Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one type of pulsed magnetic therapy depression. PEMF Therapy as transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to mediates depression by entraining brain waves and modifying neurochemical imbalances that cause the depression.
Studies in the bibliography are clinical in nature where exposure sessions are short and intense. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) requires several (or dozens) of trips to clinic over several weeks or months. Though we find the process leaving much to be desired, some of these studies show benefits lasting 3-6 months post treatment.
Red-herring studies (designed to fail) use too short exposure time such as 1000 pulses of 10 Hz (@ 10 pulses per second = 100 seconds! HUH?) so you have to take the failures with a grain of salt. They’re playing hide the ball. This works. Fact. Period. End of Story.
We don’t care why you buy an EarthPulse™, if it doesn’t perform satisfactorily just return it for full refund. Refund’s on v.4 during it’s last year of production less than 3% based on all customer expectations.
We believe there is a better way than blasting the brain with close to motor threshold (shown as eye-lid-twitch) extemely strong magnetic fields for short periods of time. Another point here is that these researchers mistakenly believe that the only tissue affected is where ‘focused’ high density field is aimed. It is impossible to confine a pulsed magnetic field using currently available technology to just one area. Better to utilize this fact to user’s advantage.
Meanwhile Anninos, Sandyk and Jacobson proved that whole head arrays at just pico-Tesla pulsed magnetic therapy for depression effective. Pico Tesla equals 10-8 Tesla which is 100’s of thousands of times less field amplitude than these rTMS studies done near, at, or above motor threshold (the eyelids twitch with each pulse).
We feel depression symptoms would be better served w/far-less field amplitude, over much-longer duration, regularly in the comfort of one’s home, and mostly during sleep. Simple.
When the solution is simple…God is answering.
We are sure that most pulsed electromagnetic therapies lead to enhanced ATP production; particularly from the rTMS done at frequencies between 1 and 20 Hz despite their intense amplitudes. Most rTMS is referred to as “fast” at 10 – 20 Hz or “slow” at 1 Hz. Read our treatise MoreATP: The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging in Reverse to understand why regular exposure to frequencies near 10 Hz improve organic production of ATP thereby allowing the body to heal itself.
Research shows that various pulsed electromagnetic field therapies (rTMS or PEMF) up-modulate certain neuroendocrine functions which improve psychological and physiological health and wellbeing. See Parkinson’s bibliography for studies involving Dopamine and Melatonin synthesis and the Sandyk and Anninos pages (links below) for Parkinson’s and Epilepsy specifically, Jacobson for tissue studies using pico-Tesla fields.
In 2006 momentum increased in the field of researching rTMS specifically against depression and other neurological conditions particularly Parkinson’s and in 2012/2013 there are dozens of good studies that have been published. 2014 showed an explosion in Stroke rehabilitation studies. rTMS is now approved for medication resistant depression in the US and Canada. Showing the vice-grip bigPharma has on the FDA; you’re forced to stumble through the plethora of depression drugs first, when there is a much better way right out of the gate.
The Bibligraphy is offered for your education only and are not intended as promotional material for Pulsed Magnetic technology
Magnetic Therapy Depression PEMF as Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Bibliography
To read the original source, use Pubmed and search for Title of the citation
J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 1;173:216-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.068. Epub 2014 Nov 11.
Effectiveness and acceptability of accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: An open label trial.
McGirr A1, Van den Eynde F2, Tovar-Perdomo S2, Fleck MP3, Berlim MT4.
Brain Stimul. 2014 Nov-Dec;7(6):855-63. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.07.040. Epub 2014 Aug 7.
The Efficacy and Safety of Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-resistant Depression: The Results From a Large Multicenter French RCT.
Brunelin J1, Jalenques I2, Trojak B3, Attal J4, Szekely D5, Gay A6, Januel D7, Haffen E8, Schott-Pethelaz AM9, Brault C9; STEP Group, Poulet E10.
BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 30;14(1):342. [Epub ahead of print]
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an augmentative strategy for treatment-resistant depression, a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled study.
Liu B, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Li L.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 28:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Bilateral prefrontal rTMS and theta burst TMS as an add-on treatment for depression: A randomized placebo controlled trial.
Prasser J1, Schecklmann M, Poeppl TB, Frank E, Kreuzer PM, Hajak G, Rupprecht R, Landgrebe M, Langguth B.
Brain Stimul. 2014 Nov 6. pii: S1935-861X(14)00349-0. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.11.002. [Epub ahead of print]
rTMS of the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex for Major Depression: Safety, Tolerability, Effectiveness, and Outcome Predictors for 10 Hz Versus Intermittent Theta-burst Stimulation.
Bakker N1, Shahab S2, Giacobbe P3, Blumberger DM4, Daskalakis ZJ4, Kennedy SH5, Downar J6.
Psychiatr Danub. 2014 Nov;26 Suppl 1:48-52.
The acute effects of accelerated repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on suicide risk in unipolar depression: preliminary results.
Desmyter S1, Duprat R, Baeken C, Bijttebier S, van Heeringen K.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 Oct 31;10:2049-55. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S71056. eCollection 2014.
Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report.
Noda Y1, Daskalakis ZJ2, Downar J3, Croarkin PE4, Fitzgerald PB5, Blumberger DM2.
Neuromodulation. 2014 Sep 25. doi: 10.1111/ner.12231. [Epub ahead of print]
Follow-Up Study of Children Whose Mothers Were Treated With Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation During Pregnancy: Preliminary Results.
Eryılmaz G1, Hızlı Sayar G, Ozten E, Göğcegöz Gül I, Yorbik O, Işiten N, Bağcı E.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014 Sep;29(6):562-3. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acu038.157.
B-69Cognitive Performance as a Function of Low-Frequency, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Administration to the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area.
Chappell A, Seagly K, Okwara L, Bayan S, Sayegh P, Neumann S.
Psychiatry Res. 2014 Sep 30;219(1):51-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.010. Epub 2014 May 14.
Bilateral vs. unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treating major depression: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Chen JJ1, Liu Z1, Zhu D1, Li Q1, Zhang H2, Huang H2, Wei Y1, Mu J1, Yang D2, Xie P3.
J ECT. 2014 Sep;30(3):242-7. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0000000000000094.
Glutamate alterations associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in youth depression: a case series.
Yang XR1, Kirton A, Wilkes TC, Pradhan S, Liu I, Jaworska N, Damji O, Keess J, Langevin LM, Rajapakse T, Lebel RM, Sembo M, Fife M, MacMaster FP.
Neurosci Lett. 2014 Aug 8;577:22-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.06.003. Epub 2014 Jun 10.
The effects of 3 weeks of rTMS treatment on P200 amplitude in patients with depression.
Choi KM1, Jang KM2, Jang KI3, Um YH4, Kim MS2, Kim DW5, Shin D6, Chae JH7.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2014 Aug;17(4):311-5. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0397-0. Epub 2013 Nov 20.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression during pregnancy.
Hızlı Sayar G1, Ozten E, Tufan E, Cerit C, Kağan G, Dilbaz N, Tarhan N.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2014 Jun;17(3):247-50. doi: 10.1007/s00737-014-0418-7. Epub 2014 Mar 18.
