exhibited some degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. These included predominantly cardiovascular functions mediated via the parasympathetic system. Our findings demonstrate: (a) a high prevalence of autonomic disturbances in early stage PD, and (b) that dysregulation of parasympathetic cardiovascular control mechanisms is a major feature of dysautonomia in early, unmedicated PD patients.
PMID: 7928119
90.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jan-Feb;74(1-4):191-201.
Treatment of Parkinson’s disease with magnetic fields reduces the requirement for antiparkinsonian medications.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Recently, I reported that extracranial treatment with picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) is an effective, safe, and revolutionary modality in the management of Parkinsonism including those patients manifesting levodopa-induced motor complications. This treatment, which has emerged as a potentially more advantageous modality than pharmacologic therapy, also produces improvements in nonmotor aspects of the disease including mood, cognitive functions, sleep, pain, appetite, autonomic functions, and sexual behavior, which are usually minimally, if at all, ameliorated by long term therapy with levodopa or anticholinergic agents. The present communication concerns a 69 year old Parkinsonian patient who, following a series of two treatments with extracranial picoTesla range MF on two separate days, improved to the point where he was able to discontinue most of his antiparkinsonian medications for a period of two weeks without experiencing deterioration in symptoms. On the third week he began to develop recurrence of symptoms and resumed taking his regular medications. At the end of the fourth week the patient received a series of four magnetic treatments on four successive days after he completely discontinued his antiparkinsonian medications. During this period he experienced a remarkable improvement in motor disability as well as in cognitive functions (i.e., visuospatial performance), mood, sleep, appetite, bowel functions and resolution of pain in the lower extremity. This report attests to the antiparkinsonian efficacy of picoTesla range MF and suggests that this treatment, when applied on a regular basis, may reduce the requirement for antiparkinsonian medications. This observation, when confirmed in a larger cohort of patients, may carry important implications for the therapy of Parkinsonism as it may offer an alternative treatment for patients who develop levodopa failure or experience intolerable side effects from dopaminergic medication. The observation that magnetic treatment improved the patient’s symptoms while being off dopaminergic therapy supports the role of nondopaminergic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism.
PMID: 7928105
91.
Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jan-Feb;74(1-4):177-89.
Multiple sclerosis: improvement of visuoperceptive functions by picoTesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
The occurrence of cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized since 1877 when Charcot first observed “enfeeblement of memory” in his patients. Recent studies employing standardized neuropsychological tests have confirmed the high incidence of cognitive deficits in MS patients particularly those with a chronic progressive course of the disease. Visuoperceptive and visuomotor deficits commonly occur in MS patients and are thought to reflect damage to attentional systems due to interruption by demyelinating plaques of nerve conduction along the ascending projections from the brainstem reticular formation to the cortex. Impairment of synaptic conductivity due to serotoninergic depletion (5-HT) may contribute to the emergence of cognitive deficits in MS. The present communication concerns a 36 year old patient with MS in whom external application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) resulted in rapid improvement of symptoms including visuoperceptive functions as demonstrated on various drawing tasks. The report confirms the efficacy of picoTesla range MF in the treatment of MS and demonstrates beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well.
PMID: 7928104
92.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Dec;73(3-4):207-19.
The effects of picoTesla range magnetic fields on perceptual organization and visual memory in parkinsonism.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Drawing tasks, both free and copied, have achieved a central position in the neuropsychological evaluation of constructional abilities in brain injured patients. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test was devised in early 1940s as a tool to investigate perceptual organization and visual memory. The Bicycle Drawing Test is used as a measure of mechanical reasoning as well as visuographic functioning. Recent reports have demonstrated that extracranial treatment with magnetic fields (MF) in the picoTesla range improves constructional abilities including visuoperceptive functions in Parkinsonian patients. To evaluate further the effects of these extremely weak MF on cognitive functions in Parkinsonism, I investigated in a 69 year old fully medicated Parkinsonian patient the influence of a single, extracranial application of MF on the patient’s performance on the Complex Figure (copy and recall) as well as the Bicycle Drawing Test. Results of the trial showed that a 30 minute application of MF produced a dramatic improvement in the patient’s ability to copy and recall the Complex Figure. This treatment was also associated with a marked improvement in the performance of bicycle drawing with reversal of the Parkinsonian micrographia. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that this treatment modality may reverse some of the cognitive impairments associated with Parkinsonism which usually are not improved by treatment with dopaminergic or anticholinergic medications.
PMID: 8169056
93.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Nov;73(1-2):93-107.
Reversal of visual neglect in Parkinson’s disease by treatment with picoTesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
Visual neglect and impairment in perceptual motor or visuospatial tasks are among the most frequently encountered abnormalities in neuropsychological testing of patients with Parkinson’s disease, being present in up to 90% of patients. It has been proposed that neglect reflects an attentional-arousal deficit induced by lesions that interrupt a cortical-limbic-reticular loop. Recently, we have reported that application of extracranial magnetic fields (MF) in the picoTesla range was efficacious in reducing the severity of the motor disability of Parkinsonism as well as improving some of the cognitive abnormalities associated with the disease such as visuoperceptive deficits. We now present a 61 year old fully medicated Parkinsonian patient in whom rapid reversal of left visual neglect as well as improvement in visuoconstructional (drawing) performance was noted immediately after a single external application of MF. We propose that this effect was related to enhancement of directed attention through a mechanism involving an interaction between the pineal gland, which is considered a “magnetosensor,” and the reticular formation which mediates arousal and attention. This report demonstrates the efficacy of extremely weak MF in reversing some of the cognitive abnormalities in Parkinsonism, notably neglect and visuoperceptive deficits, which contribute significantly to impairment of the patient’s daily living activities.
PMID: 8132423
94.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Oct;72(3-4):141-8.
Demyelination as an epiphenomenon in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Comment on
The pineal gland and multiple sclerosis. [Int J Neurosci. 1992]
PMID: 8138370
95.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Sep;72(1-2):95-106.
Multiple sclerosis: the role of the pineal gland in its timing of onset and risk of psychiatric illness.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is age-dependent being rare prior to age 10, unusual prior to age 15, with a peak in the mid 20s. It has been suggested, therefore, that the clinical manifestation of MS is dependent upon having passed the pubertal period. Since pineal melatonin secretion declines from childhood to puberty and as melatonin is an immunomodulator, we have proposed that the dramatic decline in melatonin secretion just prior to the onset of the physical manifestations of puberty may disrupt immune responses resulting in either reactivation of the infective agent or in an increased susceptibility to post-pubertal infection. The fall in melatonin secretion during pre-puberty may also increase the susceptibility of these patients to affective disorder which is associated with lower melatonin secretion and the presence of a phase-advance of their biological rhythms. We predicted, therefore, a higher incidence of affective disorder in patients with pubertal or post-pubertal onset of MS compared to those in whom the disease manifested later. To test this hypothesis, we studied the incidence of affective disorder in relation to age of onset of first neurological symptoms in 31 MS patients, 6 of whom manifested symptoms of MS prior to age 18 (mean = 16.8 years). All patients with pubertal onset MS and only 48% of the control group had an affective disorder. The pubertal onset patients also had a significantly lower nocturnal melatonin levels and a lower incidence of pineal calcification on CT scan. These findings thus support the hypothesis implicating the pineal gland in the timing of onset of MS and in the risk for the development of affective disorder.
PMID: 8225803
96.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):93-9.
Vitamin B12 and its relationship to age of onset of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Attention has been focused recently on the association between vitamin B12 metabolism and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several recent reports have documented vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with MS. The etiology of this deficiency in MS is unknown. The majority of these patients do not have pernicious anemia and serum levels of the vitamin are unrelated to the course or chronicity of the disease. Moreover, vitamin B12 does not reverse the associated macrocytic anemia nor are the neurological deficits of MS improved following supplementation with vitamin B12. It has been suggested that vitamin B12 deficiency may render the patient more vulnerable to the putative viral and/or immunologic mechanisms widely suspected in MS. In the present communication, we report that serum vitamin B12 levels in MS patients are related to the age of onset of the disease. Specifically, we found in 45 MS patients that vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in those who experienced the onset of first neurological symptoms prior to age 18 years (N = 10) compared to patients in whom the disease first manifested after age 18 (N = 35). In contrast, serum folate levels were unrelated to age of onset of the disease. As vitamin B12 levels were statistically unrelated to chronicity of illness, these findings suggest a specific association between the timing of onset of first neurological symptoms of MS and vitamin B12 metabolism. In addition, since vitamin B12 is required for the formation of myelin and for immune mechanisms, we propose that its deficiency in MS is of critical pathogenetic significance.
PMID: 8407160
97.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):9-19.
Late-onset schizophrenia: relationship to awareness of abnormal involuntary movements and tobacco addiction.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Although schizophrenia usually emerges at mid to late-adolescence, it has been estimated that almost 20% of schizophrenic patients develop their first symptoms in mid to late life (late-onset schizophrenia). The biological characteristics that distinguish patients with early onset from those with late-onset schizophrenia have not been well delineated. A subgroup of neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients develops tardive dyskinesia (TD) and the majority of these patients are unaware of their movements. To investigate whether early and late-onset schizophrenic patients with TD could be differentiated on the basis of awareness of involuntary movements, we compared the prevalence of awareness of these abnormal movements in patients with early (N = 40) and late-onset (N = 15) schizophrenia. We found a significantly higher prevalence of awareness of involuntary movements in patients with late-onset schizophrenia as compared to those with an earlier age of onset (86.6% vs. 25.0%, p < .0001). In a second study, we investigated whether early and late-onset schizophrenia could be differentiated on the basis of dopamine functions in the mesolimbic system. Since tobacco addiction is mediated via limbic dopaminergic functions, we investigated the prevalence of tobacco addiction in patients with early (N = 51) and late-onset (N = 13) schizophrenia. We found a significantly lower prevalence of tobacco addiction in patients with late-onset schizophrenia as compared to those with an earlier age of onset (15.4% vs. 54.9%; X2 = 6.49; p < .01). Our findings support the notion that distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlie the development of early and late-onset schizophrenia.
PMID: 8407159
98.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):87-92.
Choroid plexus calcification as a possible marker of hallucinations in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Several studies suggest that disturbances of serotonin (5-HT) functions may be involved in the pathophysiology of hallucinations in schizophrenia. It is now well established that the choroid plexus (CP) is innervated by serotonin (5-HT) neurons, which may regulate its activity, and it is possible that decreased 5-HT functions may facilitate the process of its calcification. It is thus conceivable that calcification of the CP may be associated with hallucinations in schizophrenia. I studied in 18 chronic schizophrenic patients the association of CP calcification (CPC) size as ascertained from CT scan, to severity of hallucinations and, for comparison, to four other positive symptoms as well as global psychopathology score. Analysis of variance indicated that CPC size was specifically associated with hallucinations (p < .001) and none of the other psychopathology measures. These findings reveal a relationship between CPC and hallucinations in schizophrenia and suggest that the former may be a neuroradiological marker of hallucinations in the disease.
PMID: 8407158
99.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):173-82.
Nocturnal melatonin secretion in suicidal patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by the occurrence of patchy CNS demyelinating lesions, leading to various degrees of motor, sensory, affective, and cognitive deficits. MS is associated also with an increased risk of suicide accounting for a substantial rate of death among these patients. Post-mortem studies in suicide victims with various psychiatric disorders demonstrate a decreased concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolites in the brain. Since 5-HT is a precursor in the synthesis of melatonin and as pineal melatonin content was found to be low in suicide victims, we predicted lower melatonin secretion in suicidal versus non-suicidal MS patients during an acute exacerbation of symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we investigated nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in a cohort of 28 relapsing patients who were admitted consecutively to an inpatient Neurology service, 6 of whom had a history of suicide attempts and were having suicidal ideation at the time of admission. While both cohorts of patients were not distinguishable on any of the demographic data including use of psychotrophic drugs on the day of admission to hospital, the mean melatonin level in the suicidal group was significantly lower than in the control group (19.0 pg/ml +/- 11.9 versus 45.5 pg/ml +/- 27.1; p < .05). These findings support the prediction of the study implicating the pineal gland in the pathogenesis of suicidality in MS and reinforce the concept that a biological rather than a reactive etiology underlies the development of psychiatric symptoms in MS.
PMID: 8407143
100.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):147-57.
