Research appears to be escalating into the neurological and psychological effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS/TMS) that apply relatively strong pulsed electromagnetic fields to the brain and neuroendocrine system at or beyond motor threshold (where eyelids flutter during the pulse).
This type of therapy called repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS – or – sometimes called slow-TMS if 1 Hz or less – i.e. 1 pulse per second or less-) or fast at greater 3 Hz is gaining a strong reputation for being extremely safe and providing measurable and perceptible benefits in users.
During the last 15 years, Professor Photios Anninos from Greece and neurologist Reuven Sandyk M.D. have been fabulously successful treating the neurological disorders Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s using very weak AC magnetic fields transcranially.
We have found that pulsed DC electromagnetic fields have comparable effect but when used during the night produce a wide spectrum of synergistic effects. It is being discovered by researchers around the world that a host of beneficial biological effects appear to be triggered even where neurological and endocrine malfunction is a root cause of disease. We say that EarthPulse™ elevates mood at far less amplitude than used in rTMS.
In a new study in 2019, 16 people—ages 64 to 80 with normal age-related memory problems—shows it’s possible to alter memory ability in older adults using this Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This study was conducted by the well-known TMS researcher, Dr. Voss, Associate Professor of Medical Social Sciences, Neurology – Ken and Ruth Davee Department and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.
Though most therapeutic studies show TMS/rTMS provides safe, therapeutic effects warranting an explosion of research, widespread use of TMS/rTMS is strictly for diagnostic purposes. We have omitted most of these diagnostic studies from this resource.
In January ’07 the FDA Advisory rejected rTMS use for depression even though it does no harm and usually produces results. Although it is approved in both the US and Canada for treatment resistant (drug resistant) depression.
Peer reviewed journal abstracts in libraries by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicate rTMS / TMS as beneficial and without perceptible expected or unexpected adverse reactions in epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, MS, Alzheimer’s, migraine headache, cluster headache, severe PMS, depression, ADD/ADHD and others.
Several hundred pulsed electromagnetic field therapy citations contained in our research bibliographies are linked directly to PubMed a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
These studies are offered for your education only and are not intended as promotional material for EarthPulse™ Technologies, LLC.
rTMS Boosts Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia Plus Depression
Nikita Maslenikov, MD, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Russia.
32nd European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Congress: Abstract P.838. Presented September 8, 2019.
To read the original source, use the search on Pubmed
Network-targeted stimulation engages neurobehavioral hallmarks of age-related memory decline.
Nilakantan AS, Mesulam MM, Weintraub S, Karp EL, VanHaerents S, Voss JL.
Neurology. 2019 May 14;92(20):e2349-e2354. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007502. Epub 2019 Apr 17.
Frequency-specific noninvasive modulation of memory retrieval and its relationship with hippocampal network connectivity.
Hermiller MS, VanHaerents S, Raij T, Voss JL.
Hippocampus. 2018 Nov 17. doi: 10.1002/hipo.23054.
Hemisphere-specific effects of prefrontal theta-burst stimulation on visual recognition memory accuracy and awareness.
Carbajal I, O’Neil JT, Palumbo RT, Voss JL, Ryals AJ.
Brain Behav. 2019 Apr;9(4):e01228. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1228. Epub 2019 Mar 14.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for depressive disorders: current knowledge and future directions.
Chris B, Brem AK, Arns M, Brunoni AR, Filipčić I, Ana GÁ, Langguth B, Padberg F, Poulet E, Rachid F, Sack AT, Vanderhasselt MA, Bennabi D.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2019 May 27. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000533.
High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applied to the Parietal Cortex for Low-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Series.
Yang Y, Wang H, Xue Q, Huang Z, Wang Y.
Front Psychiatry. 2019 May 9;10:293. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00293. eCollection 2019.
State-Dependent Effects of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Continuous Thetaburst Stimulation on Cocaine Cue Reactivity in Chronic Cocaine Users.
Kearney-Ramos TE, Dowdle LT, Mithoefer OJ, Devries W, George MS, Hanlon CA.
Front Psychiatry. 2019 May 8;10:317. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00317. eCollection 2019.
Sessions of prolonged continuous theta burst stimulation or high-frequency 10 Hz stimulation to left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for three days decreased pain sensitivity by modulation of the efficacy of conditioned pain modulation.
De Martino E, Fernandes AM, Galhardoni R, De Oliveira Souza C, Ciampi De Andrade D, Graven-Nielsen T.
J Pain. 2019 May 24. pii: S1526-5900(19)30413-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2019.05.010. [Epub ahead of print]
A systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of peripartum depression.
Cole J, Bright K, Gagnon L, McGirr A.