Maintaining remission of depression with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation during pregnancy: a case report.
Burton C1, Gill S, Clarke P, Galletly C.
Neurosci Lett. 2014 Jun 20;572:32-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.04.033. Epub 2014 May 4.
Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances GABAergic and cholinergic metabolism in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat model:
Kim SY1, Lee DW1, -Kim H2, Bang E2, Chae JH3, Choe BY4.
Cogn Behav Neurol. 2014 Jun;27(2):77-87. doi: 10.1097/WNN.0000000000000031.
Cognitive effects of treatment of depression with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Nadeau SE1, Bowers D, Jones TL, Wu SS, Triggs WJ, Heilman KM.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2014 May-Jun;142(5-6):280-5.
[Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: preliminary results].
[Article in Serbian]
Jovicić M, Radovanović S, Marić NP, Kostić V.
Brain Stimul. 2014 May-Jun;7(3):421-31. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.03.006. Epub 2014 Mar 19.
A two-site pilot randomized 3 day trial of high dose left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for suicidal inpatients.
George MS1, Raman R2, Benedek DM3, Pelic CG4, Grammer GG3, Stokes KT2, Schmidt M4, Spiegel C3, Dealmeida N3, Beaver KL4, Borckardt JJ4, Sun X2, Jain S2, Stein MB2.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2014 May;15(4):298-306. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2011.639802. Epub 2012 Feb 7.
H-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment resistant major depressive disorder: An 18-week continuation safety and feasibility study.
Harel EV1, Rabany L, Deutsch L, Bloch Y, Zangen A, Levkovitz Y.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 May;75(5):477-89; quiz 489. doi: 10.4088/JCP.13r08815.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gaynes BN1, Lloyd SW, Lux L, Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Brode S, Jonas DE, Swinson Evans T, Viswanathan M, Lohr KN.
J Affect Disord. 2014 Mar;156:219-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.025. Epub 2013 Dec 28.
Treatment of major depression with bilateral theta burst stimulation: a randomized controlled pilot trial.
Plewnia C1, Pasqualetti P2, Große S3, Schlipf S3, Wasserka B3, Zwissler B3, Fallgatter A3.
J ECT. 2014 Mar;30(1):e9-10. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e182a2705d.
Case report of a 24-year-old man with resolution of treatment-resistant major depressive disorder and comorbid PTSD using rTMS.
Nakama H1, Garcia A, O’Brien K, Ellis N.
Encephale. 2014 Feb;40(1):74-80. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2013.04.004. Epub 2013 Oct 1.
[Health-related quality of life assessment in depression after low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation].
[Article in French]
Dumas R1, Boyer L2, Richieri R3, Guedj E4, Auquier P2, Lançon C3.
Brain Stimul. 2014 Jan-Feb;7(1):7-12.
Addressing the needs of adolescents with treatment resistant depressive disorders: a systematic review of rTMS.
Donaldson AE, Gordon MS, Melvin GA, Barton DA, Fitzgerald PB.
Brain Stimul. 2014 Jan-Feb;7(1):36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Jul 29.
Antidepressant efficacy of high and low frequency rTMS at 110% of motor threshold versus sham stimulation over left prefrontal cortex.
Speer AM1, Wassermann EM2, Benson BE3, Herscovitch P4, Post RM5.
BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Jan 18;14:13. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-13.
A pilot study of the use of EEG-based synchronized Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (sTMS) for treatment of Major Depression.
Jin Y, Phillips B1.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(4):601-6.
A randomized double-blinded sham-controlled trial of α electroencephalogram-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Ma X1, Huang Y2, Liao L1, Jin Y3.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;13(5):771-5.
High-frequency rTMS to treat refractory binge eating disorder and comorbid depression: a case report.
Baczynski TP, de Aquino Chaim CH, Nazar BP, Carta MG, Arias-Carrion O, Silva AC, Machado S, Nardi AE1.
Depress Res Treat. 2014;2014:135049. doi: 10.1155/2014/135049. Epub 2014 Jul 21.
Comparing the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2014 Jan;19(1):29-32.
Is transcranial magnetic stimulation effective in treatment-resistant combat related posttraumatic stress disorder?
Oznur T1, Akarsu S, Celik C, Bolu A, Ozdemir B, Akcay BD, Ozselek S, Bozkurt A, Ozmenler KN.
Psychol Med. 2014 Jan;44(2):225-39. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713000512. Epub 2013 Mar 18.
Response, remission and drop-out rates following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials.
Berlim MT1, van den Eynde F1, Tovar-Perdomo S1, Daskalakis ZJ2.
Psychiatry Res. 2013 Dec 30;210(3):1260-4. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Oct 7.
Left versus right repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treating major depression: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Chen J1, Zhou C, Wu B, Wang Y, Li Q, Wei Y, Yang D, Mu J, Zhu D, Zou D, Xie P.
Mol Brain. 2014 Feb 11;7:11. doi: 10.1186/1756-6606-7-11.
Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates stress-related behaviors in mouse models for neuropsychiatric disorders.
Zhang Y, Mao RR, Chen ZF, Tian M, Tong DL, Gao ZR, Huang M, Li X, Xu X, Zhou WH, Li CY, Wang J, Xu L1, Qiu Z.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Nov;6(6):922-4. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.04.006. Epub 2013 May 9.
A near infra-red study of blood oxygenation changes resulting from high and low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Cao TT1, Thomson RH, Bailey NW, Rogasch NC, Segrave RA, Maller JJ, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Nov;151(2):625-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.07.008. Epub 2013 Jul 26.
Intensive HF-rTMS treatment in refractory medication-resistant unipolar depressed patients.
Baeken C1, Vanderhasselt MA, Remue J, Herremans S, Vanderbruggen N, Zeeuws D, Santermans L, De Raedt R.
Psychol Med. 2013 Nov;43(11):2245-54. doi: 10.1017/S0033291712002802. Epub 2012 Dec 3.
A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and acceptability of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression.
Berlim MT1, Van den Eynde F, Daskalakis ZJ.
Postgrad Med. 2013 Nov;125(6):7-16. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2013.11.2707.
Evaluating the evidence on comparative effectiveness and value of management options for treatment-resistant depression.
Emond SK1, Ollendorf DA, Colby JA, Reed SJ, Pearson SD.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct;151(1):365-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.094. Epub 2013 Jun 27.
Treating anxious depression using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Diefenbach GJ1, Bragdon L, Goethe JW.
Trials. 2013 Oct 17;14:338. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-338.
Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the prevention of relapse of depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Wang H, Xue Y, Chen Y, Zhang R, Wang H, Zhang Y, Gan J, Zhang L, Tan Q1.
CNS Spectr. 2013 Oct;18(5):261-71. doi: 10.1017/S1092852913000151. Epub 2013 Apr 10.
The management of mood disorders in pregnancy: alternatives to antidepressants.
Richards EM1, Payne JL.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Oct;16(9):1975-84. doi: 10.1017/S1461145713000369. Epub 2013 May 13.