Multiple sclerosis: relationship between seasonal variations of relapse and age of onset.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is age-dependent being rare prior to age 10, unusual prior to age 15, with a peak in the mid 20s. The manifestation of MS, therefore, appears to be dependent upon having passed through the pubertal period suggesting an endocrine influence on the timing of onset of the disease. Since pineal melatonin secretion progressively declines from childhood to puberty and as melatonin exerts an immunomodulating influence, we have proposed that the dramatic decline in melatonin secretion just prior to the onset of the clinical manifestations of puberty may lead to disruption of immune responses resulting in either reactivation of the infective agent or in an increased susceptibility to pubertal or post-pubertal infection. Melatonin secretion undergoes annual rhythms with a zenith in winter and declines to a nadir in the spring. Thus, the fall in melatonin secretion in the spring may account for epidemiological findings revealing a high incidence of relapse of MS in the spring. If the manifestations of MS are related to the fall in melatonin secretion in the post-pubertal period, then one would expect patients with a pubertal onset of the disease to have a higher incidence of relapses in spring than in winter. To test this hypothesis, we investigated in 51 patients the relationship between the seasonal occurrence of the last MS relapse with the age of onset of first manifestation of MS. While 9 of 22 patients (40.9%) who relapsed in spring (March-May) had the onset of MS prior to age 18, only 2 of 29 patients (6.9%) who relapsed in winter (November-February) experienced the onset of first symptoms prior to the age of 18 years (p < .005). These findings thus support the hypothesis implicating the pineal gland and melatonin secretion in the timing of onset of MS. Moreover, the findings may have clinical implications with respect to the prophylaxis of MS relapse in patients who experience seasonally-dependent exacerbation of symptoms.
PMID: 8407141
101.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):135-46.
Amphetamine-induced rotational behavior in rats: relationship to hypothalamic and striatal degeneration.
Willis GL1, Sandyk R.
Abstract
When lesions are placed unilaterally in the nigrostriatal system of experimental animals, rotational behavior occurs in response to peripheral administration of dopamine (DA) agonists. In spite of considerable evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that in order for this rotation to occur, an almost complete depletion of striatal DA must be achieved. To test this hypothesis further, 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected unilaterally with 2 microL of 8 micrograms/microL of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) via acute injection needles or chronically indwelling cannulae. Acute injection of 6-OHDA resulted in a rotation rate of 7.2 to 18.9 revolutions per minute in response to peripheral amphetamine injection (5 mg/Kg) while injection of 6-OHDA through chronically indwelling cannulae produced rotation ranging from 1.4 to 9.9 rotations per minute. Under the conditions of either method of injection, the animals displaying the most severe rotation still showed partial denervation of striatal DA as revealed by catecholamine fluorescence histochemistry. Conversely, numerous animals demonstrating very low rates of amphetamine-induced rotation often displayed a complete loss of striatal, accumbens, and olfactory tubercle catecholamine fluorescence. Moreover, large quantities of lateral hypothalamic amine accumulation were observed in rotating rats indicating that this neurochemical change may be of functional significance for rotational responses. The present results, when taken into consideration with previous work, indicate that the routine selection of rotating animals for pharmacological testing for potential antiParkinsonian medication or intracerebral grafting purely on the basis of their rotational behavior does not necessarily imply that complete striatal denervation has occurred. Moreover, these findings demonstrate that amine accumulation in the lateral hypothalamus of rotating animals with DA depleting lesions is an important phenomenon implicated in the expression of rotational behavior in animals and possibly in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease.
PMID: 8407140
102.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jul-Aug;71(1-4):1-7.
Psychotic behavior associated with cerebellar pathology.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
This report concerns a 27-year-old man in whom psychotic behavior emerged in association with a cerebellar tumor. This presentation supports previous clinical observations which postulate an intimate relationship between cerebellar pathology and the development of schizophrenia.
PMID: 8407138
Select item 8063544
103.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jun;70(3-4):255-69.
Resolution of longstanding symptoms of multiple sclerosis by application of picoTesla range magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
Recent clinical reports have suggested that treatment with extremely weak magnetic fields (MF) in the picoTesla range is an efficacious modality for the symptomatic therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during the remission and exacerbation periods of the disease. The present communication concerns a 64 year old woman with a 22 year history of MS of the chronic-progressive type who presented with a longstanding history of ataxia of gait, weakness in the legs, difficulties with swallowing, loss of bladder control, blurred vision, diplopia, chronic fatigue, and cognitive impairment. In this patient two 30 minute treatments with MF on two separate days resulted in a dramatic improvement of symptoms. Specifically, the patient experienced marked improvement in balance and gait as well as increased strength in the legs to the extent that she was able to abandon the use of a walker within 48 hours after initiation of magnetic treatment. In addition, there was complete resolution of diplopia, bladder dysfunction, and fatigue with improvement in mood and cognitive functions. The report attests to the unique efficacy of extremely weak MF in the symptomatic treatment of patients with MS including those patients with a chronic progressive course of the disease and supports the hypothesis that dysfunction of synaptic conductivity due to neurotransmitter deficiency specifically of serotonin rather than demyelination underlies the neurologic deficits of the disease.
PMID: 8063544
104.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jun;70(3-4):233-54.
Rapid improvement of visuoperceptive functions by picoTesla range magnetic fields in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1, Iacono RP.
Abstract
Impairment in perceptual motor or visuospatial tasks is among the most frequently encountered abnormality in neuropsychological testing of patients with Parkinson’s disease, being present in up to 90% of cases. Visuoperceptive deficits can result from cortical and subcortical lesions involving the right hemisphere, thalamus, and basal ganglia and are thought to reflect a defect in attentional-arousal mechanisms induced by lesions that interrupt a cortical-limbic-reticular activating loop. Clinically, the presence of visuoperceptive impairment may not be noted by Parkinsonian patients but may contribute to various disabilities including difficulty driving a vehicle and difficulties performing daily tasks which require intact visuospatial abilities (i.e., walking, dressing, drawing and copying designs). The present communication concerns two fully medicated Parkinsonian patients who responded to extracranial treatment with picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF), behaviorally and also demonstrated rapidly and dramatically enhanced visuoperceptive functions as demonstrated on various drawing tasks. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of extremely weak MF in enhancing cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
PMID: 8063543
105.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jun;70(3-4):193-7.
Cigarette smoking: effects on cognitive functions and drug-induced parkinsonism in chronic schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Epidemiological studies suggest an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of Parkinson’s disease. There is also a report suggesting that patients with Parkinson’s disease who smoke are less likely to develop dementia. I investigated the relationship of smoking to the severity of cognitive functions and presence of drug-induced parkinsonism in a group of 111 neuroleptic-treated chronic institutionalized schizophrenic patients. Patients who smoked had significantly less cognitive impairment (p < .02) and a lower prevalence of drug-induced Parkinsonism (p < .02) compared to nonsmokers. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking may protect against the development of dementia and drug-induced Parkinsonism in schizophrenia.
PMID: 8063538
106.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 May;70(1-2):97-105.
Successful treatment of an acute exacerbation of multiple sclerosis by external magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Derpapas.
Abstract
A 55 year old woman with multiple sclerosis presented with a 5 week history of an exacerbation of symptoms. Prominent among these symptoms was trigeminal neuralgia, migraine headaches, blurring of vision, and ataxia of gait. While treatment with carbamazepine (TegretolR) (800 mg/d) and oral prednisolone (15 mg/d) over a 4 week period produced no improvement in symptoms, externally applied magnetic fields (MF) (7.5 picoTesla; 5 Hz) placed over the scalp for a 7 minute period on three different days resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms within two weeks of initiation of treatment. Partial relief of the neuralgic pain and headaches was obtained immediately after completion of the first treatment indicating that resolution of symptoms was related to the effects of MF and not to a spontaneous remission. This is the first report demonstrating the clinical efficacy of pico Tesla range MF in rapidly resolving an acute relapse of MS.
PMID: 8083029
107.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 May;70(1-2):85-96.
The effects of external picoTesla range magnetic fields on the EEG in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1, Derpapas K.
Abstract
We report a 68 year old man with a 7 year history of Parkinson’s disease (PD) who obtained little benefit from treatment by dopaminergic and anticholinergic agents. During the six months prior to presentation, he experienced more rapid deterioration in symptoms including memory functions, increasing depression, and dystonia of the foot. External application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) resulted in rapid attenuation of tremor and foot dystonia with improvements in gait, postural reflexes, mood, anxiety, cognitive, and autonomic functions. Plasma prolactin and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels rose three days after initiation of treatment. In addition, distinct electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were recorded nine days after two treatments with MF and included enhancement of alpha and beta activities as well as resolution of the theta activity. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, objective EEG changes in response to picoTesla range MF in PD. Since the pineal gland is a magnetosensor and as some of the clinical effects produced by MF such as relaxation, sleepiness, mood elevation, increased dreaming, and enhancement of alpha and beta activities in the EEG have also been noted in healthy subjects administered melatonin, we propose that the clinical effects as well as the EEG changes noted after treatment with MF were mediated by the pineal gland which previously has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PD.
PMID: 8083028
108.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 May;70(1-2):69-74.
Delusional depression in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
A 72 year-old female patient is presented in whom delusional depression, a possible distinct subtype of depressive illness characterized by a selective decrease of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) metabolism, preceded the onset of Parkinsonism by several years. The report suggests that delusional depression may be a particular manifestation of depressive illness in Parkinsonian patients. In addition, since the activity of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is genetically determined, the co-occurrence of delusional depression and Parkinsonism in this patient may be related to a common underlying genetic defect that expresses itself biochemically by reduced cerebral NE metabolism.
PMID: 8083026
109.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 May;70(1-2):65-7.
Positive symptoms and chronicity of illness in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
I have proposed recently that the positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions reflect a compensatory mechanism to overcome the dopaminergic deficiency which underlies the core pathology of the disease, namely the negative syndrome. In such case it is possible, in analogy with Parkinson’s disease, that these compensatory mechanisms will diminish with progression of the disease. Thus, one would expect the severity of positive symptoms in schizophrenia to decline with progression of the disease. To test this hypothesis, I studied in 20 chronic schizophrenic patients the association between positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) with chronicity of illness. I found a significant inverse correlation between chronicity of illness and severity of delusions (r = -.51, p < .05) and hallucinations (r = -.47, p < 0.05). In contrast, chronicity of illness was unrelated to negative symptoms (blunted affect and emotional withdrawal). These data support the prediction that the compensatory ability of the brain to increase dopamine functions may diminish with progression of the disease and are in accord with the clinical impression that with time schizophrenic patients tend to display a more negative syndrome profile and become “burnt out schizophrenics.”
PMID: 8083025
110.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Mar-Apr;69(1-4):167-83.
Further observations on the unique efficacy of picoTesla range magnetic fields in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1, Derpapas K.
Abstract
External application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) has been reported recently to be efficacious in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) including those who manifest levodopa-related dyskinesias. In the present communication, we present four additional Parkinsonian patients who showed, within a brief period of time, marked improvement in motor symptoms after therapy with MF. Three of the patients had been maintained on antiParkinsonian medication during treatment with MF while the fourth patient had never received pharmacotherapy. Improvement with magnetic therapy was noted not only in the motor sphere (resting tremor, gait apraxia, postural instability), but also in nonmotor aspects of the disease including mood, sleep, pain, anorexia, autonomic, and cognitive functions attesting to the unique efficacy of external picoTesla range MF in the treatment of Parkinsonism. Poverty of facial expression (hypomimia, “masked facies”), which correlates with the degree of striatal dopaminergic deficiency, is one of the clinical hallmarks of PD reflecting the severity of hypokinesia and rigidity in the orofacial musculature. In this report, we emphasize the effects of MF on the hypomimia of PD and provide visual documentation illustrating the changes in the patients’ facial expression which follow treatment with MF.
PMID: 8083004
111.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Mar-Apr;69(1-4):125-30.
The relationship between diabetes mellitus and Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
It has been reported that 50% to 80% of patients with Parkinson’s disease have abnormal glucose tolerance which may be further exacerbated by levodopa therapy. Little is known about the impact of chronic hyperglycemia on the severity of the motor manifestations and the course of the disease as well as its impact on the efficacy of levodopa or other dopaminergic drugs. This issue, which has been largely ignored, is of clinical relevance since animal studies indicate that chronic hyperglycemia decreases striatal dopaminergic transmission and increases the sensitivity of postsynaptic dopamine receptors. In addition, evidence from experimental animal studies indicates that diabetic rats are resistant to the locomotor and behavioral effects of the dopamine agonist amphetamine. The resistance to the central effects of amphetamine is largely restored with chronic insulin therapy. In the present communication, I propose that in Parkinson’s disease diabetes may exacerbate the severity of the motor disability and attenuate the therapeutic efficacy of levodopa or other dopaminergic agents as well as increase the risk of levodopa-induced motor dyskinesias. Thus, it is advocated that Parkinsonian patients should be routinely screened for evidence of glucose intolerance and that if found aggressive treatment of the hyperglycemia may improve the response to levodopa and potentially diminish the risk of levodopa-induced motor dyskinesias.
PMID: 8082998
112.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Mar-Apr;69(1-4):119-24.