J Psychiatr Res. 2019 May 16;115:142-150. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.05.015. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Update on current and emerging therapies for dystonia.
Lizarraga KJ, Al-Shorafat D, Fox S.
Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.2217/nmt-2018-0047. [Epub ahead of print]
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury.
Walter A, Denier N, Hund M, Suenderhauf C.
J Neurosurg Sci. 2019 May 15. doi: 10.23736/S0390-5616.19.04716-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Efficacy and Safety of Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Carmi L, Tendler A, Bystritsky A, Hollander E, Blumberger DM, Daskalakis J, Ward H, Lapidus K, Goodman W, Casuto L, Feifel D, Barnea-Ygael N, Roth Y, Zangen A, Zohar J.
Am J Psychiatry. 2019 May 21:appiajp201918101180. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18101180. [Epub ahead of print]
Seizures from transcranial magnetic stimulation 2012-2016: Results of a survey of active laboratories and clinics.
Lerner AJ, Wassermann EM, Tamir DI.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2019 Apr 6. pii: S1388-2457(19)30110-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.03.016. [Epub ahead of print]
MEG recordings of patients with cerebral palsy before and after the application of pico-Tesla weak magnetic fields.
Anninos P, Kotini A, Adamopoulos A, Tsagas N.
J Integr Neurosci. 2019 Mar 30;18(1):17-21. doi: 10.31083/j.jin.2019.01.104.
[Procognitive effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the light of neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia].
Popov MM, Pluzhnikov IV, Kaleda VG.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2019;119(3):120-126. doi: 10.17116/jnevro2019119031120. Russian.
Noninvasive Brain Stimulation for Rehabilitation of Paediatric Motor Disorders Following Brain Injury: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Elbanna ST, Elshennawy S, Ayad MN.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019 May 9. pii: S0003-9993(19)30302-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2019.04.009. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
The Effect of High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Advancing Parkinson’s Disease With Dysphagia: Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.
Khedr EM, Mohamed KO, Soliman RK, Hassan AMM, Rothwell JC.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2019 May 10:1545968319847968. doi: 10.1177/1545968319847968. [Epub ahead of print]
J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Oct;41(7):606-15. Epub 2006 Apr 4.
Metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after treatment with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with unipolar major depression.
Department of Psychiatry, Charite – Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Eschenallee 3, D-14050 Berlin, Germany.
J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Aug;41(5):395-403. Epub 2006 Mar 22.
Disturbed Sleep is predictor for antidepressive response to prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite – Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Eschenallee 3, 14050 Berlin, Germany.
Psychiatry Res. 2007 Mar 30;150(2):181-6. Epub 2007 Feb 14.
Long-lasting effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depressed patients.
Casa di Cura “Villa S. Chiara”, Verona, Italy.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Jul;117(7):1536-44. Epub 2006 Jun 5.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for pain control. Double-blind study of different frequencies against placebo, and correlation with motor cortex stimulation efficacy
Andre-Obadia N, Peyron R, Mertens P, Mauguiere F, Laurent B, Garcia-Larrea L.
University Hospital Lyon Sud, Lyon, France; INSERM EMI 342; UCLB1 Lyon & UJM, Saint-Etienne, France.
OBJECTIVE: To assess, using a double-blind procedure, the pain-relieving effects of rTMS against placebo, and their predictive value regarding the efficacy of implanted motor cortex stimulation (MCS). METHODS: Three randomised, double-blinded, 25min sessions of focal rTMS (1Hz, 20Hz and sham) were performed in 12 patients, at 2 weeks intervals. Effects on pain were estimated from daily scores across 5 days before, and 6 days after each session. Analgesic effects were correlated with those of subsequent implanted motor cortex stimulation (MCS). RESULTS: Immediately after the stimulating session, pain scores were similarly decreased by all rTMS modalities.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Jun 20; [Epub ahead of print]
Motor cortical excitability studied with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Huntington’s disease.
Lorenzano C, Dinapoli L, Gilio F, Suppa A, Bagnato S, Curra A, Inghilleri M, Berardelli A.
Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy.
Pain. 2006 May;122(1-2):22-7. Epub 2006 Feb 21.
Reduction of intractable deafferentation pain by navigation-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex.
Hirayama A, Saitoh Y, Kishima H, Shimokawa T, Oshino S, Hirata M, Kato A, Yoshimine T.
Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
The precentral gyrus (M1) is a representative target for electrical stimulation therapy of pain. To date, few researchers have investigated whether pain relief is possible by stimulation of cortical areas other than M1. According to recent reports, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can provide an effect similar to that of electrical stimulation. With this in mind, we therefore examined several cortical areas as stimulation targets using a navigation-guided rTMS and compared the effects of the different targets on pain. Twenty patients with intractable deafferentation pain received rTMS of M1, the postcentral gyrus (S1), premotor area (preM), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Each target was stimulated with ten trains of 10-s 5-Hz TMS pulses, with 50-s intervals in between trains. Intensities were adjusted to 90% of resting motor thresholds. Thus, a total of 500 stimuli were applied. Sham stimulations were undertaken at random. The effect of rTMS on pain was rated by patients using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ten of the 20 patients (50%) indicated that stimulation of M1, but not other areas, provided significant and beneficial pain relief (p<0.01). Results indicated a statistically significant effect lasting for 3 hours after the stimulation of M1 (p<0.05). Stimulation of other targets was not effective. The M1 was the sole target for treating intractable pain with rTMS, in spite of the fact that M1, S1, preM, and SMA are located adjacently.Psychother Psychosom.
Exp Brain Res. 2006 May 9; [Epub ahead of print]
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical inhibition in healthy human subjects.
Daskalakis ZJ, Moller B, Christensen BK, Fitzgerald PB, Gunraj C, Chen R.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Jan;117(1):103-9. Epub 2005 Dec 20.
Altered response to rTMS in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Inghilleri M, Conte A, Frasca V, Scaldaferri N, Gilio F, Santini M, Fabbrini G, Prencipe M, Berardelli A.
Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Rome La Sapienza, Viale dell’Universita, 30, 00185 Rome, Italy.
Stroke. 2005 Dec;36(12):2681-6. Epub 2005 Oct 27.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of contralesional primary motor cortex improves hand function after stroke.
Takeuchi N, Chuma T, Matsuo Y, Watanabe I, Ikoma K.
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-0814, Japan.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A recent report has demonstrated that the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1) inhibited the ipsilesional M1 via an abnormal transcallosal inhibition (TCI) in stroke patients. We studied whether a decreased excitability of the contralesional M1 induced by 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) caused an improved motor performance of the affected hand in stroke patients by releasing the TCI.CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that a disruption of the TCI by the contralesional M1 virtual lesion caused a paradoxical functional facilitation of the affected hand in stroke patients; this suggests a new neurorehabilitative strategy for stroke patients.
J Neurophysiol. 2005 Sep;94(3):1668-75. Epub 2005 May 4.
Effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on interhemispheric inhibition.
Pal PK, Hanajima R, Gunraj CA, Li JY, Wagle-Shukla A, Morgante F, Chen R.
Divsion of Neurology and Krembil Neuroscience Centre, Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Mov Disord. 2005 Sep;20(9):1178-84.
Effect of repetitive TMS and fluoxetine on cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease and concurrent depression.
Boggio PS, Fregni F, Bermpohl F, Mansur CG, Rosa M, Rumi DO, Barbosa ER, Odebrecht Rosa M, Pascual-Leone A, Rigonatti SP, Marcolin MA, Araujo Silva MT.
Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
We compared the cognitive effects of two types of antidepressant treatments in PD patients: fluoxetine (20 mg/day) versus repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, 15 Hz, 110% above motor threshold, 10 daily sessions) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Patients in both groups had a significant improvement of Stroop (colored words and interference card) and Hooper and Wisconsin (perseverative errors) test performances after both treatments. Furthermore, there were no adverse effects after either rTMS or fluoxetine in any neuropsychological test of the cognitive test battery. The results show that rTMS could improve some aspects of cognition in PD patients similar to that of fluoxetine. The mechanisms for this cognitive improvement are unclear, but it is in the context of mood improvement.
Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2005 Sep-Oct;39(5):389-96.
[The diagnostic and therapeutic application of transcranial magnetic stimulation] [Article in Polish]
Derejko M, Niewiadomska M, Rakowicz M. Zaklad
Neurofizjologii Klinicznej, Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, ul. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warszawa.
The functional abnormalities of the central motor structures and its contribution of rigidity, tremor and bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease seem mainly due to the degeneration of the nigro-striatal pathway. Recent reviews on the basic mechanisms of TMS in Parkinson’s disease show reduced inhibitory motor network at the cortical and spinal level. The observed changes are thought to be in relation with a dysfunction of subcortico-cortical and subcortico-spinal pathways. Observations made using TMS give new pathophysiological insights in functioning of the central motor structures in Parkinson’s disease and started new form of TMS – repetitive TMS (rTMS) as a treatment of the Parkinson’s disease motor signs. A few studies using rTMS with repetition rate of 0.2, 1, and 5 Hz showed improvement of motor signs in the Parkinson’s disease patients. Although these results support the beneficial effects of rTMS on Parkinson symptoms, long-term studies with large numbers of subjects should be conducted to assess the efficacy of the rTMS on Parkinson’s disease in future.