Equivalent beneficial effects of unilateral and bilateral prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in a large randomized trial in treatment-resistant major depression.
Fitzgerald PB1, Hoy KE, Singh A, Gunewardene R, Slack C, Ibrahim S, Hall PJ, Daskalakis ZJ.
Rev Med Brux. 2013 Sep-Oct;34(5):416-22.
Treatment of depression with transcranial magnetic stimulation].
[Article in French]
Chaouachi MA1, Verbanck P, Kornreich C.
J ECT. 2013 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Case Report of a 24-Year-Old Man With Resolution of Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid PTSD Using rTMS.
Nakama H1, Garcia A, O’Brien K, Ellis N.
Prefrontal cortical blood flow predicts response of depression to rTMS. Weiduschat N, Dubin MJ.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 5;150(2):699-702. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.04.049. Epub 2013 May 22.
rTMS for pharmacoresistant major depression in the clinical setting of a psychiatric hospital: Effectiveness and effects of age. Ciobanu C, Girard M, Marin B, Labrunie A, Malauzat D.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 5;150(2):677-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.03.024. Epub 2013 May 11.
Antidepressant Efficacy of High (10 Hz) and Low Frequency rTMS at 110% of Motor Threshold versus Sham Stimulation over Left Prefrontal Cortex. Speer AM, Wassermann EM, Benson BE, Herscovitch P, Post RM.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Jul 29. doi:pii: S1935-861X(13)00226-X. 10.1016/j.brs.2013.07.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a meta-analysis of stimulus parameter effects. Xie J, Chen J, Wei Q.
Neurol Res. 2013 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Neuron specific enolase and serum remain unaffected by ultra high frequency left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a preliminary study. Ullrich H, Kranaster L, Sigges E, Andrich J, Sartorius A.
J Neural Transm. 2013 Jun 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating majordepression and schizophrenia: a systematic review of recent meta-analyses. Hovington CL, McGirr A, Lepage M, Berlim MT.
Ann Med. 2013 Jun;45(4):308-21. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2013.783993. Epub 2013 May 20.
A Near Infra-Red Study of Blood Oxygenation Changes Resulting From High and Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Cao TT, Thomson RH, Bailey NW, Rogasch NC, Segrave RA, Maller JJ, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
Brain Stimul. 2013 May 9. doi:pii: S1935-861X(13)00125-3. 10.1016/j.brs.2013.04.006. [Epub ahead of print] 1 hz lowers blood oxygen where 2 & 5 Hz increases it. Another study pointing toward 10 Hz being superior to lower frequency. See our Key 10 Hz Data pointing toward better oxygen metabolism.
Hypomanic shift observed during rTMS treatment of patients with unipolardepressive disorder: four case reports.
Ozten E, Sayar GH, Karamustafalioglu O.
Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 24;12(1):12. doi: 10.1186/1744-859X-12-12. NP Istanbul Hospital, Uskudar University, Alemdag Cad, Siteyolu Sk, No:27, Istanbul, Umraniye 34675, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can enhance the excitement of the brain through adjusting the biological activities of the cerebral cortex and has wide biological effects, making it one basic mechanism of therapy fordepression. In the treatment of unipolar depressive disorder, almost in every treatment method, hypomanic and manic shifts can be observed. There is still a lack of data regarding manic and hypomanic symptoms triggered by rTMSapplications.
We describe four cases with unipolar depression in which high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex applied as an add-on antidepressive strategy may have induced a hypomanic episode.
In these cases, 25 Hz rTMS combined with antidepressants may have contributed to the occurrence of hypomanic symptoms.
Using an intensive methodology of rTMS may induce hypomanic symptoms.
Individuals in a hypomanic state have a decreased need for sleep, are extremely outgoing and competitive, and have a great deal of energy. However, unlike with full mania, those with hypomanic symptoms are often fully functioning. A number of high profile sources have cited that individuals suffering from hypomania are actually more productive, risk accepting, and goal oriented than usual. Examples of work that cite this idea include books such as The Hypomanic Edge by John D. Gartner
J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 5;150(2):677-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.03.024. Epub 2013 May 11.
rTMS for pharmacoresistant major depression in the clinical setting of a psychiatric hospital: effectiveness and effects of age.
Ciobanu C1, Girard M, Marin B, Labrunie A, Malauzat D.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the assessment of motor cortex excitability and treatment of drug-resistant major depression.
Spampinato C, Aguglia E, Concerto C, Pennisi M, Lanza G, Bella R, Cantone M, Pennisi G, Kavasidis I, Giordano D.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 May;21(3):391-403. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2013.2256432. Epub 2013 Apr 3.
Neuropharmacology. 2012 Jan;62(1):125-34. Epub 2011 Jul 27.
Is rTMS an effective therapeutic strategy that can be used to treat anxiety disorders?
Machado S, Paes F, Velasques B, Teixeira S, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Nardi AE, Arias-Carrión O.
Panic & Respiration Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Oct 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.20714. [Epub ahead of print]
Studies on magnetism and bioelectromagnetics for 45 years: From magnetic analog memory to human brain stimulation and imaging.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Quantum Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Brain Stimul. 2011 Oct;4(4):266-74. Epub 2011 Jan 22.
Differential effects of deep TMS of the prefrontal cortex on apathy and depression.
Levkovitz Y, Sheer A, Harel EV, Katz LN, Most D, Zangen A, Isserles M.
Cognitive and Emotional Laboratory, Shalvata Mental Health Care Center, Hod-Hasharon, Israel.
Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation: Therapeutic promises and scientific gaps.
Wassermann EM, Zimmermann T.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 1;35(4):1041-4. Epub 2011 Feb 24.
Effectiveness of a second deep TMS in depression: a brief report.
Rosenberg O, Isserles M, Levkovitz Y, Kotler M, Zangen A, Dannon PN.
Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center affiliated to Sackler School of Medicine, University of Tel Aviv, Israel.
Neurocase. 2011 May 25:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations with transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with psychotic major depression: One-year follow-up.
Freitas C, Pearlman C, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Division of Cognitive Neurology, Boston, MA, USA.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 May;122(5):1011-8.
The theoretical model of theta burst form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Huang YZ, Rothwell JC, Chen RS, Lu CS, Chuang WL
Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei 10507, Taiwan
J ECT. 2011 Mar;27(1):18-25.
Safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of high doses of adjunctive daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression in a clinical setting.
Hadley D, Anderson BS, Borckardt JJ, Arana A, Li X, Nahas Z, George MS.
Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Psychiatry Department, Medical University of South Carolina, USA
J ECT. 2011 Mar;27(1):e12-4.
A 6-month follow-up case report of regional cerebral blood flow changes in treatment-resistant depression after successful treatment with bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Kito S, Hasegawa T, Okayasu M, Fujita K, Koga Y.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
J Neural Transm. 2011 Mar;118(3):463-71. Epub 2011 Jan 19.
Beneficial effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive training for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a proof of concept study.
Bentwich J, Dobronevsky E, Aichenbaum S, Shorer R, Peretz R, Khaigrekht M, Marton RG, Rabey JM.