Third ventricular width and its relationship to mode of onset of schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The mode of onset of schizophrenia (i.e., insidious versus acute) may be of neurobiologic and prognostic significance. Schizophrenic symptoms which appear acutely are believed to signify a more benign developmental course and a more favorable outcome of illness than symptoms which emerge insidiously. Since third ventricular enlargement may be a neuroradiological marker of negative schizophrenia, a subgroup of schizophrenia which is associated with poor premorbid adjustment and prognosis, I predict that it will be associated also with an insidious development of disease. To empirically test this hypothesis, I investigated in 22 institutionalized chronic schizophrenic patients (20 men, 2 women; mean age = 31.9 years, SD = 7.1), the association between the mode of onset of schizophrenia and third ventricular width (TVW) on CT scan. In the sample, 15 patients (68.2%) experienced an insidious onset of schizophrenia while 7 patients had a more sudden onset. The two cohorts did not differ significantly on any of the demographic, historic, cognitive, psychopathological, and treatment variables surveyed with the exception of duration of formal education which was significantly shorter in patients with an insidious onset of illness. However, patients with an insidious onset had a significantly greater TVW as compared to those with a sudden onset (M = 7.7 +/- 3.0 mm vs. 4.6 +/- 3.6 mm, p < .05, two-tailed). These findings demonstrate an association between the mode of onset of schizophrenia and TVW on CT scan and suggest that an insult to peri-third ventricular structures, which may underlie third ventricular enlargement, is associated with an insidious development of schizophrenia.
PMID: 8082997
113.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Mar-Apr;69(1-4):35-51.
Biological determinants and risk factors for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Tardive dyskinesia (TD), a neurological side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment, develops in 20%-30% of psychiatric patients. The biological characteristics that distinguish schizophrenic patients who develop TD from those who fail to develop TD during neuroleptic treatment are currently the subject of intense research. The aim of the present report is to present biological characteristics and risk factors of schizophrenic patients with TD. The findings of the study demonstrate that: (1) the timing of onset of schizophrenia is a biological determinant for the development of severe TD. (2) the mode of onset of schizophrenia and specifically, an insidious onset is a biological risk factor of TD. (3) belligerent behavior may be a risk factor for TD. (4) postmenopausal schizophrenic patients are at increased risk for TD.
PMID: 7916008
114.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Mar-Apr;69(1-4):1-20.
Subjective awareness of abnormal involuntary movements in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
A wide majority of schizophrenic patients with Tardive dyskinesia, a neurological disorder produced by chronic neuroleptic therapy, lack awareness of their involuntary movements. This by contrast to patients with Parkinsonism who usually are aware of their abnormal movements. In the following communication we present a series of studies which are aimed at providing further insight into the issue of awareness of involuntary movements in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. In addition, we investigated whether edentulosness, which may be a risk factor for orofacial dyskinesias in the elderly, is also a risk factor for neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesias. We found that: (a) one’s awareness of involuntary movements is related to some but not all muscle groups, (b) tardive dyskinesia may be associated with a significant distress, (c) lack of awareness may be a feature of frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia, (d) patients who lack awareness of their involuntary movements have a higher prevalence of pineal calcification, and (e) edentulosness, which is related to deficits in the orofacial sensorimotor system, increases the risk for neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesias.
PMID: 7916006
115.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Feb;68(3-4):241-53.
Magnetic fields normalize visual evoked potentials and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Derpapas K.
Abstract
The present communication concerns a 46 year old woman with a 10 year history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in whom external application of magnetic fields (MF) (7.5 picoTesla; 5 Hz) during a period of remission resulted in a rapid and dramatic improvement in symptoms including vision, cerebellar symptomatology (ataxia and dysarthria), mood, sleep, bowel and bladder functions as well as fatigue. Improvement in the patient’s symptoms was associated with normalization of the pretreatment latencies of the visual evoked potentials and brainstem auditory evoked potential responses within a week after initiation of magnetic treatment. This report demonstrates that treatment with picoTesla MF is an effective, nonpharmacological modality in the management of MS and for the first time documents reversal of abnormal evoked potential responses by this treatment. The pineal gland is a magnetosensor. As MF affect the release of the pineal gland’s principal hormone, melatonin, it is hypothesized that the effects of picoTesla MF in MS are partly mediated by the pineal gland which has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS (Sandyk, 1992 a; b).
PMID: 8063529
116.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Feb;68(3-4):227-40.
Nocturnal melatonin secretion in multiple sclerosis patients with affective disorders.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of CNS. Since nocturnal melatonin secretion is low in some groups of patients with mental depression, we predicted lower melatonin secretion in MS patients with history of affective illness compared to those without psychiatric disorders. To test this hypothesis, we studied single nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the incidence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 MS patients (4 men, 21 women; mean age = 39.4 years, SD = 9.3), 15 of whom had a history of coexisting psychiatric disorders with predominant affective symptomatology. Other factors that may be related to depression such as vitamin B12, folic acid, zinc, magnesium, and homocysteine, were also included in the analysis. Neither any of the metabolic factors surveyed nor the incidence of PC distinguished the psychiatric from the control group. However, the mean melatonin level in the psychiatric patients was significantly lower than in the control group. Since low melatonin secretion in patients with depression may be related to a phase-advance of the circadian oscillator regulating the offset of melatonin secretion, we propose that the depression of MS likewise may reflect the presence of dampened circadian oscillators. Furthermore, since exacerbation of motor symptoms in MS patients may be temporally related to worsening of depression, we propose that circadian phase lability may also underlie the relapsing-remitting course of the disease. Consequently, pharmacological agents such as lithium or bright light therapy, which have been shown to phase-delay circadian rhythms, might be effective in the treatment of affective symptoms in MS as well as preventing motor exacerbation and hastening a remission from an acute attack.
PMID: 8063528
117.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Feb;68(3-4):209-25.
Multiple sclerosis: the role of puberty and the pineal gland in its pathogenesis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is age-dependent being rare prior to age 10, unusual prior to age 15, with a peak in the mid 20s. It has been suggested that the manifestation of MS is dependent upon having passed through the pubertal period. In the present communication, I propose that critical changes in pineal melatonin secretion, which occur in temporal relationship to the onset of puberty, are intimately related to the timing of onset of the clinical manifestations of MS. Specifically, it is suggested that the fall in melatonin secretion during the prepubertal period, which may disrupt pineal-mediated immunomodulation, may stimulate either the reactivation of the infective agent or increase the susceptibility to infection during the pubertal period. Similarly, the rapid fall in melatonin secretion just prior to delivery may account for the frequent occurrence of relapse in MS patients during the postpartum period. In contrast, pregnancy, which is associated with high melatonin concentrations, is often accompanied by remission of symptoms. Thus, the presence of high melatonin levels may provide a protective effect, while a decline in melatonin secretion may increase the risk for the development and exacerbation of the disease. The melatonin hypothesis of MS may explain other epidemiological and clinical phenomena associated with the disease such as the low incidence of MS in the black African and American populations, the inverse correlation with sun light and geomagnetic field exposure, the occurrence of relapses in relation to seasonal changes and fluctuations in mood, and the association of MS with affective illness and malignant disease. Therapeutically, this hypothesis implies that application of bright light therapy or the use of other major synchronizers of circadian rhythms such as sleep deprivation or application of external weak magnetic fields may be beneficial in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of relapses in the disease.
PMID: 8063527
118.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jan;68(1-2):85-91.
Weak magnetic fields antagonize the effects of melatonin on blood glucose levels in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Treatment with picoTesla magnetic fields recently has been reported to attenuate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mechanisms by which weak magnetic fields ameliorate Parkinsonian symptoms are unknown. There is evidence that the pineal gland is a “magnetosensor” in the brain since in experimental animals exposure to external magnetic fields alters the firing rate of pineal cells and induces inhibition of melatonin secretion. Hence, the clinical effects of weak magnetic fields in PD likewise may involve the mediation of the pineal gland. Animal data indicate that the pineal gland is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and that exogenous administration of melatonin induces an hyperglycemic effect. To investigate the hypothesis that the pineal gland mediates the therapeutic properties of weak magnetic fields in PD, I studied the effects of orally administered melatonin (3.0 mg) followed by a 6 minute application of low intensity external weak magnetic fields (7.5 picoTesla) on blood glucose levels in two Parkinsonian patients. In both patients melatonin challenge produced a moderate hyperglycemic effect which was reversed by subsequent stimulation with weak magnetic fields. These findings support the hypothesis that weak magnetic fields inhibit melatonin secretion and that the antiParkinsonian properties of weak magnetic fields are mediated partially via the inhibition of melatonin secretion. Furthermore, these data suggest that melatonin receptor antagonists could be beneficial as an adjunctive treatment in PD and highlight the importance of the pineal-hypothalamic axis in the pathophysiology of the disease as well as in the mechanisms of action of antiParkinsonian drugs.
PMID: 8063518
119.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jan;68(1-2):67-71.
Vitamin C in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kanofsky JD.
Abstract
This report concerns a 37-year-old chronic schizophrenic patient who derived substantial benefit from the addition of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to his neuroleptic treatment. The case highlights the potential usefulness of vitamin C as an adjunctive agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia.
PMID: 8063516
120.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jan;68(1-2):53-9.
The relationship of thought disorder to third ventricle width and calcification of the pineal gland in chronic schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Since the early writings of Bleuler in 1908, it has been recognized that schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder with diversity in symptomatology, course, prognosis, and probably etiology. Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been devoted to the prognosis of schizophrenia and despite variability among findings, certain historical and clinical predictors have been established. A recent study undertaken in 58 DSM-III diagnosed schizophrenic inpatients found that of the various clinical clusters assessed prospectively, thought disorder stood out as the single most salient predictor of poor outcome (Kay & Murrill, 1990). In the present study I have investigated the relationship of thought disorder to CT scan measures of third ventricle width (TVW), prefrontal cortical atrophy, and cortical atrophy in 14 chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, I have studied the relationship of thought disorder to pineal calcification (PC) and choroid plexus (CP) sizes in 20 chronic schizophrenic patients. TVW and PC size were the only neuroradiological measures found to be associated with the degree of thought disorder. These findings suggest that both diencephalic damage and calcification of the pineal gland may be related to disorganized thinking in schizophrenia and, by inference, to an unfavorable prognosis.
PMID: 8063514
121.
Int J Neurosci. 1993 Jan;68(1-2):1-10.
Aggressive behavior in schizophrenia: relationship to age of onset and cortical atrophy.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Aggressive behavior is a common feature of schizophrenia and is associated with the presence of ‘soft’ neurological signs. Since early age of onset of schizophrenia has been found to be associated with the negative syndrome, which according to Crow (1982) is related to structural brain abnormalities, I predicted that early age of onset may be a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior in the disease. To test this hypothesis, I investigated in 52 chronic institutionalized schizophrenic patients (mean age = 32.8 years; SD = 8.0), the association between age of onset of the disease and the severity of belligerent behavior. The age of onset was judged from the patient’s histories as the age at which florid symptoms first emerged. Patients with early onset schizophrenia had a significantly higher belligerent score compared to those with later-onset schizophrenia (p < .05). These findings support the hypothesis of an association between early age of onset of schizophrenia and the risk of aggressive behavior and suggest, furthermore, that schizophrenic symptoms which emerge early may predict a higher risk of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, this study suggest that the neurochemical mechanisms which underlie the early emergence of symptoms may also predispose to aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Specifically, since aggressive behavior has been linked to impairment of serotonergic (5-HT) functions, I propose that the timing of onset of schizophrenia may be partly associated with dysregulation of the 5-HT system. In a second study, I investigated whether schizophrenic patients with aggressive (suicide) behavior are characterized by more extensive brain damage and hence greater degree of cerebral atrophy on CT scan. The study, which involved 26 schizophrenic patients (mean age: 31.3 years; SD = 6.8), revealed that patients with aggressive behavior had a significantly greater degree of parieto-occipital atrophy on CT scan (p < .05). In contrast, ventricular size and prefrontal cortical atrophy did not distinguish aggressive from nonaggressive patients. These findings suggest that cortical atrophy may be a neuroradiological marker of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia.
PMID: 8063505
122.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Nov-Dec;67(1-4):9-17.
The pineal gland and the mode of onset of schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Recent studies suggest that abnormal melatonin functions may be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Since there is evidence that the presence of pineal calcification (PC) may relate, among other factors, to disturbances in melatonin secretion, I investigated in 23 chronic institutionalized schizophrenic patients the relationship of PC size on CT scan to the mode of onset of schizophrenia which carries both developmental and prognostic significance. Patients with gradual onset schizophrenia had PC size that was significantly larger than those with sudden onset (8.94 +/- 3.96 mm vs. 4.80 +/- 1.75 mm p < .025). These findings suggest that the nature of onset of schizophrenia may be influenced by the activity of the pineal gland, which may exert a role in the development and prognosis of the illness.
PMID: 1305641
123.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Nov-Dec;67(1-4):19-30.
Pineal and habenula calcification in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Animal data indicate that melatonin secretion is stimulated by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and that lesions of the PVN mimic the endocrine effects of pinealectomy. Since the PVN lies adjacent to the third ventricle, I propose that periventricular damage, which is found in schizophrenia and may account for the third ventricular dilatation seen on computed tomographic (CT), may disrupt PVN-pineal interactions and ultimately enhance the process of pineal calcification (PC). To investigate this hypothesis, I conducted CT study on the relationship of PC size to third ventricular width (TVW) in 12 chronic schizophrenic patients (mean age: 33.7 years; SD = 7.3). For comparison, I also studied the relationship of PC size to the ventricular brain ratio and prefrontal cortical atrophy. As predicted, there was a significant correlation between PC size and TVW (r pbi = .61, p < .05), whereas PC was unrelated to the control neuroradiological measures. The findings support the hypothesis that periventricular damage may be involved in the process of PC in schizophrenia and may indirectly implicate damage to the PVN in the mechanisms underlying dysfunction of the pineal gland in schizophrenia. In a second study, I investigated the prevalence of habenular calcification (HAC) on CT in a cohort of 23 chronic schizophrenic-patients (mean age: 31.2 years; SD = 5.95). In this sample HAC was present in 20 patients (87%). Since the prevalence of HAC in a control population of similar age is only 15% these data reveal an almost 6-fold higher prevalence of HAC (X2 = 84.01, p < .0001) in chronic schizophrenia as compared to normal controls. The implications of HAC for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are discussed in light of the central role of the habenula in the regulation of limbic functions.
PMID: 1305634
124.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Nov-Dec;67(1-4):173-86.
Nocturnal plasma melatonin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone levels during exacerbation of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate this hypothesis further, we studied nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the presence or absence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 patients (5 men, 20 women; mean age: 41.1 years; SD = 11.1; range: 27-72) who were admitted to a hospital Neurology service for exacerbation of symptoms. Plasma alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) estimations were included in the study since there is evidence for a feedback inhibition between alpha-MSH and melatonin secretion. Abnormal melatonin levels were found in 13 patients (52.0%), 11 of whom had nocturnal levels which were below the daytime values (i.e., < 25 pg/ml). Although melatonin levels were unrelated to the patient’s age and sex, there was a positive correlation with age of onset of symptoms (p < .0001) and an inverse correlation with the duration of illness (p < .05). PC was noted in 24 of 25 patients (96%) underscoring the pathogenetic relationship between MS and the pineal gland. Alpha-MSH levels were undetectable in 15 patients (60.0%), low in two patients (8.0%), normal in seven patients (28.0%), and elevated in one patient (4.0%). Collectively, abnormal alpha-MSH levels were found in over 70% of patients. These findings support the hypothesis that MS may be associated with pineal failure and suggest, furthermore, that alterations in the secretion of alpha-MSH also occur during exacerbation of symptoms. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of MS are discussed.
PMID: 1305632
125.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Nov-Dec;67(1-4):145-71.
The influence of the pineal gland on migraine and cluster headaches and effects of treatment with picoTesla magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
For over half a century the generally accepted views on the pathogenesis of migraine were based on the theories of Harold Wolff implicating changes in cerebral vascular tone in the development of migraine. Recent studies, which are based on Leao’s concept of spreading depression, favor primary neuronal injury with secondary involvement of the cerebral circulation. In contrast to migraine, the pathogenesis of cluster headache (CH) remains entirely elusive. Both migraine and CH are cyclical disorders which are characterised by spontaneous exacerbations and remissions, seasonal variability of symptoms, and a relationship to a variety of environmental trigger factors. CH in particular has a strong circadian and seasonal regularity. It is now well established that the pineal gland is an adaptive organ which maintains and regulates cerebral homeostasis by “fine tuning” biological rhythms through the mediation of melatonin. Since migraine and CH reflect abnormal adaptive responses to environmental influences resulting in heightened neurovascular reactivity, I propose that the pineal gland is a critical mediator in their pathogenesis. This novel hypothesis provides a framework for future research and development of new therapeutic modalities for these chronic headache syndromes. The successful treatment of a patient with an acute migraine attack with external magnetic fields, which acutely inhibit melatonin secretion in animals and humans, attests to the importance of the pineal gland in the pathogenesis of migraine headache.
PMID: 1305631
126.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Nov-Dec;67(1-4):127-44.
L-tryptophan in neuropsychiatric disorders: a review.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Animal data indicate that serotonin (5-HT) is a major neurotransmitter involved in the control of numerous central nervous system functions including mood, aggression, pain, anxiety, sleep, memory, eating behavior, addictive behavior, temperature control, endocrine regulation, and motor behavior. Moreover, there is evidence that abnormalities of 5-HT functions are related to the pathophysiology of diverse neurological conditions including Parkinson’s disease, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, dystonia, Huntington’s disease, familial tremor, restless legs syndrome, myoclonus, Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, sleep disorders, and dementia. The psychiatric disorders of schizophrenia, mania, depression, aggressive and self-injurious behavior, obsessive compulsive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, substance abuse, hypersexuality, anxiety disorders, bulimia, childhood hyperactivity, and behavioral disorders in geriatric patients have been linked to impaired central 5-HT functions. Tryptophan, the natural amino acid precursor in 5-HT biosynthesis, increases 5-HT synthesis in the brain and, therefore, may stimulate 5-HT release and function. Since it is a natural constituent of the diet, tryptophan should have low toxicity and produce few side effects. Based on these advantages, dietary tryptophan supplementation has been used in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders with variable success. This review summarizes current clinical use of tryptophan supplementation in neuropsychiatric disorders.
PMID: 1305630
127.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Nov-Dec;67(1-4):1-8.
Pineal calcification in relation to menopause in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
I have suggested that critical changes in melatonin secretion, as mediated by the pineal gland, may exert a crucial role in the onset and pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Since pineal calcification (PC) is thought to reflect the metabolic and secretory activity of the gland, I investigated in 29 randomly selected chronic institutionalized female schizophrenic patients the association of PC on CT scan with premenopausal (prior to age 40) versus menopausal (ages 40-55) onset of illness. The premenopausal patients were found to show a significantly higher prevalence of PC than the menopausal patients (55.5% vs. 18.1%; X2 = 3.93, df = 1, p < .05). Since PC was unrelated to historical, demographic, and treatment variables, these findings highlight the importance of the pineal gland for the timing of the onset of schizophrenia, particularly in relation to the female reproductive state. The results carry theoretical implications on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and suggest that the pineal gland may exert a protective effect against its onset.
PMID: 1305625
MeSH Terms, Substances
Select item 1305621
128.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Oct;66(3-4):237-50.
Successful treatment of multiple sclerosis with magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The present communication concerns a 50 year-old woman with a 15 year history of chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in whom extracranial application of picoTesla magnetic fields (MF) produced a dramatic and sustained improvement in disability. In contrast, administration of melatonin (3 mg, P.O.) produced in this patient a rapid exacerbation of disability which was reversed subsequently by treatment with MF. It is hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of picoTesla MF involve the mediation of the pineal gland which is known to act as a magnetosensor. The report demonstrates, for the first time, the remarkable efficacy of weak MF in the symptomatic treatment of chronic-progressive MS and underscores the pivotal role of the pineal gland in the pathophysiology of MS. If confirmed by a larger cohort of patients, extracranial application of picoTesla MF may prove as an extremely efficacious, nonpharmacological modality for the treatment of MS.
PMID: 1305621
129.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Oct;66(3-4):209-35.
Magnetic fields in the therapy of parkinsonism.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
In a recent Editorial published in this Journal, I presented a new and revolutionary method for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). I reported that extracranial treatment with picoTesla magnetic fields (MF) is a highly effective, safe, and revolutionary modality in the symptomatic management of PD. My conclusion was based on experience gained following the successful treatment of over 20 Parkinsonian patients, two of whom had levodopa-induced dyskinesias. None of the patients developed side effects during a several month period of follow-up. In the present communication, I present two reports. The first concerns four Parkinsonian patients in whom picoTesla MF produced a remarkable and sustained improvement in disability. Three of the patients had idiopathic PD and the fourth patient developed a Parkinsonian syndrome following an anoxic episode. In all patients, treatment with MF was applied as an adjunct to antiParkinsonian medication. The improvement noted in these patients attests to the efficacy of picoTesla MF as an additional, noninvasive modality in the therapy of the disease. The second report concerns two demented Parkinsonian patients in whom treatment with picoTesla MF rapidly reversed visuospatial impairment as demonstrated by the Clock Drawing Test. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the efficacy of these MF in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Since Alzheimer’s pathology frequently coexists with the dementia of Parkinsonism, these observations underscore the potential efficacy of picoTesla MF in the treatment of dementias of various etiologies.
PMID: 1305620
130.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Oct;66(3-4):143-51.
“Positive” and “negative” movement disorders in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Investigations aimed at identifying the clinical characteristics that discriminate tardive dyskinesia (TD) from non-TD patients have yielded disparate findings. We have suggested, based on pharmacological and neuroradiological studies, that TD in schizophrenia may be a covariate of positive symptoms while drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) may relate to negative symptoms. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined in 47 institutionalized schizophrenic patients the relationship of TD and DIP with psychopathology clusters rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We found that involuntary movements of TD were significantly associated with the activation cluster (p < .01), whereas DIP was significantly associated with the anergia cluster (p < .01). These findings thus support the position that TD is a specific facet of the positive syndrome in schizophrenia, while DIP is a specific feature of the negative syndrome. Clinically, the data suggest that schizophrenic patients with predominant positive symptoms may be at increased risk for TD, while those with prominent negative features could be at increased risk for DIP. In analogy with the positive/negative dichotomy, we propose that TD could be regarded as a “positive,” while DIP as a “negative” movement disorder.
PMID: 1305614
131.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Sep;66(1-2):97-106.
Weak magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease with the “on-off” phenomenon.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Application of external weak magnetic fields recently has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of a 62-year-old patient with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) complicated by levodopa-induced fluctuations in motor response (“on-off”). I report an additional case of a 67-year-old man with idiopathic PD and levodopa-related motor fluctuations who likewise experienced marked and sustained improvement in Parkinsonian symptoms and amelioration of “on-off” symptoms following the application of external weak magnetic fields. Based on these observations it is concluded that artificial weak magnetic fields may be beneficial for the treatment of PD complicated by levodopa-related “on-off” phenomenon. Furthermore, since in experimental animals external magnetic fields alter the secretion of melatonin, which in turn has been shown to regulate striatal and mesolimbic dopamine-mediated behaviors, it is proposed that the antiParkinsonian effects of weak magnetic fields are mediated via the pineal gland.
PMID: 1304575
132.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Sep;66(1-2):75-85.
Attenuation of epilepsy with application of external magnetic fields: a case report.
Sandyk R1, Anninos PA.
Abstract
We have previously demonstrated that magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain measurements in patients with seizure disorders show significant MEG activity often in the absence of conventional EEG abnormalities. We localized foci of seizure activity using the mapping technique characterized by the ISO-Spectral Amplitude (ISO-SA) on the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the emitted MEG Fourier power spectrum. In addition, using an electronic device, we utilized the above recorded activity to emit back the same intensity and frequency of magnetic field to the presumed epileptic foci. Using this method we were able, over the past two and one-half years, successfully to attenuate seizure activity in a cohort of over 150 patients with various forms of epilepsy. We present a patient with severe epilepsy and behavioral disturbances in whom application of an external artificial magnetic field of low intensity produced a substantial attenuation of seizure frequency which coincided with an improvement in the patient’s behavior. This case demonstrates that artificial magnetic treatment may be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the management of epilepsy.
PMID: 1304572
133.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Sep;66(1-2):61-74.
Amine accumulation: a possible precursor of Lewy body formation in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1, Willis GL.
Abstract
It is now well recognized that the hypothalamus is an important site of neuropathology in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Lewy bodies, a marker of nerve cell degeneration and a pathological hallmark of PD, have been observed frequently in the hypothalamus of PD patients by Lewy (1923) and other investigators and confirmed by more recent systematic studies by Langston & Forno (1978). Both Lewy and Langston & Forno found a predilection of Lewy body formation in specific hypothalamic nuclei with the tuberomammillary, lateral, and posterior areas containing by far the highest average counts per nucleus. Selective vulnerability of the tuberomammillary, lateral, and posterior hypothalamic cell groups to degeneration has been observed also in aging, postencephalitic Parkinsonism, Alzheimer’s disease, and schizophrenia. The susceptibility of these particular nuclei to degenerative changes including Lewy body formation is not presently understood nor are the mechanisms by which Lewy bodies are formed in PD and other CNS disorders. Accumulation of amines, a pathological process which follows degeneration of catecholamine-containing neurons in experimental animals, also occurs most frequently in the lateral and posterior hypothalamic areas. In the present communication we propose that in PD, amine accumulation may be a precursor to Lewy body formation and that the susceptibility of certain hypothalamic areas to Lewy body formation may be related to their propensity to accumulate amines. Furthermore, the frequent co-existence of Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s neurofibrillary tangles in the lateral and posterior hypothalamic nuclei suggest that they may share a common pathogenetic etiology. If confirmed, this hypothesis may provide an experimental model by which the formation of Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles may be investigated.
PMID: 1304571
134.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Sep;66(1-2):1-15.
Weak magnetic fields as a novel therapeutic modality in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1304562
135.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jul-Aug;65(1-4):83-90.