Neuronix Ltd, Yokneam, Israel.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Mar;65(2):175-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02183.x.
Neuroanatomical correlates of therapeutic efficacy of low-frequency right prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression.
Kito S, Hasegawa T, Koga Y.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Top Stroke Rehabil. 2011 Mar-Apr;18(2):87-91.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): potential progress for language improvement in aphasia.
Galletta EE, Rao PR, Barrett AM.
Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(1):139-45.
Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the underlying neurocircuitry in unipolar depression.
Baeken C, De Raedt R.
Department of Psychiatry and Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.
Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011 Jan;8(1):85-95.
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ.
Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University School of Psychology and Psychiatry, First Floor Old Baker Building, Commercial Road Melbourne, 3004, Victoria 3181 Australia.
Neuropsychobiology. 2011;64(3):163-9. Epub 2011 Jul 29.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the management of mood disorders.
Allan CL, Herrmann LL, Ebmeier KP.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, London, UK.
Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2011;53(6):343-53.
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment for depression
Universitair Hoofddocent Verbonden aan de Afdeling Psychologische Functieleer aan de Universiteit van Utrecht.
Encephale. 2010 Dec;36 Suppl 6:S197-201.
[Affective disorders and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: Therapeutic innovations
[Article in French]
Richieri R, Adida M, Dumas R, Fakra E, Azorin JM, Pringuey D, Lancon C.
Pôle Universitaire de Psychiatrie, Hôpital S(te) Marguerite, 270 bd Sainte-Marguerite, 13274 Marseille cedex 09, France
Schizophr Res. 2010 Dec;124(1-3):91-100.
Safety and proof of principle study of cerebellar vermal theta burst stimulation in refractory schizophrenia.
Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Freitas C, Cromer JR, Safar L, Ongur D, Stone WS, Seidman LJ, Schmahmann JD, Pascual-Leone A.
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
J Vis Exp. 2010 Nov 12;(45). pii: 2345. doi: 10.3791/2345.
The NeuroStar TMS device: conducting the FDA approved protocol for treatment of depression.
Horvath JC, Mathews J, Demitrack MA, Pascual-Leone A.
Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, USA.
Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;22(4 Suppl 2):S4-11.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depressive disorder: a pragmatic approach to implementing TMS in a clinical practice.
Derstine T, Lanocha K, Wahlstrom C, Hutton TM.
SunPointe Health, State College, PA, USA.
Expert Rev Neurother. 2010 Nov;10(11):1761-72.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression.
Institute of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 502 N, 67 President St, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
Brain Stimul. 2010 Oct;3(4):187-99. Epub 2010 Aug 11.
Durability of clinical benefit with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant major depression: assessment of relapse during a 6-month, multisite, open-label study.
Janicak PG, Nahas Z, Lisanby SH, Solvason HB, Sampson SM, McDonald WM, Marangell LB, Rosenquist P, McCall WV, Kimball J, O’Reardon JP, Loo C, Husain MH, Krystal A, Gilmer W, Dowd SM, Demitrack MA, Schatzberg AF.
Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
Depress Anxiety. 2010 Oct;27(10):960-3.
Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, McDonald WM, Mufti M, Kelley ME, Quinn S, Corso G, Epstein CM.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Vertex. 2010 Sep-Oct;21(93):330-8.
[Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and its contributions to psychiatry
J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;71(7):873-84. Epub 2010 Mar 9.
Should we expand the toolbox of psychiatric treatment methods to include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of rTMS in psychiatric disorders.
Slotema CW, Blom JD, Hoek HW, Sommer IE.
Center for Personality Disorders, Lijnbaan 4, The Hague, the Netherlands
Depress Anxiety. 2010 May;27(5):465-9.
Deep TMS in a resistant major depressive disorder: a brief report.
Rosenberg O, Shoenfeld N, Zangen A, Kotler M, Dannon PN.
Beer Yaaakov Mental Health Center, Sackler School of Medicine University of Tel Aviv Israel, Israel.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2010 Mar-Apr;38(2):87-93. Epub 2010 Mar 1.
Efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in depression: naturalistic study.
Aliño JJ, Jiménez JL, Flores SC, Alcocer MI.
Psychiatry Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid.
Brain Stimul. 2009 Oct;2(4):188-200. Epub 2009 Sep 16.
Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation over the prefrontal cortex: evaluation of antidepressant and cognitive effects in depressive patients.
Levkovitz Y, Harel EV, Roth Y, Braw Y, Most D, Katz LN, Sheer A, Gersner R, Zangen A.
Shalvata Mental Health Care Center, Cognitive and Emotional Laboratory, Hod-Hasharon, Israel.
Cortex. 2009 Oct;45(9):1035-42. Epub 2009 Mar 3.
How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition.
Siebner HR, Hartwigsen G, Kassuba T, Rothwell JC.
Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Exp Neurol. 2009 Sep;219(1):2-13. Epub 2009 May 4.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in depression.
Padberg F, George MS.
Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Nussbaumstr. 7, 80336 Munich, Germany.
Psychiatry Res. 2009 Aug 30;169(1):12-5. Epub 2009 Jul 23.
A study of the effectiveness of high-frequency left prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression in patients who have not responded to right-sided stimulation.
Fitzgerald PB, McQueen S, Herring S, Hoy K, Segrave R, Kulkarni J, Daskalakis ZJ.
Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University Department of Psychological Medicine, Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004,
J Affect Disord. 2009 Jun;115(3):386-94. Epub 2008 Nov 22.
Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on mood in depressed patients: relationship to baseline cerebral activity on PET.
Speer AM, Benson BE, Kimbrell TK, Wassermann EM, Willis MW, Herscovitch P, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009 May;56(5):1512-23. Epub 2009 Feb 6.
Magnetic stimulation and depression of mammalian networks in primary neuronal cell cultures.
Meyer JF, Wolf B, Gross GW.
Department of Medical Electronics, Technical University of Munich, Munich 80333, Germany
Adv Ther. 2009 Mar;26(3):346-68. Epub 2009 Mar 28.
Cost-effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression: a health economics analysis.
Simpson KN, Welch MJ, Kozel FA, Demitrack MA, Nahas Z.
Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, Room 502N, Charleston, SC, 29403, USA.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 Feb 9;51(1305):11-2.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for medication-resistant depression.
The FDA has cleared a new device for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) resistant to antidepressant medication. The NeuroStar TMS System (Neuronetics) produces pulsed magnetic fields that can induce electrical currents in the brain. Unlike electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), it does not require anesthesia or induction of seizures. Other similar devices are under development.
Brain Stimul. 2009 Jan;2(1):14-21. Epub 2008 Jun 27.
Controversy: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation shows efficacy in treating psychiatric diseases (depression, mania, schizophrenia, obsessive-complusive disorder, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder).
George MS, Padberg F, Schlaepfer TE, O’Reardon JP, Fitzgerald PB, Nahas ZH, Marcolin MA.
Psychiatry Department, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, USA.
Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2009;15(2):94-101.
Plasticity in the developing brain: implications for rehabilitation.
Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Psychopharmacol Bull. 2009;42(2):5-38.
Clinical significance of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant depression: synthesis of recent data.
Demitrack MA, Thase ME.
Source Neuronetics, Inc.
Expert Rev Med Devices. 2008 Sep;5(5):559-66.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a device intended for the psychiatrist’s office, but what is its future clinical role?
Shah DB, Weaver L, O’Reardon JP.
TMS Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print] Links
The impact of one HF-rTMS session on mood and salivary cortisol in treatment resistant unipolar melancholic depressed patients.
Baeken C, De Raedt R, Leyman L, Schiettecatte J, Kaufman L, Poppe K, Vanderhasselt MA, Anckaert E, Bossuyt A.
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels, UZBrussel, Belgium.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 May 20:e1-e5. [Epub ahead of print]
An Open-Label, Prospective Study of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the Long-Term Treatment of Refractory Depression: Reproducibility and Duration of the Antidepressant Effect in Medication-Free Patients.
Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Mechanic-Hamilton D, Press DZ, Pearlman C, Stern WM, Thall M, Pascual-Leone A.
From the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, and the Department of Neurology, Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass.
Psychol Med. 2008 Apr 30:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]
Antidepressant efficacy of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in double-blind sham-controlled designs: a meta-analysis.
Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;65(3):268-76.
Treatment of vascular depression using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Jorge RE, Moser DJ, Acion L, Robinson RG.
Department of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa, Room W278 General Hospital, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242-1000, USA
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Winter;20(1):74-80.
Changes in regional cerebral blood flow after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in treatment-resistant depression.
Kito S, Fujita K, Koga Y.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611, Japan
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Feb;29(1):69-70.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depressive episode during pregnancy.
Klirova M, Novak T, Kopecek M, Mohr P, Strunzova V.
Prague Psychiatric Centre, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Feb;119(2):482-91. Epub 2007 Dec 11.
Evaluation of the potential genotoxic effects of rTMS on the rat brain and current density mapping.
de Sauvage RC, Lagroye I, Billaudel B, Veyret B.
University of Bordeaux 1, IMS Laboratory-Bioelectromagnetics group, ENSCPB/EPHE, 16 Pey Berland Avenue, 33607 Pessac Cedex, France
Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct;118(10):2189-94. Epub 2007 Aug 21.
An open study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression with Parkinson’s disease.
Epstein CM, Evatt ML, Funk A, Girard-Siqueira L, Lupei N, Slaughter L, Athar S, Green J, McDonald W, Delong MR.
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Oct;41(7):606-15. Epub 2006 Apr 4.
Metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after treatment with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with unipolar major depression.
Luborzewski A, Schubert F, Seifert F, Danker-Hopfe H, Brakemeier EL, Schlattmann P, Anghelescu I, Colla M, Bajbouj M.
Department of Psychiatry, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Eschenallee 3, D-14050 Berlin, Germany.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Sep 20;:1-28 [Epub ahead of print]
A review of the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a clinical treatment for depression.
Loo CK, McFarquhar TF, Mitchell PB.
Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia.
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Sep;116(3):165-73.
Has repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for depression improved? A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the recent vs. the earlier rTMS studies.
Gross M, Nakamura L, Pascual-Leone A, Fregni F.
Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
J Affect Disord. 2007 Sep;102(1-3):277-80. Epub 2007 Jan 9.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of panic disorder (PD) with comorbid major depression.
Mantovani A, Lisanby SH, Pieraccini F, Ulivelli M, Castrogiovanni P, Rossi S.
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Brain Stimulation and Therapeutic Modulation, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 21, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Aug 21;:1-11 [Epub ahead of print]
rTMS treatment for depression in Parkinson’s disease increases BOLD responses in the left prefrontal cortex.
Cardoso EF, Fregni F, Martins Maia F, Boggio PS, Luis Myczkowski M, Coracini K, Lopes Vieira A, Melo LM, Sato JR, Antonio Marcolin M, Rigonatti SP, Cruz AC, Reis Barbosa E, Amaro E.
NIF, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
J Affect Disord. 2007 May 7; [Epub ahead of print]
Modulation of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with major depression treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Udupa K, Sathyaprabha TN, Thirthalli J, Kishore KR, Raju TR, Gangadhar BN.
Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Hosur road, Bangalore, 560 029, India.
RESULTS: Both therapies produced comparable and significant reduction in HDRS scores. HRV measures indicated that rTMS produced significantly greater reduction in the sympathetic: parasympathetic ratio suggesting improvement in sympathovagal balance. Conventional cardiac autonomic function tests did not differentiate the two therapy effects. CONCLUSIONS: rTMS not only produced antidepressant effects but also ”corrected” the autonomic imbalance.
Clin EEG Neurosci. 2007 Apr;38(2):105-15.
Transcranial and deep brain stimulation approaches as treatment for depression.
Rau A, Grossheinrich N, Palm U, Pogarell O, Padberg F.
Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.
Psychiatry Res. 2007 Mar 30;150(2):181-6. Epub 2007 Feb 14.
Long-lasting effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depressed patients.
Bortolomasi M, Minelli A, Fuggetta G, Perini M, Comencini S, Fiaschi A, Manganotti P.
Casa di Cura Villa S. Chiara, Verona, Italy
Encephale. 2007 Mar-Apr;33(2):126-34.
[Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: a review]
[Article in French]
Brunelin J, Poulet E, Boeuve C, Zeroug-vial H, d’Amato T, Saoud M.
EA 3092, UCBL, Professeur J. Daléry, CH Le Vinatier, 95 boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex.
Psychol Med. 2007 Mar;37(3):341-9. Epub 2006 Dec 19.
A sham-controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of twice-daily rTMS in major depression.
Loo CK, Mitchell PB, McFarquhar TF, Malhi GS, Sachdev PS.
School of Psychiatry, University of NSW and Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia.
J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):35-42. Epub 2006 Jun 15.
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on [11C]raclopride binding and cognitive function in patients with depression.
Kuroda Y, Motohashi N, Ito H, Ito S, Takano A, Nishikawa T, Suhara T.
Section of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
Neurosci Lett. 2006 Sep 11;405(1-2):79-83. Epub 2006 Jul 12.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protects hippocampal plasticity in an animal model of depression.
Kim EJ, Kim WR, Chi SE, Lee KH, Park EH, Chae JH, Park SK, Kim HT, Choi JS.
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;30(5):960-2. Epub 2006 Apr 24.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a patient suffering from comorbid depression and panic disorder following a myocardial infarction.
Sakkas P, Psarros C, Papadimitriou GN, Theleritis CG, Soldatos CR.
Athens University Medical School, Psychiatry Department, Eginitio Hospital, 74 Vas. Sofias Avenue, Athens 11528, Greece
Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jul 11;
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protects hippocampal plasticity in an animal model of depression
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
rTMS has an antidepressant-like effect after a relatively short period of treatment, and this effect might be mediated by a cellular process that can potentially reverse the impaired synaptic efficacy caused by the forced swim procedure.
Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):115-8.