Melatonin and petit-mal epilepsy: an hypothesis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Intraventricular administration of the opioid peptide leucine-enkephalin has been reported to induce petit-mal-like seizures in rats. These seizures have been found to be an age-dependent phenomenon. In rats, the full manifestation of these seizures develops after 4 weeks of age during which time ethosuximide was effective in aborting these seizures, while phenytoin and phenobarbital were ineffective. The period associated with the development of enkephalin-induced seizures in rats coincides with an important milestone in pineal chronobiology. In rats, melatonin plasma levels peak at 3 weeks of age, a period which also corresponds with the emergence of melatonin circadian rhythms. It is proposed that melatonin mediates the anticonvulsant action of drugs effective for petit-mal (absence) epilepsy and that the pineal gland is implicated in the pathogenesis of this form of childhood epilepsy.
PMID: 1341694
136.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jul-Aug;65(1-4):61-8.
Magnetic fields mimic the behavioral effects of REM sleep deprivation in humans.
Sandyk R1, Tsagas N, Anninos PA, Derpapas K.
Abstract
The discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953 initiated the impetus for sleep research and specifically the investigations of the effects of REM sleep deprivation (RSD) on animal and human behavior. The behavioral effects of RSD include the enhancement of motivational and “drive”-related behaviors. In laboratory animals, RSD has been reported to increase appetite, sexual behavior, aggressiveness, and locomotor activity. Moreover, RSD reportedly improves mood in patients with endogenous depression and heightens appetite and sexual interest in normal subjects. Since “drive”-related behaviors are thought to involve activation of limbic dopaminergic reward sites, RSD may enhance motivational behaviors through an action on limbic dopaminergic functions. In the present communication, we present two patients (one with multiple sclerosis and the other with Parkinson’s disease) in whom treatment with magnetic fields produced behavioral effects which paralleled those observed in REM-sleep-deprived animals and humans. We propose, therefore, that the behavioral and mental effects of treatment with magnetic fields may be mediated via RSD and, by inference, involve activation of limbic dopaminergic reward sites.
PMID: 1341692
137.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jul-Aug;65(1-4):199-207.
Sensitivity of dopamine receptors in the lateral hypothalamus is altered in 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats.
Willis GL1, Sandyk R.
Abstract
Amine accumulation is observed in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) after nigrostriatal neurons degenerate. It has been proposed that this accumulation is a source of amines which are released into the hypothalamus thereby affecting the function of adjacent aminergic receptors. To approximate this condition of continuous exposure of LH receptors to endogenous amines, dopamine (DA) was injected into the LH of rats once daily for 5 consecutive days. A control group received 4 daily injections of tartaric acid vehicle and then DA on day 5. Rats pretreated with DA showed severe impairment of open field performance and motor reflex control on day 5 when they were compared to control animals which received vehicle pretreatment. In a second study, the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol was injected into the area of amine accumulation in the LH to determine whether this might block amine release from areas of accumulation thereby to attenuate lesion-induced rotation. Haloperidol administered once daily for 4 out of 7 days, once daily for 7 days or via a continuous infusion for 7 days, all reduced d,l-amphetamine-induced turning to control levels. These results suggest that prolonged exposure of hypothalamic DA receptors alters their sensitivity to subsequent doses of DA and that amine released from areas of accumulation may be blocked by haloperidol to enhance behavioral recovery from DA depleting lesions. Moreover, these findings indicate that the hypothalamus participates in the behavioral effects induced by DA depleting lesions and highlight the importance of hypothalamic pathology in Parkinson’s disease.
PMID: 1341683
138.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jul-Aug;65(1-4):187-97.
Amelioration of experimental parkinsonism by intrahypothalamic administration of haloperidol.
Willis GL1, Smith GC, Pavey GM, Sandyk R.
Abstract
Accumulation of amines in the degenerating axons of ascending catecholamine-containing neurons in the hypothalamus has been proposed as a site of function neurotransmitter release and may thereby participate in the development of motor impairment seen after central dopamine-depleting lesions. To test this hypothesis further the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (1 microL of a 14 nmol solution) was injected directly into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in 6 different injection regimes to determine whether amphetamine-induced turning could be attenuated with this treatment. The injection of haloperidol at 1 and 24 h (group 1), 24 h (group 2) or 6+ 7 d (group 3) after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) did not modify amphetamine-induced turning. However, the injection of haloperidol at 1 h, 24 h, 7 d, and 8 d (group 4), days 1-7 (group 5), or gradual infusion (14 nmol/microliters/h) for 7 days (group 6) all reduced the 6-OHDA-induced turning to a level similar to that of controls. These results add further support to the contention that amines are released from the axons of degenerating neurones in the hypothalamus and that this phenomenon participates in the elicitation of behavioral impairment attributed solely to the loss of functional neurotransmitters from terminal fields. Furthermore, the data emphasize the importance of hypothalamic pathology in the development of Parkinsonism and suggest that intrahypothalamic administration of dopamine blocking agents might be useful in the treatment of Parkinsonism.
PMID: 1341681
139.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jul-Aug;65(1-4):177-81.
Dysmenorrhea and the pineal gland.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1341679
140.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jul-Aug;65(1-4):167-75.
Calcification of the pineal gland: relationship to laterality of the epileptic foci in patients with complex partial seizures.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The right and left temporal lobes differ from each other with respect to the rate of intrauterine growth, the timing of maturation, rate of aging, anatomical organization, neurochemistry, metabolic rate, electroencephalographic measures, and function. These functional differences between the temporal lobes underlies the different patterns of psychopathology and endocrine reproductive disturbances noted in patients with temporolimbic epilepsy. The right hemisphere has greater limbic and reticular connections than the left. Since the pineal gland receives direct innervation from the limbic system and the secretion of melatonin is influenced by an input from the reticular system, I propose that lesions in the right temporal lobe have a greater impact on pineal melatonin functions as opposed to those in the left dominant temporal lobe. Consequently, since calcification of the pineal gland is thought to reflect past secretory activity of the gland, I predicted a higher prevalence of pineal calcification (PC) in epileptic patients with right temporal lobe as opposed to those with left temporal lobe foci. To investigate this hypothesis, the prevalence of PC on CT scan was studied in a sample of 70 patients (43 men, 27 women, mean age: 29.2 years, range 9-58; SD = 10.1) with complex partial seizures, of whom 49 (70.0%) had a right temporal lobe focus. PC was present in 51 patients (72.8%) and was unrelated to any of the historical and demographic data surveyed. In the patients with a focus in the right temporal lobe, PC was present in 46 cases (93.8%) as compared to 5 of 21 patients (23.8%) with left temporal lobe foci.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 1341678
141.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):203-7.
The role of melatonin in the antipsychotic and motor-side effects of neuroleptics: a hypothesis.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR, Gillman MA.
Abstract
Three phenomena concerning the antipsychotic action of classic neuroleptic drugs have not been adequately explained by the dopamine hypothesis: (1) administration of neuroleptic drugs is commonly associated with an initial period of 3-6 weeks prior to demonstration of antipsychotic effects; (2) similarly, neuroleptic-induced Parkinsonism commonly emerges only after several weeks of neuroleptic therapy; (3) moreover, Parkinsonism may disappear despite continuous neuroleptic treatment. An understanding of these phenomena might shed new light into the nature of the antipsychotic actions of these agents, and hence the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We propose that the increase in melatonin secretion, which occurs with the initiation of neuroleptic therapy, may be responsible for the delay in the antipsychotic effects of neuroleptics and may also account for the lag in the development of drug-induced Parkinsonism as well as its disappearance. The implications of this hypothesis for the treatment of schizophrenia and the prophylaxis of drug-induced Parkinsonism are discussed.
PMID: 1364141
142.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):7-14.
Autonomic functions in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease.
Awerbuch GI1, Sandyk R.
Abstract
Disturbances of autonomic nervous functions are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may develop as a result of pathological changes in centers of autonomic regulation such as the hypothalamus, brainstem, and sympathetic ganglia. We examined cardiovascular reflexes using bedside, noninvasive procedures in 20 unmedicated PD patients with early stages of the disease (stages 1 and 2 on the Hoehn and Yahr’s scale). Sixteen patients (80%) exhibited some degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. These included predominantly cardiovascular functions mediated via the parasympathetic system. Our findings demonstrate: (a) a high prevalence of autonomic disturbances in early stage PD, and (b) that dysregulation of parasympathetic cardiovascular control mechanisms is a major feature of dysautonomia in early, unmedicated PD patients.
PMID: 1342051
143.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):23-31.
Dysautonomia in Parkinson’s disease: relationship to motor disability.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Disturbances of autonomic nervous system functions are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may develop as a result of pathology in centers of autonomic regulation such as the hypothalamus, brainstem, and sympathetic ganglia. We examined the relationship between the degree of motor disability, as determined from the Hoehn and Yahr scale (1967), and the presence of pandysautonomia, as determined by the assessment of noninvasive cardiovascular reflexes, in 29 unmedicated PD patients (mean age: 72.0 years, SD = 8.9). In addition, we investigated the relationship of pandysautonomia to CT scan measures of cerebral atrophy and to the presence or absence of pineal calcification. Nine patients (31.0%) were found to have pandysautonomia with deficits in both sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular functions. Pandysautonomia was statistically related only to the degree of motor disability (p < .01). These findings demonstrate a significant association between motor disability and objective impairment of central cardiovascular functions in PD.
PMID: 1342044
144.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):221-3.
Does melatonin mediate the therapeutic effects of 5-HT reuptake inhibitors in obsessive compulsive disorder?
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1342043
145.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):217-9.
Pineal calcification and its relationship to hallucinations in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1342042
146.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):209-12.
The association of diabetes mellitus with dementia in Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R, Awerbuch GI.
PMID: 1342040
147.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):195-201.
Cocaine addiction: relationship to seasonal affective disorder.
Sandyk R1, Kanofsky JD.
Abstract
We report a 25 year-old patient with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and cocaine abuse who experienced cyclical fluctuations in cocaine craving which were concomitant with seasonal alterations in mood. The temporal association of both disorders in this patient suggests that they may share a common underlying pathophysiology. Since disturbances in circadian rhythms and pineal melatonin functions may in part underlie the pathophysiology of SAD and the psychomimetic effects of cocaine are mediated in part through the pineal gland, we propose that dysfunction of circadian rhythms and pineal melatonin functions may partly mediate the association of SAD with cocaine abuse. This hypothesis may have potential clinical and therapeutic implications for a subgroup of cocaine abusers with SAD since light therapy, which is efficacious in the therapy of SAD, may also prove to be beneficial in reducing cocaine addiction. Furthermore, the report illustrates the need for investigations of environmental cues for cocaine abuse with specific attention given to the effects of light on circadian mood changes.
PMID: 1342039
148.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 May-Jun;64(1-4):1-6.
A tribute to Professor Sidney Weinstein on his 70th birthday.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1342030
149.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Apr;63(3-4):265-74.
Magnetic fields alter the circadian periodicity of seizures.
Sandyk R1, Anninos PA.
Abstract
We have recently reported that application of external, weak magnetic fields attenuated seizures in epileptic patients (Anninos et al., 1991). However, the mechanisms by which magnetic stimulation reduces seizure activity are unknown. We present four non-selected epileptic patients the first to be rated by the senior author, in whom treatment with magnetic fields attenuated the severity of seizures and also altered the circadian occurrence of seizures. The first patient, a 27-year old woman, had generalized tonic-clonic seizures which occurred almost exclusively at night. Following treatment with magnetic fields she experienced attenuation of seizures which then occurred only after waking up in the morning. The second patient, a 42-year old man, had generalized tonic-clonic seizures which occurred randomly during the day and night. Treatment with magnetic fields resulted in disappearance of nocturnal seizures with seizures now occurring exclusively during the day. The third patient, a 21-year old woman had generalized tonic-clonic seizures which occurred randomly during the day. After treatment with magnetic fields she was free of seizures for 7 months, but recently experienced one attack in the morning hours while sleeping. The fourth patient, a 39-year old woman had secondary generalized seizures since the age of 12. Prior to treatment with magnetic fields she had 8-10 seizures daily which occurred randomly during the day and night hours. Magnetic treatment resulted in attenuation in seizure frequency (1-2/day) with seizures now occurring only during the day. We propose, therefore, that since the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive organ which “transduces” environmental information of the light-dark cycle and of the earth’s magnetic field into an endocrine message mediated via the circadian release of melatonin, and since it is recognized that melatonin attenuates seizure activity, artificial magnetic fields attenuate seizure activity by altering the functions of the pineal gland.
PMID: 1304559
150.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Apr;63(3-4):221-7.
Alpha rhythm and the pineal gland.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Alpha rhythm is classically described as a bilateral posterior rhythm of substantially constant frequency in the range of 8-13 Hz which is enhanced by mental relaxation and blocked by attention. Since the full expression of alpha rhythm has been shown to occur coincident with puberty, it is possible that the establishment of alpha rhythm is subject to neuroendocrine influences which govern psychosexual maturation. There is ample evidence to indicate that the pineal gland is implicated in cerebral maturation and psychosexual development. Nocturnal plasma melatonin levels have been shown to decline progressively throughout childhood reaching a nadir at puberty. Since administration of melatonin has been reported to block alpha rhythm, it is proposed that the progressive decline in melatonin secretion during childhood facilitates the maturation of the alpha rhythm. Consequently, the presence of alpha rhythm could be used as a neurophysiological marker for the activity of the pineal gland and disorders associated with absent or delayed maturation of the alpha rhythm such as autism, dyslexia, personality disorders, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, and schizophrenia might be related to disturbances of pineal melatonin functions in early life. Moreover, since the EEG patterns associated with cerebral immaturity (i.e., slowing, absence of alpha activity) are more pronounced in the left hemisphere, this hypothesis implies differential influence of the pineal gland on hemispheric maturation potentially accounting for the vulnerability of the left hemisphere to cerebral insults.
PMID: 1304557
151.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Apr;63(3-4):205-15.
The pineal gland and multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R.
Comment in
Demyelination as an epiphenomenon in multiple sclerosis. [Int J Neurosci. 1993]
PMID: 1304555
152.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Apr;63(3-4):197-204.
The pineal gland and the menstrual cycle.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The menstrual cycle reflects the expression of a cyclical process involving the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the ovaries. This complex process requires an integrated neural and humoral control mechanism. It is now well established that a hypothalamic “transducer” located in the medial basal hypothalamus integrates neural and humoral information and translates it into an oscillatory signal which eventually results in the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), triggering the secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland. Recent animal studies indicate that melatonin influences the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by modifying the firing frequency of the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator. Consequently, the pineal gland, through the action of melatonin, may exert an important modulatory effect on the mechanisms controlling menstrual cyclicity. Furthermore, abnormal melatonin functions may be involved in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the menstrual cycle including some forms of hypothalamic amenorrhea such as exercise and malnutrition-induced amenorrhea. Consideration of pineal melatonin functions provides a new dimension into the understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing the cyclical phenomena of the female reproductive system.
PMID: 1304554
153.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Mar;63(1-2):141-50.
Magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R1, Anninos PA, Tsagas N, Derpapas K.
Abstract
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common complication of chronic dopaminergic therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The overall prevalence of levodopa-induced dyskinesias ranges from 40%-90% and is related to the underlying disease process, pharmacologic factors, and to the duration of high dose levodopa therapy. The mechanisms underlying the emergence of levodopa-induced dyskinesias are unknown, although most investigators favor the theory that striatal dopamine receptor supersensitivity is directly responsible for the development of these abnormal movements. In laboratory animals, the pineal hormone melatonin has been shown to regulate striatal dopaminergic activity and block levodopa-induced dyskinesias (Cotzias et al., 1971). Since the pineal gland is known to be a magnetosensitive organ and as application of external magnetic fields has been shown to alter melatonin secretion, we studied the effects of application of external artificial weak magnetic fields in a Parkinsonian patient with severe levodopa-induced dyskinesias (“on-off”). Application of weak magnetic fields with a frequency of 2 Hz and intensity of 7.5 picotesla (pT) for a 6 minute period resulted in a rapid and dramatic attenuation of Parkinsonian disability and an almost complete resolution of the dyskinesias. This effect persisted for about 72 hours after which the patient regressed to his pretreatment state. To ascertain if the responses elicited in the laboratory were reproducible, the patient was instructed to apply magnetic fields of the same characteristics daily at home. These subsequent treatments paralleled the initial response with a sustained improvement being maintained during an observation period lasting at least one month. This case demonstrates the efficacy of weak magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinsonism and motor complications of chronic levodopa therapy.
PMID: 1342026
154.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Mar;63(1-2):137-40.
Accelerated growth of malignant melanoma by levodopa in Parkinson’s disease and role of the pineal gland.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1342025
155.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Mar;63(1-2):125-35.
Melatonin as a proconvulsive hormone in humans.
Sandyk R1, Tsagas N, Anninos PA.
Abstract
The pineal gland and melatonin exert a major influence in the control of brain electrical activity and have been shown to be involved in seizure and sleep mechanisms. Since pinealectomy has been reported to result in seizures in experimental animals, it is assumed that melatonin has anticonvulsant properties. Indeed, limited studies in humans with temporal lobe epilepsy indicate that melatonin attenuates seizure activity. In the present communication we present evidence, based on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain measurements, that melatonin may exert proconvulsive activity in humans as well. The proconvulsive properties of melatonin may explain several phenomena associated with epilepsy such as the increased occurrence of seizures at night when melatonin plasma levels are 5 to 8-fold higher than during the day and the observed exacerbation of seizures premenstrually and during pregnancy as well as the attenuation of seizures in the menopause. Furthermore, our findings suggest that anticonvulsants which decrease melatonin secretion, such as the benzodiazepines, may exert their antiepileptic activity by attenuating nocturnal melatonin secretion. Finally, we propose that patients with nocturnal epilepsy or those experiencing exacerbation of seizures premenstrually may benefit from the administration of agents which block the secretion or action of melatonin.
PMID: 1342024
156.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Mar;63(1-2):105-14.
Melatonin and maturation of REM sleep.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
The discovery in 1953 of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the appreciation that sleep is a heterogeneous physiological state stimulated major research into sleep disorders. Electroencephalographic studies have shown that the amount of REM sleep changes with age. While newborns spend almost 50% of their sleep time in REM, the percentage of REM sleep decreases to 30% by the age of 3 months and to 20% by the age of 6 months. In addition, newborns enter REM sleep soon after the initiation of sleep, but by the age of 4 months entry into sleep assumes the adult pattern in which a significant period of non-REM sleep precedes the onset of REM sleep. Since reduction in the amount of REM sleep is associated with cerebral maturation and since the pineal gland has been implicated both in cerebral development and in the organization of REM sleep, the pineal gland may be involved in the maturation of the adult REM sleep pattern. Prior to the age of 3 months melatonin plasma levels are low and the characteristic circadian rhythms of melatonin are absent. Thereafter, melatonin secretion increases and circadian rhythmicity of melatonin becomes apparent. Thus, the abundance of REM sleep during the first 3 months of infancy is associated with deficient pineal melatonin functions, while the decline in the percentage of REM sleep coincides with the emergence of melatonin secretion coincident with the maturation of the pineal gland. I propose, therefore, that a state of low melatonin secretion is permissive for REM sleep and that maturation of the pineal gland retards REM sleep. This hypothesis is supported by the findings that melatonin suppresses REM sleep in cats and that in rats and humans pinealectomy induces a narcoleptic-like pattern of REM sleep which strikingly resembles that of the newborn and which is reversed by the administration of melatonin. A further hypothesis is advanced to explain the pathophysiology of narcolepsy in terms of a maturational defect of the pineal gland in infancy.
PMID: 1342022
157.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Feb;62(3-4):269-72.
Paraventricular nucleus-pineal interaction: relevance to tardive dyskinesia.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1363950
158.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Feb;62(3-4):273-5.
Dystonia as the presenting manifestation of multiple sclerosis.
Awerbuch GI, Sandyk R.
PMID: 1305611
159.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Feb;62(3-4):263-7.
Seasonal panic disorder: a possible variant of seasonal affective disorder.
Sandyk R1, Dann LC.
Abstract
The present communication concerns a 30 year-old female patient with panic disorder in whom panic attacks appeared to be seasonally-related. Characteristically, attacks were more frequent and severe during the months of October to May with spontaneous remissions during the months of June to September. Since 70% of patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a variant of affective illness characterized by recurrent winter depressions with remissions in summer, suffer from anxiety disorders, we propose that seasonal panic disorder may be a variant of SAD. Since SAD is associated with phase delay of circadian rhythms, some forms of panic disorder may be related to phase instability of circadian rhythms. Moreover, since administration of artificial bright light therapy is currently the most effective treatment for SAD, it is suggested that patients with panic disorder should be questioned as to whether their symptoms are seasonally related. If a positive association is established, these patients should be offered treatment with light therapy prior to or coincident with the institution of pharmacotherapy.
PMID: 1305610
160.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Feb;62(3-4):243-50.
The pineal gland and spontaneous abortions: implications for therapy with melatonin and magnetic field.
Sandyk R1, Anastasiadis PG, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
Abstract
Spontaneous abortion, the termination of pregnancy prior to 20 weeks of gestation, is estimated to occur in 40%-50% of all pregnancies and in 12%-15% of identified pregnancies. The causes of spontaneous abortion can be divided into two main categories: those arising from chromosomal anomalies and those arising from abnormalities in the intrauterine environment. In the following communication, we propose that deficient pineal melatonin functions in early pregnancy may be causally related to the development of spontaneous abortions in cases where chromosomal anomalies or structural abnormalities of the uterus have been excluded. This hypothesis is based on the findings that: (a) melatonin plasma levels normally increase by 200%-300% in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy; (b) melatonin decreases uterine contractility in the rat; (c) melatonin stimulates the secretion of progesterone, which decreases uterine contractility and prevents immunological rejection of the trophoblast; (d) melatonin inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are potent inducers of uterine contractility and labor, and (e) pinealectomy increases the number of spontaneous abortions in pregnant rats. In addition, since melatonin is a hormone with immunosuppressant properties, we propose that the increased melatonin production in early pregnancy may contribute to a state of “transplantation immunity” to the paternal histocompatibility antigens preventing immunological rejection of the trophoblast. If this hypothesis is correct, then plasma melatonin, levels during early pregnancy could be used as an indicator for increased risk of spontaneous abortions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 1305609
161.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Feb;62(3-4):215-25.
Is postmenopausal osteoporosis related to pineal gland functions?
Sandyk R1, Anastasiadis PG, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
Abstract
There is currently considerable interest in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which is the most common metabolic bone disease. Osteoporosis affects approximately 20 million persons in the United States, 90% of whom are postmenopausal women. Although there is evidence that estrogen deficiency is an important contributory factor, the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is multifactorial and presently poorly understood. There is evidence that pineal melatonin is an anti-aging hormone and that the menopause is associated with a substantial decline in melatonin secretion and an increased rate of pineal calcification. Animal data indicate that pineal melatonin is involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism by stimulating the activity of the parathyroid glands and by inhibiting calcitonin release and inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, the pineal gland may function as a “fine tuner” of calcium homeostasis. In the following communication, we propose that the fall of melatonin plasma levels during the early stage of menopause may be an important contributory factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Consequently, plasma melatonin levels taken in the early menopause could be used as an indicator or perhaps as a marker for susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, light therapy, administration of oral melatonin (2.5 mg at night) or agents which induce a sustained release of melatonin secretion such as 5-methoxypsoralen, could be useful agents in the prophylaxis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Finally, since application of external artificial magnetic fields has been shown to synchronize melatonin secretion in experimental animals and humans, we propose that treatment with artificial magnetic fields may be beneficial for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
PMID: 1305608
162.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jan;62(1-2):97-100.
Antioxidants in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Kanofsky JD, Sandyk R.
Comment on
Oxygen free radicals and brain dysfunction. [Int J Neurosci. 1991]
PMID: 1342020
163.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jan;62(1-2):89-96.
Is the pineal gland involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma.
Sandyk R1, Anastasiadis PG, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
Abstract
The pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma, which is the most common malignant neoplasm of the female genital tract, is unknown. It is believed that a prolonged period of increased estrogenic exposure unopposed by progesterone may underlie the malignant transformation of the endometrial cells. In the following communication, we propose that deficient melatonin functions may be an additional endocrine factor implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma. This hypothesis is based on the observations that: (a) melatonin has antiestrogenic properties; (b) melatonin stimulates progesterone production which opposes the action of estrogens; (c) an increased rate of endometrial hyperplasia, a premalignant condition, has been noted during the winter, a time of year associated with diminished melatonin secretion; (d) an increased incidence of anovulatory cycles, which is a risk factor for endometrial carcinoma, occurs in the winter; (e) melatonin secretion decreases sharply during the menopause, a period associated with an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma; (f) obesity, which is a major risk factor for endometrial carcinoma, is associated with impaired circadian melatonin secretion; (g) diabetes mellitus, which is an additional risk factor for endometrial carcinoma, is associated with decreased melatonin secretion and an increased rate of pineal calcification; and (h) the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma is lower in the black population compared to the white population. Similarly, the incidence of pineal calcification, which reflects the secretory activity of the gland, is significantly lower in the African and American black populations as compared to the white population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 1342018
164.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jan;62(1-2):65-74.
The pineal gland and the clinical course of multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Clinical, epidemiological, biochemical, immunological, and radiological studies suggest that the pineal gland may be implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The following communication is concerned with the association among MS, pregnancy, the postpartum period, and melatonin secretion and illustrates, based on a clinical case report, the influence of the pineal gland on the clinical course of MS. This association is noteworthy since MS may worsen during the postpartum period and melatonin secretion is reported to be altered most dramatically by pregnancy and delivery. Since melatonin secretion is cyclical, undergoing diurnal, weekly, seasonal, and annual variations, it is proposed that the pineal gland may be the “prime mover” underlying the spontaneous exacerbations and remissions in MS.