Slow-frequency rTMS reduces fibromyalgia pain.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, W11A, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that fibromyalgia (FM) is a centrally mediated pain disorder. Antidepressants, including electroconvulsive therapy, provide some symptomatic relief in FM and other pain disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new antidepressant treatment, which may also be useful in treating chronic pain. RESULTS: Pretreatment pain averaged 8.2 (7-9.5) and reduced to 1.5 (0-3.5) after treatment (P < 0.009). All had improvement in pain, and two had complete resolution of pain.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;30(5):960-2.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a patient suffering from comorbid depression and panic disorder following a myocardial infarction.
Athens University Medical School, Psychiatry Department, Eginitio Hospital, 74 Vas. Sofias Avenue, Athens 11528, Greece.
Application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was effective and safe in treating a 55-year-old man with comorbid depression and panic disorder, which occurred 6 months after a myocardial infarction.
J Affect Disord. 2006 Jun 14;
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on [(11)C]raclopride binding and cognitive function in patients with depression.Section of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Molecular Neuroimaging, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) elicits moderate antidepressant effects. Several previous studies suggested that the dopaminergic system might be related to this therapeutic action of rTMS. We attempted to determine the effects of chronic rTMS on central dopaminergic function in depression. RESULTS: In five patients, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) significantly decreased. Patients showed significant improvement in verbal memory following rTMS. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that rTMS may be effective for the treatment of depression and also may improve verbal memory function.
J Psychiatr Res. 2006 Jun;40(4):307-14. Epub 2005 Nov 2.
Striatal dopamine release after prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: preliminary results of a dynamic [123I] IBZM SPECT study. Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Nussbaumstr. 7, D-80336 Munich, Germany.
Though there is considerable evidence that prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) exerts antidepressant effects, the neurobiological action of rTMS in patients with depression is poorly understood. Preclinical studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that prefrontal rTMS can induce dopamine release in mesostriatal and mesolimbic regions. We therefore investigated whether rTMS also modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in depressed patients. In this preliminary study, the reduction of IBZM binding observed after rTMS challenge is suggestive of a release in endogenous dopamine induced by prefrontal rTMS. In future, this approach can be used to differentiate specific and non-specific reward-related effects of rTMS on dopaminergic neurotransmission.
Australas Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;14(1):81-5.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in adolescent depression. School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia. OBJECTIVE: There are few safe and effective biological treatments for major depression in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation shows early promise as a treatment for major depression in adolescents. Well-designed, sham-controlled studies are now indicated to test the efficacy and safety of rTMS in these patients.
J Affect Disord. 2006 Mar;91(1):83-6.
Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in drug resistant depressed patients.
“S. Giovanni di Dio”, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy. BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels, while antidepressant drugs appear to mend this alteration. The purpose of this study was to assess BDNF serum levels in drug resistant depressed patients before and after repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the relationship between decreased serum BDNF and depression symptomatology and suggest a normalizing effect of rTMS antidepressant treatment.
Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jan 30;141(1):1-13.
Effect of low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation on an affective go/no-go task in patients with major depression: role of stimulation site and depression severity. Bermpohl F, Fregni F, Boggio PS, Thut G, Northoff G, Otachi PT, Rigonatti SP, Marcolin MA, Pascual-Leone A. Harvard Center for Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise as a therapeutic tool in major depression. However, a means to assess the effects of a single rTMS session on mood to guide subsequent sessions would be desirable. The present study examined the effects of a single rTMS session on an affective go/no-go task known to measure emotional-cognitive deficits associated with major depression. Ten patients with an acute episode of unipolar major depression and eight partially or completely remitted (improved) patients underwent 1 Hz rTMS over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex prior to task performance. TMS over the mesial occipital cortex was used as a control. We observed significantly improved performance in depressed patients following right prefrontal rTMS. This beneficial effect declined with decreasing depressionseverity.
Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;163(1):88-94.
A randomized, controlled trial of sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, the Alfred and Monash University Department of Psychological Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The authors evaluated sequentially combined high-frequency left-side rTMS and low-frequency rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex for treatment-resistant depression. METHOD: The authors conducted a 6-week double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial in 50 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Three trains of low-frequency rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex of 140 seconds’ duration at 1 Hz were applied daily, followed immediately by 15 trains of 5 seconds’ duration of high-frequency left-side rTMS at 10 Hz. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater response to active than sham stimulation at 2 weeks and across the full duration of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Sequentially applying both high-frequency left-side rTMS and low-frequency rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex, has substantial treatment efficacy in patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The treatment response accumulates to a clinically meaningful level over 4 to 6 weeks of active treatment.
Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan 15;59(2):187-94.
A controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in medication-resistant major depression. Avery DH, Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Fawaz W, Russo J, Neumaier J, Dunner DL, Haynor DR, Claypoole KH, Wajdik C, Roy-Byrne P. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, 98104-2499, USA. BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment for depression has shown statistically significant effects, but the clinical significance of these effects has been questioned. METHODS: Each session consisted of 32 trains of 10 Hz repetitive TMS delivered in 5-second trains. RESULTS: The response rate for the TMS group was 30.6% (11/35), significantly (p = .008) greater than the 6.1% (2/33) rate in the sham group. The remission rate for the TMS group was 20% (7/35), significantly (p = .033) greater than the 3% (1/33) rate in the sham group. CONCLUSIONS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation can produce statistically and clinically significant antidepressant effects in patients with medication-resistant major depression.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;30(1):126-30.
A double-blind sham controlled study of right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): therapeutic and cognitive effect in medication free unipolar depression during 4 weeks. Unite de recherche clinique, EPS de Ville Evrard a Saint Denis, G03, 5 Rue du Dr Delafontaine 93200 Saint-Denis, France. BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a therapeutic tool in psychiatric diseases. METHODOLOGY: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of TMS in unipolar depression: the percentage of responders (>50% HDRS reduction) and remission (HDRS score < or =8, after four weeks of active TMS treatment in depressed patients free of any antidepressive agent versus placebo-TMS. RESULTS: 27 patients were randomized in two groups: rTMS (N=11) versus sham TMS (N=16). Statistical differences were detected between sham and TMS treated groups on remission (0/16 versus 4/11 p=0.032, 1/16 versus 6/11 0.028 and 1/16 versus 7/11 p=0.011 at day 14, day 21 and day 28, respectively) and on response (2/16 versus 5/11 at day 14 (NS), 2/16 versus 7/11 p=0.0115 at day 21 and 1/16 versus 7/11 (p=0.025) day 28, respectively, using the exact Fisher test). Significant differences were observed between day 1 versus day 8 (p<0.01), day 15, day 21 and day 28 (p<0.001) in TMS group and only versus day 21 (p<0.01) and day 28 (p<0.05) for the sham group. ANOVA comparison between TMS and sham groups was significant at day 14 and day 28 (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: The few number of patients. CONCLUSION: Our study has shown an efficacy of right rTMS in free medication unipolar depression over a month. Nevertheless, number of patients included is limited and multicentric studies will be necessary to specify the antidepressive action of TMS.
Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jan 30;146(1):53-7.