PMID: 1342015
165.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jan;62(1-2):107-11.
Abnormal EEG and calcification of the pineal gland in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Computed tomographic (CT) studies of the brain in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated a variety of structural abnormalities. We reported recently an association between pineal calcification (PC) and cortical and prefrontal cortical atrophy, and third ventricular size on CT scan in chronic schizophrenic patients. These findings indicate that in schizophrenia PC is associated with the morphological brain abnormalities associated with the disease. If PC is, indeed, related to organic cerebral pathology, then one would expect a higher prevalence of pineal gland pathology among patients with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities by comparison to those with a normal EEG. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the prevalence of PC on CT scan in a sample of 52 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients (29 men, 23 women, mean age: 51.3 years SD = 9.1), of whom 10 (19.2%) had an abnormal EEG. The prevalence of PC in patients with EEG abnormalities was significantly greater by comparison to those with a normal EEG (90.0% vs. 54.8%, X2 = 4.24, p < .05). Since both groups did not differ on any of the historical and demographic data, and since PC was unrelated to neuroleptic exposure, these findings suggest that in schizophrenia PC may be related to the disease process and that it may be a marker of subcortical pathology.
PMID: 1342008
166.
Int J Neurosci. 1992 Jan;62(1-2):101-5.
Postpartum psychosis and the pineal gland.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1342007
167.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Dec;61(3-4):189-219.
Relevance of the habenular complex to neuropsychiatry: a review and hypothesis.
Sandyk R1.
Abstract
Since the initial observation by Brown (1914) that electrical stimulation applied to the habenular efferent bundle in the chimpanzee evoked a pattern of respiration which closely resembled the act of laughter, the habenular complex has remained a mysterious structure. The anatomy of the habenular complex is well delineated (Jones, 1985) forming a major component of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system. Data derived mainly from animal experimentation over the past decade point to the fact that the habenular complex functions as an important link between the limbic forebrain and the midbrain-extrapyramidal motor system. The elucidation of the functions of the habenular complex may thus significantly increase the current insight into the understanding of the interaction between behavioral and motor functions. Clearly, such information would be of great relevance for further understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, Tardive dyskinesia, and Tourette’s syndrome in which behavioral and motor impairments are interfaced. This review summarizes anatomical, functional, and pharmacological aspects of the habenular complex and discusses its potential contribution to the pathophysiology of selected neuropsychiatric and movement disorders.
PMID: 1824382
168.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Dec;61(3-4):149-88.
Risk factors for neuroleptic-induced movement disorders.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR, Awerbuch GI, Iacono RP.
Abstract
Chronic neuroleptic therapy may be associated with the development of diverse movement disorders including Tardive dyskinesia (TD), Parkinsonism, dystonia, and akathisia in a subset of schizophrenic patients. It is presently unknown why only a proportion of neuroleptic-treated patients develop these movement disorders. In the following communication, we present a series of studies which demonstrate that the development of these movement disorders may be facilitated by certain risk factors including disturbances in pineal melatonin functions, diabetes mellitus, cognitive deficits, suicidal behavior, and disturbances in the functions of the choroid plexus. Recognition of these biological factors may prove useful in: (a) further understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders, and (b) identifying patients at risk for these movement disorders.
PMID: 1688114
169.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Nov;61(1-2):87-90.
Magnesium deficiency in chronic schizophrenia.
Kanofsky JD, Sandyk R.
PMID: 1809739
170.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Nov;61(1-2):61-7.
The pineal gland in multiple sclerosis.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch GI.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of unknown etiology. Clinical, neurochemical, and neuroradiological data implicate the pineal gland in the pathophysiology of MS. To investigate the relationship of MS to the pineal gland further, we surveyed the prevalence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 29 MS patients (7 men, 22 women, mean age: 40.1 years, SD = 8.9) who were admitted consecutively to a neurological service for acute exacerbation of symptoms. For the purpose of comparison, we also surveyed the prevalence of choroid plexus calcification (CPC) in the sample. Twenty-one age and sex-matched neurological patients served as controls (5 men, 16 women, mean age: 37.0, SD = 9.2). PC was seen in 100% of MS patients, while 72.4% patients (N = 21) had CPC. In the control sample, PC was found in 42.8% (N = 9) and CPC in 28.5% (N = 6). Thus, the strikingly high prevalence of PC in MS provides indirect support for an association between MS and abnormalities of the pineal gland. Moreover, since pineal melatonin is involved in neuroimmunomodulation, we propose, for the first time, that abnormalities of pineal melatonin functions are implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease.
PMID: 1809735
171.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Nov;61(1-2):145-8.
Prolactin secretion in multiple sclerosis.
Awerbuch AI, Sandyk R.
PMID: 1809732
172.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Nov;40(3):701-8.
Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease.
Consroe P1, Laguna J, Allender J, Snider S, Stern L, Sandyk R, Kennedy K, Schram K.
Abstract
Based on encouraging preliminary findings, cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, was evaluated for symptomatic efficacy and safety in 15 neuroleptic-free patients with Huntington’s Disease (HD). The effects of oral CBD (10 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks) and placebo (sesame oil for 6 weeks) were ascertained weekly under a double-blind, randomized cross-over design. A comparison of the effects of CBD and placebo on chorea severity and other therapeutic outcome variables, and on a Cannabis side effect inventory, clinical lab tests and other safety outcome variables, indicated no significant (p greater than 0.05) or clinically important differences. Correspondingly, plasma levels of CBD were assayed by GC/MS, and the weekly levels (mean range of 5.9 to 11.2 ng/ml) did not differ significantly over the 6 weeks of CBD administration. In summary, CBD, at an average daily dose of about 700 mg/day for 6 weeks, was neither symptomatically effective nor toxic, relative to placebo, in neuroleptic-free patients with HD.
PMID: 1839644
173.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Oct;60(3-4):173-5.
Pineal calcification and anticonvulsant responsiveness to artificial magnetic stimulation in epileptic patients.
Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N, Derpapas K.
PMID: 1787046
174.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Oct;60(3-4):141-71.
Magnetic stimulation in the treatment of partial seizures.
Anninos PA1, Tsagas N, Sandyk R, Derpapas K.
Abstract
We have recently demonstrated that Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain measurements in patients with seizure disorders show significant MEG activity often in the absence of conventional EEG abnormalities. We localized foci of seizure activity using the mapping technique characterized by the ISO-Spectral Amplitude (ISO-SA) on the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the emitted MEG Fourier power spectrum. In addition, using an electronic device, we utilized the above recorded activity to emit back the same intensity and frequency of magnetic field to the presumed epileptic foci. Using this method we were able, over the past two years, successfully to attenuate seizure activity in a cohort of over 100 patients with various forms of epilepsy. We now present in more detail three randomly selected patients with partial seizures in whom application of an external artificial magnetic field of low intensity produced a substantial attenuation of seizure frequency during an observation period extending from 10 to 14 months. All patients had previously obtained only partial response to conventional anticonvulsant therapy. Attenuation in seizure frequency was associated with normalization of the MEG activity. These cases demonstrate that artificial magnetic treatment may be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the management of partial seizures. The possible mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant properties of magnetic stimulation at both cellular and systemic levels are discussed. Specifically, since the pineal gland has been shown to be a magnetosensitive organ which forms part of a combined compass-solar clock system, and since it exerts an inhibitory action on seizure activity in both experimental animals and humans, we discuss the potential pivotal role of the pineal gland in the long term anticonvulsant effects of external artificial magnetic stimulation.
PMID: 1787045
175.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Sep;60(1-2):21-6.
Zinc deficiency and cerebellar disease.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1774146
176.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Sep;60(1-2):17-20.
The relationship of limbic epilepsy to pineal melatonin functions.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1774145
177.
Med Hypotheses. 1991 Sep;36(1):95-7.
Deranged modulatory midbrain opioid and gonadotrophin functions: relevance to Tourette’s syndrome.
Sandyk R1, Awerbuch G, Kwo-On-Yuen PF, Bamford CR.
Abstract
In the following communication we discuss evidence suggesting that an abnormal opioid-gonadotrophin interaction at the midbrain may be essential to the clinical expression of vocal tics in Tourette’s Syndrome (TS). Data derived from animal studies and the striking similarity between the symptomatology of TS and encephalitis lethargica (EL) add further support to our hypothesis implicating an abnormal opioid-gonadotrophin interaction in the pathophysiology of TS.
PMID: 1766421
178.
Schizophr Res. 1991 Sep;5(2):177-9.
Haloperidol-sensitive sigma receptor and the role of the pineal gland in dystonia.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1657121
179.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Aug;59(4):267-70.
Coexisting bipolar affective disorder and multiple sclerosis: the role of the pineal gland.
Sandyk R.
PMID: 1955288
180.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Aug;59(4):259-62.
Age-related disruption of circadian rhythms: possible relationship to memory impairment and implications for therapy with magnetic fields.
Sandyk R1, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
Abstract
Disorganization of circadian rhythms, a hallmark of aging, may be related causally to the progressive deterioration of memory functions in senescence and possibly Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In experimental animals, disruption of circadian rhythms produces retrograde amnesia by interfering with the circadian organization of memory processes. The circadian system is known to be synchronized to external 24 h periodicities of ambient light by a neural pathway extending from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. There is also evidence that the earth’s magnetic field is a time cue (“Zeitgeber”) of circadian organization and that shielding of the ambient magnetic field leads to disorganization of the circadian rhythms in humans. Since aging is associated with a delay of the circadian rhythm phase, and since light, which phase advances circadian rhythms, mimics the effects of magnetic fields on melatonin secretion, we postulate that application of magnetic fields might improve memory functions in the elderly as a result of resynchronization of the circadian rhythms. Moreover, since the circadian rhythm organization is more severely disrupted in patients with AD, it is possible that magnetic treatment might prove useful also in improving memory functions in these patients. If successful, application of magnetic fields might open new avenues in the management of memory disturbances in the elderly and possibly in AD.
PMID: 1955287
181.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Aug;59(4):263-6.
Magnetic fields and the habenular complex.
Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
PMID: 1683343
182.
Schizophr Res. 1991 Jul-Aug;5(1):85-6.
Pineal calcification in schizophrenia. Relationship to age of onset and tardive dyskinesia.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1854679
183.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Jun;58(3-4):261-7.
Magnetic fields and seasonality of affective illness: implications for therapy.
Sandyk R1, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
Abstract
Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by recurrent winter depression associated with hypersomnia, overeating, and carbohydrate craving. The severe form of winter depression affects about 5% of the general population and is believed to be caused by light deficiency. About 70%-80% of patients with winter depression experience attenuation of symptoms when exposed to bright light therapy. Hypotheses pertaining to the pathogenesis of winter depression implicate the effects of light on different characteristics of circadian rhythms. One of the environmental factors which may be implicated, in addition to light, in the pathophysiology of winter depression is the geomagnetic field. There is strong indication that the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive system and that changes in the ambient magnetic field alter melatonin secretion and synchronize the circadian rhythms. In man, shielding of the ambient magnetic field significantly desynchronizes circadian rhythms which could be gradually resynchronized after application of magnetic fields. The strength of the environmental magnetic field diminishes during the winter months, leading to increased susceptibility for desynchronization of circadian rhythms. Thus, since the acute application of magnetic fields in experimental animals resembles that of acute exposure to light with respect to melatonin secretion (i.e., suppression of melatonin secretion), magnetic treatment might be beneficial for patients with winter depression. In addition, since the environmental light and magnetic fields, which undergo diurnal and seasonal variations, influence the activity of the pineal gland, we propose that a synergistic effect of light and magnetic therapy in patients with winter depression would be more physiological and, therefore, superior to phototherapy alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 1365047
184.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Jun;58(3-4):215-47.
The relationship of pineal calcification and melatonin secretion to the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia and Tourette’s syndrome.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Despite current intensive research, the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (TD), a serious neurological side effect of neuroleptic treatment, is poorly understood. Prompted by the observation of an increased incidence and severity of abnormal perioral movements in neuroleptic-treated pinealectomized, as compared to intact rats, we suggested that the pineal gland exerts a protective effect which mitigates against the development of TD and, by inference, that reduced melatonin secretion may be related to the pathophysiology of TD. To investigate this proposition further, we studied the association of TD with pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in chronic schizophrenic patients. Our findings revealed a significant association between TD and PC and suggest, furthermore, that PC may be a neuroradiological marker of TD. Since PC may reflect diminished secretory activity of the gland, these findings support the hypothesis that the pathophysiology of TD is linked to disturbances of melatonin secretion. The clinical and therapeutic implications of these novel findings are discussed. In the following communication, in which we introduce the hypothesis that disturbances of 5-HT and melatonin secretion are related to the pathophysiology of TD. Subsequently, we present a series of studies which relate to the association of TD with PC. We conclude by presenting the hypothesis that disturbances in melatonin secretion may also be relevant to the pathophysiology of Tourette’s syndrome.
PMID: 1365044
185.
Lancet. 1991 May 4;337(8749):1103-4.
Seasonal panic disorder responsive to light therapy.
Kanofsky JD, Sandyk R, Kaplan S, Yaryura-Tobias JA.
PMID: 1673531
186.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 May;58(1-2):83-93.
Neuroradiological facets of cognitive abnormality in schizophrenia.
Kay SR1, Sandyk R, Merriam AE.
Abstract
Cognitive abnormality has long been regarded as a core feature of schizophrenia, but its nature and etiopathology have been poorly understood. Predicated on new tests that characterize fundamental cognitive impairments, we investigated their relationship to four neuroradiological markers that have been previously implicated in schizophrenia: choroid plexus calcification, cerebellar atrophy, third ventricle enlargement, and pineal calcification. Twenty-three chronic schizophrenic inpatients meeting RDC and DSM-III diagnostic criteria were stabilized on chlorpromazine and assessed independently on a cognitive battery and on CT scan. The results indicated that all four neuroradiological variables were independent of one another and of demographic, historical, and general intellectual measures. The neuroradiological assessments, however, correlated significantly with different cognitive parameters, implying separate pathophysiological bases for distinct profiles of cognitive abnormality. The findings support a “dual-process model” of cognitive dysfunction that posits developmental and arousal-related components which may, more generally, underlie the positive-negative dimension of schizophrenia.
PMID: 1938177
187.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 May;58(1-2):7-53.
Neuroradiological covariates of drug-induced parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Computed tomographic (CT) studies have demonstrated structural brain abnormalities including cortical atrophy and enlarged lateral ventricles in a subset of schizophrenic patients including those with abnormal involuntary movements. In the following series of studies, we present our findings pertaining to neuroradiological covariates of drug-induced Parkinsonism and Tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients. In these studies we have explored the relationship of Parkinsonism and Tardive dyskinesia to pineal and choroid plexus calcification. In addition, we also investigated the relationship of pineal calcification to schizophrenia, and specifically to the paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups. In a further series of studies, we investigated the neuroradiological covariates of disorders of gait and posture as well as tremor in schizophrenic patients with drug-induced Parkinsonism. In addition, we explored the relationship of Tardive dyskinesia and its subsyndromes to CT scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy in schizophrenia. Our findings highlight the significance of the pineal gland in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and drug-induced movement disorders. Furthermore, these studies underscore the heterogeneity of Parkinsonism and Tardive dyskinesia.
PMID: 1938176
188.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 May;58(1-2):69-82.
Experimental models of schizophrenia.
Kay SR1, Sandyk R.
Abstract
The Kraepelinian subtypes, developed early in the century, recognize the heterogeneity of schizophrenia but do not reliably predict differences in response to classical neuroleptics. The newer distinction of positive and negative syndromes in schizophrenia carry promise as an approach to identifying meaningful clinical and neurobiological dimensions. The present review summarizes the supportive evidence from a series of investigations using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and a hypothesis on the pathophysiology of negative and positive symptoms is advanced. Our data suggest that: (a) positive and negative syndromes in schizophrenia represent stable, independent dimensions and not co-exclusive subtypes; (b) both are unrelated to the progression of illness; (c) they are differentially related to fundamental aspects of schizophrenia, including premorbid adjustment, cognitive development, family psychiatric history, the cognitive and neuropsychiatric profiles, dopaminergic functions, drug response, and subsequent course; (d) together with depression and excitement, they comprise the fundamental symptomatic components of schizophrenia, which, in their interaction, can account for the specific Kraepelinian subtypes. We have proposed that negative symptoms represent the core pathology in schizophrenia and may be understood as a variant of parkinsonism, hence characterized by dopaminergic deficiency and increased cholinergic activity. This view is supported by the striking overlap with Parkinsonism in regard to clinical features, neurochemistry, pharmacology, neuropathology, and neuroradiology. Positive symptoms are thought to reflect increased dopaminergic activity, which may arise as a compensatory adaptive mechanism to overcome the progressive dopamine loss in the maturing brain. The early onset of schizophrenia by comparison to Parkinson’s disease may explain why schizophrenia entails more pronounced positive symptoms, development deficits, and cognitive, social, and emotional impairments. We describe evidence that pineal calcification, which may reflect disturbance of melatonin functions, appears to be a nongenetic factor in schizophrenia associated with perinatal injury. This may in part underlie the negative syndrome and its response to antipsychotic compounds with serotonergic (5-HT) antagonism.
PMID: 1938175
189.
Funct Neurol. 1991 Apr-Jun;6(2):151-7.
Drug-induced parkinsonism: relationship to age at onset of schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
On the basis of the association of negative schizophrenia with parkinsonism and early age of onset, we predicted that the latter two would covary, as reflecting a similar pathological process. To test this prediction, we studied in 40 neuroleptic-treated female schizophrenic patients with drug-induced movement disorders the association of age at onset with drug-induced parkinsonism and, for comparison, also with persistent tardive dyskinesia (TD) and acute drug-induced dystonia. We found that onset of schizophrenia during adolescence, significantly predicted the presence of parkinsonism but, by contrast, was unrelated to TD and acute drug-induced dystonia. Our findings suggest a specific association between early age at onset of schizophrenia and parkinsonism, implying that the former may be a risk factor for parkinsonism. The significance of these findings to the pathophysiology of negative schizophrenia and parkinsonism are discussed.
PMID: 1680777
190.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Apr;57(3-4):269-71.
Suicidal behavior and tardive dyskinesia.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1938170
191.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Apr;57(3-4):259-62.
Tobacco addiction as a marker of age at onset of schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, with diversity in symptoms, course, prognosis, and probably etiology. The timing of its onset (i.e., early vs. late) not only predicts outcome of illness, but also corresponds to fundamental neurochemical and neuroendocrine distinctions. There is recent evidence that early age at onset of schizophrenia is associated with more prominent negative symptoms, which are associated with decreased dopaminergic functions in the limbic system. Since addictive behaviour may be related to decreased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic reward circuitry, we predict a higher prevalence of tobacco addiction in patients with an earlier age at onset of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the association of cigarette smoking to age at onset of illness in a sample of 142 chronic schizophrenic inpatients, 73 of whom were smokers. We found that patients who smoked had a significantly earlier age at onset of psychiatric illness as compared to the nonsmokers (p less than .01). Since damage to dopaminergic systems at the lateral hypothalamic level of the medial forebrain bundle and in the ventral tegmental reward system produces the strongest indication of reward, our data suggest that alterations in dopaminergic functions in these systems may be linked to the timing of onset of schizophrenic symptoms.
PMID: 1938168
192.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Apr;57(3-4):205-12.
Atrophy of the cerebellar vermis: relevance to the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR, Merriam AE.
Abstract
Degeneration of the cerebellar vermis is a common pathological and neuroradiological feature of chronic schizophrenia, but its relationship to symptoms of the disease are poorly understood. We investigated the relationship of vermal cerebellar atrophy on CT scan to features of positive (productive) and negative (defect) dimensions of schizophrenia as well as to symptoms of general psychopathology in a sample of 23 chronic schizophrenic patients. For comparison, we also studied the relationship of third ventricular width (TVW), which reflects periventricular and diencephalic atrophy, to these features of schizophrenic symptomatology. Vermal cerebellar atrophy was found in 43.5% of patients and correlated significantly with general psychopathology and, more specifically, with feelings of guilt and disturbance of volition. It was unrelated to global positive or negative features of schizophrenia. By contrast, TVW was uniquely associated with global negative syndrome. These observations indicate that degeneration of the cerebellar vermis and enlargement of the third ventricle are integral aspects of schizophrenia, and that each contributes independently to specific clinical aspects of the disease.
PMID: 1938163
193.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Apr;57(3-4):179-91.
The relationship of pineal calcification to cortical atrophy in schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Several recent computed tomographic (CT) studies have provided evidence for structural cerebral abnormalities in schizophrenia. CT scan findings included enlargement of the lateral cerebral ventricles, cortical atrophy, third ventricular dilatation, ventricular asymmetry, and cerebellar atrophy. In addition, there is increasing data to suggest that abnormal pineal melatonin functions are associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To explore further the relationship of the pineal gland to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its specific association with structural abnormalities, we investigated: (a) the relationship of pineal calcification (PC) to computerized tomographic (CT) scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy in 41 chronic schizophrenic patients, and (b) the relationship of PC size to CT scan measurements and cortical and subcortical atrophy in 51 chronic schizophrenic patients. Results of the first study revealed that the presence of PC was significantly associated with measurements of prefrontal cortical atrophy (p less than .01), while there was no association with measurements of parieto-occipital atrophy, sulcal prominence, or ventricular brain ratio (VBR). These findings support the notion that the various structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia may reflect different pathological processes and that abnormal pineal melatonin functions may be associated with the pathophysiology of prefrontal cortical atrophy. In addition, since some clinical facets of schizophrenia covary with frontal lobe dysfunction, our findings highlight the significance of abnormal pineal functions for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the second study we found a significantly higher prevalence of pathologically enlarged PC (i.e., greater than 1 cm in diameter) in schizophrenia as compared to controls of similar age. In addition, we found a significant association between CT scan measurements of cortical atrophy and pathologically enlarged PC size (p less than .05). By contrast, PC size was unrelated to VBR. These findings demonstrate a specific association between pathologically enlarged PC and cortical atrophy in schizophrenia. The implications of these findings to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, specifically, to the morphological abnormalities that accompany the disease are discussed.
PMID: 1938161
194.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Mar;57(1-2):95-7.
Choroid plexus calcification: a biological marker of suicidality.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1938159
195.
Eur Neurol. 1991;31(6):348-51.
Relapsing lumbosacral plexus neuropathy. Report of two cases.
Awerbuch GI1, Nigro MA, Sandyk R, Levin JR.
Abstract
Primary lumbosacral plexus neuropathy (LSPN) is a well-defined syndrome characterized by pain, weakness and atrophy in the distribution of the lumbosacral plexus. Previous reports of LSPN have stressed the benign nature of the syndrome. Patients generally have a nearly complete recovery in months to years following the initial event. Two patients presenting with a relapsing form of LSPN are reported. The diagnosis of LSPN was based on clinical and electromyographic features, and no underlying cause was found on initial evaluation or subsequent follow-up over a 6- to 8-year period. We suggest that these patients represent a clinically and possibly pathologically distinct subgroup of LSPN.
PMID: 1661676
196.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Jan-Feb;56(1-4):209-14.
“Down regulation” of 5-HT2 receptors: possible role of melatonin and significance for negative schizophrenia.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1938138
Select item 1938137
197.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Jan-Feb;56(1-4):201-5, 207-8.
Analgesic nitrous oxide in alcohol withdrawal: the role of melatonin.
Sandyk R.
Comment on
Analgesic nitrous oxide for alcohol withdrawal is better than placebo. [Int J Neurosci. 1989]
Analgesic nitrous oxide in neuropsychiatry: past, present and future. [Int J Neurosci. 1989]
PMID: 1938137
198.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Jan-Feb;56(1-4):107-39.
The relationship of tardive dyskinesia to positive schizophrenia.
Sandyk R1, Kay SR.
Abstract
Investigations aimed at identifying the clinical characteristics that discriminate Tardive dyskinesia (TD) from non-TD patients have yielded disparate findings. A number of studies have suggested that TD may be a feature of negative schizophrenia. In particular, the association of TD with high prevalence of “soft” neurological signs, cognitive deficits, and abnormal brain morphology on CT scan in some patients, have led several investigators to propose that negative schizophrenia may be a risk factor for TD. The neurochemical profile of TD, however, is not consistent with this hypothesis. In the following communication, we present our studies which suggest that TD is specific to and an intergral part of positive schizophrenia. The data suggest that schizophrenic patients with predominant positive symptoms may be at increased risk for the development of TD. In addition, we present evidence linking TD with left cerebral hemispheric dysfunction. By comparison, we provide evidence that negative schizophrenia is related to diencephalic damage, and discuss its relevance to negative schizophrenia and to Parkinsonism. We also provide evidence that negative schizophrenia may be a risk factor for acute drug-induced dystonia. Thus, these findings are consistent with our model that negative schizophrenia is a risk factor for Parkinsonism, whereas positive schizophrenia is related to TD. In analogy with the positive/negative dichotomy of schizophrenia, we propose that TD could be considered a “positive,” where Parkinsonism a “negative” movement disorder.
PMID: 1938127
199.
Int J Neurosci. 1991 Jan-Feb;56(1-4):215-8.
Role of androgens in tardive dyskinesia.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 1682283
200.
Schizophr Res. 1991 Jan-Feb;4(1):59-61.
Melatonin as a mediator of atypical antipsychotic drug effects.
Sandyk R, Kay SR.
PMID: 2009255

— End of Dr. Sandyk Bibliography –