High (20-Hz) and low (1-Hz) frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation as adjuvant treatment in medication-resistant depression. Psychiatric Unit, Hospital Son Llatzer, Cc/Ctra Manacor Km 4, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in depression have found antidepressant effects when high frequency stimulation (HF-rTMS; >1 Hz) is applied over the left prefrontal cortex (LPF). A few studies have also reported success with low frequency stimulation (LF-rTMS) to the right prefrontal cortex (RPF). Both HF-rTMS and LF-rTMS have been reported to work better in areas with cerebral hypometabolism or hypermetabolism, respectively. Thirty medication-resistant patients with major depression were randomized into three groups. Comparison of the sham rTMS group with the overall group that received active rTMS revealed statistically significant changes on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after 10 sessions. This study demonstrated that combined 20+1-Hz rTMS was effective.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;30(1):126-30.
A double-blind sham controlled study of right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): therapeutic and cognitive effect in medication free unipolar depression during 4 weeks. Unite de recherche clinique, EPS de Ville Evrard a Saint Denis, G03, 5 Rue du Dr Delafontaine 93200 Saint-Denis, France.
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a therapeutic tool in psychiatric diseases. METHODOLOGY: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of TMS in unipolar depression: the percentage of responders (>50% HDRS reduction) and remission (HDRS score < or =8, after four weeks of active TMS treatment in depressed patients free of any antidepressive agent versus placebo-TMS. RESULTS: ANOVA comparison between TMS and sham groups was significant at day 14 and day 28 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study has shown an efficacy of right rTMS in free medication unipolar depression over a month. Nevertheless, number of patients included is limited and multicentric studies will be necessary to specify the antidepressive action of TMS.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;66(12):1524-8.
Long-term maintenance therapy for major depressive disorder with rTMS.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Ste. 4005, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence to support the short-term antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), but few published data pertain to the maintenance treatment of patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder who have responded acutely to rTMS. We describe long-term maintenance therapy for major depressive disorder with rTMS. METHOD: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied in 10 adults over the left prefrontal cortex at 100% of motor threshold, most often at a frequency of 10 Hz for sessions consisting of 40 trains at 5 seconds per train (2000 pulses per session), for periods ranging from 6 months to 6 years. Session frequency averaged 1 to 2 per week. The study was conducted in the TMS lab of an academic medical center. RESULTS: Seven of the 10 subjects experienced either marked or moderate benefit, which was sustained without the addition of concomitant antidepressant medication in 3 cases. There were no serious adverse events reported by any participant. The seizure rate for the 1831 reported rTMS sessions was zero. CONCLUSIONS: These data, while open label, suggest that maintenance rTMS may be a safe and effective treatment modality in some patients with unipolar depression. Further research into the long-term safety and efficacy of rTMS is warranted.
Cogn Behav Neurol. 2005 Dec;18(4):223-7.
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on procedural memory and dysphoric mood in patients with major depressive disorder. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of depression and treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on sequence learning. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that rTMS over a 2-week period improves performance on tasks of response speed and procedural memory in patients with MDD. These cognitive effects are greater in those patients who showed a significant antidepressant effect.
Psychiatry Res. 2005 Nov 15;137(1-2):1-10.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depressed patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Hospital, via Stamira d’Ancona 20, Milan 20127, This 5-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive 10 daily applications of either real or sham rTMS. Subjects assigned to receive active stimulation were divided into two further subgroups according to the intensity of stimulation: 80% vs. 100% of motor threshold (MT).Response rates were 61.1% (n=11), 27.8% (n=5) and 6.2% (n=1) for 100% MT group, 80% MT group and sham group. Treatment response appeared to be unrelated to the demographic and clinical characteristics recorded, and on the whole the technique was well tolerated. The results of this double-blind trial showed that rTMS may be a useful and safe adjunctive treatment for drug-resistant depressed patients.
Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jul-Sep;17(3):153-9.
Low frequency rTMS stimulation of the right frontal cortex is as effective as high frequency rTMS stimulation of the left frontal cortex for antidepressant-free, treatment-resistant depressed patients. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising relatively non-invasive alternative for the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the apparent effectiveness of high frequency (20 Hertz) rTMS applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with that of low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS applied over the right The treatment response rate found (32%) was typical of other response rates reported in the literature (6,30). One-month follow-up data was obtained from 50% of participants. At 1-month follow-up, no significant differences were noted as compared to patients’ performance at last visit, indicating moderate robustness of rTMS treatment over time. Furthermore, magnetic stimulation did not substantially alter patient memory over the course of treatment. CONCLUSION: rTMS given at low frequency over the right frontal cortex appears to be as effective treatment of refractory depression as high frequency treatment over the left frontal cortex.
Harvard Gazette January 22, 2004
Depressed Get Lift from MRI
William J. Cromie
Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:466-70.
Autoradiographic evaluation of electromagnetic field effects on serotonin (5HT1A) receptors in rat brain.
Johnson MT, McCullough J, Nindl G, Chamberlain JK.
Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA.
Brain Cogn 2002 Dec;50(3):366-86
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Neurophysiological applications and safety.
Anand S, Hotson J.
Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, 95192-0100, San Jose, CA, USA
Biol Psychiatry 2002 Dec 1;52(11):1057-65
Chronic psychosocial stress and concomitant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: effects on stress hormone levels and adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Czeh B, Welt T, Fischer AK, Erhardt A, Schmitt W, Muller MB, Toschi N, Fuchs E, Keck ME.
The German Primate Center, Division of Neurobiology, (BC, AKF, EF), Gottingen, Germany
J ECT 2002 Dec;18(4):170-81
Mechanisms and state of the art of transcranial magnetic stimulation.
George MS, Nahas Z, Kozel FA, Li X, Denslow S, Yamanaka K, Mishory A, Foust MJ, Bohning DE.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2002 Oct;27(4):638-45
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: relation between efficacy and stimulation intensity.
Padberg F, Zwanzger P, Keck ME, Kathmann N, Mikhaiel P, Ella R, Rupprecht P, Thoma H, Hampel H, Toschi N, Moller HJ.
Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
J Pharm Pharmacol 2002 Oct;54(10):1299-321
Melatonin: reducing the toxicity and increasing the efficacy of drugs.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Lopez-Burillo S.
University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, MC 7762, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.
Hum Psychopharmacol 2002 Oct;17(7):353-6
Combining high and low frequencies in rTMS antidepressive treatment: preliminary results.
Conca A, Di Pauli J, Beraus W, Hausmann A, Peschina W, Schneider H, Konig P, Hinterhuber H.
Departments of Psychiatry I and II, Regional Hospital, 6830 Rankweil, Austria.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Summer;14(3):270-6
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression.
Rosenberg PB, Mehndiratta RB, Mehndiratta YP, Wamer A, Rosse RB, Balish M.
Mental Health Service Line, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC 20422, USA.
Chang Gung Med J 2002 Jul;25(7):424-36
Transcranial magnetic stimulation and its applications in children.
Lin KL, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Neuropharmacology 2002 Jul;43(1):101-9
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal system.
Keck ME, Welt T, Muller MB, Erhardt A, Ohl F, Toschi N, Holsboer F, Sillaber I.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.
Am J Psychiatry 2002 Jul;159(7):1093-102
Slow transcranial magnetic stimulation, long-term depotentiation, and brain hyperexcitability disorders.
Hoffman RE, Cavus I.
Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, LV 108, 20 York Street, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
Neurology 2002 Apr 23;58(8):1288-90
Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Moser DJ, Jorge RE, Manes F, Paradiso S, Benjamin ML, Robinson RG.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA.
Biological psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):659-67
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: preliminary results of a randomized trial.
Janicak PG, Dowd SM, Martis B, Alam D, Beedle D, Krasuski J, Strong MJ, Sharma R, Rosen C, Viana M.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Biological psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):687-90
Three and six-month outcome following courses of either ECT or rTMS in a population of severely depressed individuals–preliminary report.
Dannon PN, Dolberg OT, Schreiber S, Grunhaus L.
Psychiatry Division, ECT-TMS Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel Hashomer, Israel.
L’Encéphale 2002 Mar-Apr;28(2):169-75
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression]
[Article in French]
Saba G, Januel D, Glikman J.
Psychiatre, assistant, Unite de Recherche clinique, Secteur III, Service du docteur Glikman, EPS de Ville Evrard, 5, rue du Docteur Delafontaine, 93200 Saint-Denis, France.
Life Sci 2002 Mar 1;70(15):1741-9
Sleep deprivation in depression stabilizing antidepressant effects by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Eichhammer P, Kharraz A, Wiegand R, Langguth B, Frick U, Aigner JM, Hajak G.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Germany.
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP). 2002 Mar;5(1):73-103
Neuropsychiatric applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation: a meta analysis.
Burt T, Lisanby SH, Sackeim HA.
Department of Biological Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 2002 Mar 28;114(5-6):181-6
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)–from diagnostic procedure to therapy]
[Article in German]
Quiner S, Letmaier M, Barnas C, Heiden A, Kasper S.
Universitatsklinik fur Neuropsychiatrie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Wien.
Srp Arh Celok Lek 2001 Sep-Oct;129(9-10):235-8
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson ‘s disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.
Psychopharmacol Bull 2001 Autumn;35(4):149-69
A meta-analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Russo J, Avery DH.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359896, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 2001 Jul-Aug;35(4):193-215
Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry: what do we know about the neurobiological mechanisms?
Post A, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, D-80804 Munich, Germany.
Clinical Neurophysiology 2001 Aug;112(8):1367-77
Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review.
Wassermann EM, Lisanby SH.
Brain Stimulation Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 10 Center Drive MSC 1428, Bethesda, MD 20892-1428, USA.
Biological Psychiatry 2001 Jul 1;50(1):22-7
Acute mood and thyroid stimulating hormone effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression.
Szuba MP, O’Reardon JP, Rai AS, Snyder-Kastenberg J, Amsterdam JD, Gettes DR, Wassermann E, Evans DL.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Apr;24(4):337-49
Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a psychopathological animal model are suggestive of antidepressant-like effects.
Keck ME, Welt T, Post A, Muller MB, Toschi N, Wigger A, Landgraf R, Holsboer F, Engelmann M.
Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 2001 Jan-Feb;129(1-2):1-4
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2000 Aug;23(2):205-15
Long-term repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cholecystokinin mRNA, but not neuropeptide tyrosine mRNA in specific areas of rat brain.
Muller MB, Toschi N, Kresse AE, Post A, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 2000 Jul-Oct;34(4-5):265-76
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces active coping strategies and attenuates the neuroendocrine stress response in rats.
Keck ME, Engelmann M, Muller MB, Henniger MS, Hermann B, Rupprecht R, Neumann ID, Toschi N, Landgraf R, Post A.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstr. 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 2000 Jun;3(2):129-134
Comparison of unlimited numbers of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and ECT treatment sessions in major depressive episode.
Pridmore S, Bruno R, Turnier-Shea Y, Reid P, Rybak M.
Ugeskrift for Laeger 2000 Apr 17;162(16):2310-3
[Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. A method in the treatment of depressions]
[Article in Danish]
Arhus Universitetshospital, Psykiatrisk Hospital i Arhus, Forskningsafdeling for Affektive Sygdomme
Biological Psychiatry 2000 Feb 15;47(4):314-24
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of nondelusional major depressive disorder: an open study.
Grunhaus L, Dannon PN, Schreiber S, Dolberg OH, Amiaz R, Ziv R, Lefkifker E.
Psychiatry Division, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.
Biological Psychiatry 1999 Dec 15;46(12):1603-13
Frequency dependence of antidepressant response to left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a function of baseline cerebral glucose metabolism.
Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Dunn RT, Frye MA, Greenberg BD, Wassermann EM, Repella JD, Danielson AL, Willis MW, Benson BE, Speer AM, Osuch E, George MS, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Psychiatry Department, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, USA.
The European Journal of Neuroscience 1999 Sep;11(9):3247-54
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats: evidence for a neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo.
Post A, Muller MB, Engelmann M, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
Biological Psychiatry 1999 Jun 1;45(11):1440-6
Effects of left frontal transcranial magnetic stimulation on depressed mood, cognition, and corticomotor threshold.
Triggs WJ, McCoy KJ, Greer R, Rossi F, Bowers D, Kortenkamp S, Nadeau SE, Heilman KM, Goodman WK.
Human Motor Physiology Laboratory, University of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville 32610-0236, USA.
Archives of General Psychiatry 1999 Apr;56(4):315-20
Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: a double-blind controlled study.
Klein E, Kreinin I, Chistyakov A, Koren D, Mecz L, Marmur S, Ben-Shachar D, Feinsod M.
Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1999 Jan;60(1):50-2
Safety and feasibility of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of anxious depression in pregnancy: a case report.
Nahas Z, Bohning DE, Molloy MA, Oustz JA, Risch SC, George MS.
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.
Depression and Anxiety 1998;7(2):65-8
Preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression and schizophrenia.
Feinsod M, Kreinin B, Chistyakov A, Klein E.
Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
Am J Psychiatry 1997 Dec;154(12):1752-6
Mood improvement following daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a placebo-controlled crossover trial.
George MS, Wassermann EM, Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Williams WE, Danielson AL, Greenberg BD, Hallett M, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1997 Apr;31(2):264-72
Transcranial magnetic stimulation as therapy for depression and other disorders.
Kirkcaldie MT, Pridmore SA, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
Lancet 1996 Jul 27;348(9022):233-7
Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression.
Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B, Pallardo F, Catala MD.
Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidad de Valencia, Spain.
Neuroreport 1995 Oct 2;6(14):1853-6
Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression.
George MS, Wassermann EM, Williams WA, Callahan A, Ketter TA, Basser P, Hallett M, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Charleston, SC, USA.
Arch Med Res 1995 Summer;26(2):185-9
The influence of pulsed electrical stimulation on the wound healing of burned rat skin.
Castillo E, Sumano H, Fortoul TI, Zepeda A.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, D.F.
This concludes the PEMF & Depression bibliography page